Young Turks and Kurds by sdfwerte

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									Young Turks and Kurds
 Invisibility, disadvantage and
               identity
 Presentation to PSI June 28th
                2005
Harriet Bradley, Bristol University
        A set of invisible
     disadvantaged groups
Study for JRF’s ethnicity research
programme
Survey of 247 young people in Haringey
 16-23, 69% 18-20
 99 Turks, 68 Kurds, 54 Cypriot, 29 mixed
  origin
30 follow-up interviews
   15 F 15 M
     Unpicking Visibility &
          Invisibility
Recent research on ethnicity & racism has
tended to focus on ‘visible’ groups: African-
Caribbean, Pakistani, Indian, African, North
African etc
Ignoring of the less visible: eg Irish, Welsh,
Eastern European
What makes groups visible/invisible?
Visibility a complex concept –several
dimensions
         Physical Visibility
A major long-term social preoccupation in
UK with skin colour
Older form of racism: ‘colour racism’
Colonial discourse of ‘black’, brown’ and
‘yellow’ as ‘backward’, ‘childlike’,
‘threatening etc’ (v Miles)
History of scapegoating
Heightened by: easy identification; spatial
concentration
Visible targets of racial violence, street attack
etc
        Cultural Visibility
Modood: cultural racism replaces colour
racism
Based on religion, other distinct cultural
practices eg clothing, food
Islamic culture the prime example: mosques,
separate schools, distinct clothing, hijab,
shops , restaurants etc
A new focus for race hatred: which in turn
may lead such groups to be more culturally
assertive
            Social Visibility
More subtle, but perhaps the most significant;
Visibility or lack of visibility in social
space/public arena
   Distinct living areas
   Strong political presence
   Militant and participative community groups
   Sports, music etc in popular arena
   Defined as a ‘social problem’
   Criminalised, street gangs et
   All forms of INTERACTION WITH WIDER
    CULTURE
       Turkish Invisibility?
Less distinctive physical appearance
Little distinctive clothing
Islamic but not militant – a secularised Islam
Lack political force and presence
Lack collective social presence outside of
London (of estimated 80,000 Mainland
Turks, 60,000 are in London).
Self-report in Census 200: 47,149 Turks,
13,556 Turkish Cypriots
      Potential Visibility
Concentration in Haringey: 35% of
Haringey pop is minority ethnic. 10%
of Haringey schoolchildren are Turkish
Turkish gang warfare & street crime
Turkish economy (kebab shops, coffee
shops, clothing).
Community groups
           The research
Carried out in 2001-3
250 responses out of 800 questionnaires
circulated
(78 F, 172 M) reflects greater social
invisibility of Turkish women
Focus groups, meetings with agencies
Field researcher Pinar Enneli was Turkish:
interviews carried out in Turkish and English.
                  Education
Low achievement
   5+ Cs at GCSE: T21%, K 13%, TC 14%
   38% no qualificationss at all
   Language difficulties
Truancy
   50% boys, 15% girls
Exclusions
   18% (24% Kurds)
Conflict
   ‘Teachers like police, always came late… They
    only came when they hear very loud screams.’
‘Nobody expects us to do well
especially in the exams… because
you’re in this bad school you should be
bad as well.. It’s like you’re a loser in a
loser school’
   (Kurdish female)
‘When I was in secondary school, the
only thing in my mind was to finish
school and start working. Then, a
couple of months after the school, I
couldn’t find a job. My mother told me
either work or go to college. I chose
college. I’m doing basic GNVQ in
mechanical engineering’
   (Kurdish male)
              Unemployment
Experience of unemployment
   36% M , 28% F
Length of unemployment
   Over 20 months: 36% M
   55% of Kurds had 3+ spells
Training
   35% M, 41% F, 53% TC
NEET
   69% of 16/17, 37% 18/20
Dual pattern
   Highly excluded YPS from disadvantaged families
   Relatively better off families support YPS being
    selective, getting into HE.
               Employment
Type of employment
   86% unskilled, only 7% prof/man
First jobs
   69% small shops, 18% textile factories,17%
    superstores
Most recent job
   M 65% small shops, 18% superstores
   F36% small shops, 24% offices, 40% superstores
The ‘ethnic enclave’
   Employer a relative: 36% M first jobs, 15% F
   ‘Helping’, ‘filling in for’, relatives, friends
                    Identity
Ethnicity
   ‘With a British passport you have a right to live in
    this country. That’s all. I mean I’m not English’
Religion
   ‘I only feel myself Turkish. I mean I’m Muslim but
    Muslim Turk’
   ‘If I do not tell them I’m Muslim they don’t know’
Hybrid identities
   56% expressed mixed identity such as Turkish-
    Cypriot, Turkish and British, Turkish Muslim
             Conclusions :
      disadvantage and invisibility
Disadvantage and risky transitions
Self-supporting community /also a`trap’
Policy/research/resources targeted at visible
minorities
Lack of mobilisation (social invisibility), partly
because of internal ethnic division
Cultural visibility not yet developed because of
less marked attachment to Islam
Haringey as ‘Little Turkey’: not visible to wider
society.
Academic research can help voices to be heard

								
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