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The Great Migration

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The Great Migration Powered By Docstoc
					African-Americans
      Migrate
   African American
        History
    Dr. D. Sanders
   Presented By:

  Alexis D. Ocasio
  Rohesia C. Hicks
The Migration of Blacks
  The Great Migration was the migration of
   thousands of African-Americans from the
   South to the North. (1920’s)
  African Americans were looking to
   escape the problems of racism in the
   South and felt they could seek out better
   jobs and an overall better life in the
   North.
  It is estimated that over 1 million African
   Americans participated in this mass
   movement.
The Migration of Blacks

 Reasons for this movement:
 o Brought about by the economic
   changes by W.W. I
 o Empty factory jobs (European
  Immigrants)
 o Southern agriculture undergoing
   severe difficulties
 o Constant racism in the SOUTH!!!
Southern Whites Reaction
At first, the white South was relieved
  NO MORE blacks!!!
  NO MORE inferiority!!!
But as the migration grew the whites
realized the threat it posed
Many attacked the migrants and those
who supported them
More WHITE Reaction

  Fines and jail time was given to
   supporters of the migrants
  People were stopped, accused, and
   threatened if they helped
  Licenses to recruit required $1,000 or jail
   time for sixty days
  In Macon, Georgia, the fee was $25,000
White Reaction        Escalates
  People come back from the war with NO JOB!!!
  ―the blacks have taken over‖
  NORTHERN WHITES become RACIST
   towards the BLACKS
  VIOLENCE BROKE OUT!!!!!!
     Race riots of 1919
     Bombing of black owned houses
     Lynching
NATIONAL RIOT!!!
  Washington, D.C. in late July
  A light skinned black crossed and passed the
   color line at a local beach
  WHITES drowned the BLACK MAN
  The white POLICE officer refused to arrest the
   white killers
    BLACKS REVOLT against the POLICEMAN!!
  Little was done about AUTHORITY until
   BLACKS armed themselves
Emergence of a BLACK
    LEADERSHIP
 The year 1919 marked a turning point in
  AMERICAN HISTORY!!
   As far as racial violence is concerned,
    blacks openly fought back in greater
    numbers than ever
 The ―NEW NEGRO‖ was born
 Great Migration created the 1st ―mass
  national movement‖ among African
  blacks
  EMERGENCE OF           MARCUS
                    GARVEY
 A West Indian black who came to the USA
 His message was based on the conviction that
  blacks must create their own Independent
  Nation!!!
   WHY????
      Because they would never receive justice in a WHITE
       MAN’S country
   Attracted many West Indians at first but it eventually
    appealed to many emigrant SOUTHERN BLACKS
   NORTHERN PROMISED LAND offered neither
    PROMISE nor LAND!!!!
MARCUS GARVEY
 Proposed to set up a
  “ZION” in Africa, the
  ancestral homeland of
  black people

 OPPRESSION of
  GARVEY:
   Opposed by both WHITE
    and BLACK, GARVEY
    was convicted of
    questionable offenses
   He was in prison and
    then deported
CHICAGO DEFENDER
 Robert S. Abbot in
  1905 founded
 Accurate account of
  information showing
  why blacks left the
  SOUTH
 Chicago, Cleveland,
  New York, New
  Jersey, Indiana,
  Detroit
 Chicago’s
  population tripled
                                  Pages: 232-240


ACCOUNT #1

 Dear Sir: I have learned of the splendid
  work which you are doing in placing
  colored men in touch with industrial
  opportunities. I therefore write you to ask
  if you have an opening anywhere for me.
  I am a college graduate and understand
  Bookkeeping. But I am not above hard
  labor in a foundry or other establishment.
  Please let me know if you can place me.
ACCOUNT #2
 Dear Sir: I am a reader of the Chicago Defender. I am
  writing to see if you all will please get me a job. And
  Sir I can wash dishes, was iron nursing world in a
  groceries and dry good stores. Just any of these I can
  do. Sir, who so ever you get the job from please tell
  them to send me a ticket and I will pay them. When I
  get their as I have not enough money to pay my way. I
  am a girl of 17 years old and in the 8 grade at Knox
  Academy School. But an account of not having money
  enough I had to stop school. Sir I will thank you all with
  my all my heart. May God Bless you all. Please
  answer in return mail.
 HOW DO THESE
ACCOUNTS MAKE U
  FEEL!!!!!?????
               and now:
             THE HARLEM
            RENNAISAINCE
 It was a cultural nationalistic movement
  caused by the GREAT MIGRATION
 "something like a spiritual emancipation.“
 originally called the “NEW NEGRO
  MOVEMENT”
 The H.R. was a literary and intellectual
  flowering that fostered a new black cultural
  identity in the 1920s and 1930s
 "spiritual coming of age" in which the black
  community was able to seize upon its "first
  chances for group expression and self
  determination."
HARLEM RENNAISAINCE
 The Harlem Renaissance transformed African-
  American identity and history

 Also transformed American culture in general

 Never before had so many Americans read
  the thoughts of African-Americans and
  embraced the African-American community's
  productions, expressions, and style
Harlem Renaissance
  Black Migration, south to north, changed
   their image from rural to urban, from
   peasant to sophisticate

  Harlem became a crossroads where blacks
   interacted with and expanded their contacts
   internationally

  A rich source for racial imagination and it
   freed the blacks from the establishment of
   past condition
   ART/JAZZ
Archibald J. Motley Jr. depicted contemporary black social nightlife
in the city


 Chicago’s Bronzeville neighborhood, also known as the Black Belt,
became home to more than 90 percent of the city’s black population
by the 1930s


Nightlife, one of Bronzeville’s many nightspots, figures seem to
have left the world’s troubles behind.


Inside the club, there is nothing but exuberant, upbeat energy. The
dancers’ pulsing, jumping movements are suggestive of jazz.
  BLACK POETS SING
 Countee Cullen
 Langston Hughes
Countee Cullen
  Cullen, Countee , 1903–46, American poet, writer of
   the Harlem Renaissance—
  a flowering of black artistic and literary talent in the
   1920s—
  Cullen wrote poetry inspired by American black life.
  His technique was conventional, modeled on that of
   John Keats, and his mood passed from racial pride and
   optimism in the 1920s to sadness and disappointment
   in the 1930s.
  Among his volumes of verse are Color (1925), Copper
   Sun (1927), The Ballad of the Brown Girl (1927), and
   On These I Stand (1947).
Countee Cullen
  Incident

  Once riding in old Baltimore,
  Heart-filled, head-filled with glee;
  I saw a Baltimorean
  Keep looking straight at me.
  Now I was eight and very small,
  And he was no whit bigger,
  And so I smiled, but he poked out
  His tongue, and called me, "Nigger."
  I saw the whole of Baltimore
  From May until December;
  Of all the things that happened there
  That's all that I remember.
Langston Hughes
 Joplin, Missouri, was a member of an abolitionist family.

 first published poem was "The Negro Speaks of Rivers―

    poems, short plays, essays and short stories appeared in
    the NAACP publication Crisis Magazine and other
    publications.

 sixteen books of poems, two novels, three collections of
  short stories, four volumes of "editorial" and "documentary"
  fiction, twenty plays, children's poetry, musicals and
  operas, three autobiographies, a dozen radio and television
  scripts and dozens of magazine articles and edited seven
  anthologies.

 died of cancer on May 22, 1967.

 East 127th Street was renamed "Langston Hughes Place"
  by New York City Preservation Commission.
Ku Klux
They took me out
To some lonesome place.
They said, "Do you believe
In the great white race?"
I said, "Mister,
To tell you the truth,
I'd believe in anything
If you'd just turn me loose."
The white man said, "Boy,
Can it be
You're a-standin' there
A-sassin' me?"
They hit me in the head
And knocked me down.
And then they kicked me
On the ground.
A Klansman said, "Nigger,
Look me in the face--
And tell me you believe in
The great white race."
     CONCLUSION

 SUMMARIZE CHAPTER

 M&M Survey Quiz/Review

 QUESTIONS/ANSWERS
CREATED BY: Alexis D Ocasio &
              Rohesia Hicks