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					Smart Phone
  Xiaohua Du
  Xiaoyi Sheng
1   Overview


2   Hardware


3   Software Platform


4   Services and Applications
                           Evolution of Cell Phones


OK chief, I’ll get on it
right away!




 Date         1983                1989          1996                2005
 Model:       DynaTAC             MicroTAC      StarTAC             Razor V3
 Size: (high) 10 inches (25cm)    9 inches      3.9 inches          3.7 inches
 Weight:      28 ounces (793g)    12.3 ounces   4.3 ounces          3.3 ounces
 Talk Time:                       2 hr          3 hr                5 hr
 Stand by Time:                   24 hr         60 hr               170 hr
                                                             Picture source: Wikipedia
        Personal Digital Assistants
   Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s)
    are personal handheld computers.
   They are used to keep schedules, and
    have features that include:
       Typewriting
       Address Book
       Calendar




                                           Picture source: Wikipedia
            PDA vs. Cell Phone
   Both PDAs and Cell Phones are popular, but
    there is a difference between the two devices.
   The cell phone’s main function is making phone
    calls
   On the other hand the PDA is more of a
    information storing device and only has a few
    communication features, such as IrDA, WLAN,
    Bluetooth.
    Smart Phone = PDA + Cell Phone
   In recent years, many manufacturers have begun
    to blur the line between the PDA and the cell
    phone.
   A new device has been introduced to the
    market…….. The SMART PHONE


                   =              +
              Smart Phone market
   According to IDC's Worldwide
    Quarterly Mobile Phone
    Tracker, global smart phone
    shipments reached 35.5 million
    units in last quarter of 2007,
    which was more than four
    times the size of the market for
    personal digital assistants.
   In 2008 36% of the mobile
    handset market will be smart
    phones, equivalent to
    shipments of 240 million units.
    Why the Mobile Explosion?
Devices dropping in price and increasing in
capabilities
Smart phone penetration will be 21% by 2012

Increased network competition
Networks are getting faster, and data packages are getting cheaper

Fundamental platform transition
14.0% of US homes are mobile only while 12.3% of homes land-line
only
1   Overview


2   Hardware

3   Software Platform


4   Services and Applications
          Smart Phone Hardware
   CPU
   Memory
   Display
   Battery
   Expansion storage
   Antenna
   Camera, GPS, etc.



   KEY:
    A Balance Of Function and Power Consumption
   ARM – The leading 32-bit embedded processor architecture
           Advanced reduced instruction set computer (RISC) machine


 Dominated         by
         Texas Instrument OMAP
         Intel Xscale (sold to Marvell)

         Samsung



 Clock      speed 200MHz ~ 600MHz, up to 1GHz
   Typical RISC architecture features
     A large uniform register file
     A load/store architecture, where data-processing operations only
      operate on register contents, not directly on memory contents
     simple addressing modes, with all load/store addresses being
      determined from register contents and instruction fields only
     uniform and fixed-length instruction fields, to simplify instruction
      decode.
   Additional features
     control over both the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and shifter in
      most data-processing instructions to maximize the use of an ALU
      and a shifter
     auto-increment and auto-decrement addressing modes to optimize
      program loops
     Load and Store Multiple instructions to maximize data throughput
     conditional execution of almost all instructions to maximize
      execution throughput.
                                                           Source: http://www.arm.comj
 Graphics   Accelerator
 Video Accelerator

 Image Signal Processor (ISP)

 Digital Signal Processor (DSP)
 iPhone              Palm   Treo 750            Nokia               N Series
  620 MHz             300mhz                         TI   OMAP
   ARM 1176,           Samsung                            2420
   underclocked to     Processor
   412 MHz




                                         Picture source: http://onlyumpc.com/, http://nokia.com
 Volatile   Memory
  Static   RAM
      64MB~128MB run-time memory of software applications
 Non-volatile     Memory
  Flash    ROM
      128MB~ 256MB contains operating system , software and
       user data
  External  Flash Memory through I/O extension
   interfaces
      Up to 16GB--Compact Flash (CF), Secure Digital (SD),
       MultiMedia Memory Cards (MMC)


                                        Picture Source: http://www.pocketpctechs.com/images/
 Thin-film   transistor (TFT) LCD display
  Resolution: QVGA 320x240 and VGA 640x480, up to
   WVGA 800x480
  Size: 2~5 inches
  Color depth: 65K(16bit), 260K (18bit)
  Significant power consumption




                                             Picture source: http://onlyumpc.com
Organic light-
emitting diode
(OLED) display
Does not require a
backlight to function
Consumes far less
power
Much thinner (0.2
mm)
Can be made
foldable
Shorter life
                        Picture source: http://news.tsinghua.edu.cn/
1   Overview


2   Hardware

3   Software Platform


4   Services and Applications
             Software Platforms
   A software platform essentially provides a
    complete solution to application development
    on smart phones. It is defined as the
    combination of
     Operating system for a collection of compatible
      mobile devices
     Application programming interfaces (APIs)

     Software development libraries

     Programming tools
                      Market Share of O.S.
                                Linux, 5%

          iPhone OS, 7%




RIM BlackBerry, 11%




                                            Symbian OS, 65%

Windows Mobile, 12%




                                                              Source: wikipedia
                                             Microsoft
                Symbian      Palm OS                             Linux         J2ME         BREW
                                            Smartphone
                                                                             Depending
Multitasking       Yes           Yes              Yes              Yes                        Yes
                                                                               on OS

  Footprint       Small         Small            Large            Large       Medium         Small

                                                                                             Small
                                                                                           Chipset for
                                             Lacks power                     Depending
   Power        Excellent     Excellent                         Excellent                    power
                                             management                        on OS
                                                                                           managem
                                                                                              ent

                               Enhanced
                                                                              Extensive
   Mobile       Inherent      feature for                        Limited                     Strong
                                            Limited support                  support for
 telephony       support       high-end                          support                    support
                                                                             mobile OS
                             Palm devices

Wireless data                                                   Bluetooth,
                Bluetooth,   Bluetooth,     Bluetooth, Wi-Fi,                              Bluetooth,
 connection                                                       Wi-Fi,     Bluetooth
                   IrDA      Wi-Fi, IrDA          IrDA                                        IrDA
  support                                                          IrDA

Open or not?      Open       Porprietary      Porprietary         Open         Open        Porprietary

Programming                                  Native C, C++,
                Native C                                        Native C                   Native C
  language                        C             and .Net                        java
                and C++                                         and C++                    and C++
   support                                  runtime support
              Comparisons of
          Mobile Software Platforms
   Microsoft Smartphone, Palm OS, and BREW (Binary Runtime
    Environment for Wireless) are proprietary systems in that they
    only provide largely restricted APIs. On the other hand, Symbian,
    Linux, and J2ME are completely open systems.
   Due to its supreme portability and established support in the
    mobile application developer community, J2ME is well
    positioned for next-generation mobile application development.
   Considering the heterogeneity of mobile devices in terms of
    hardware and software platforms, J2ME and .Net compact
    framework are likely to flourish.
Introduction to Android
   http://code.google.com/android
   Android is a software platform for mobile devices based on the
    Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open
    Handset Alliance.
   OS: Linux kernel - version 2.6
   Emulator: on Mac, Windows, Linux
   Hardware support:
      GSM Telephony

      Bluetooth, 3G, and WiFi

      Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer
Introduction to Android
   http://code.google.com/android
   Android is a software platform for
    mobile devices based on the Linux
    operating system and developed by
    Google and the Open Handset
    Alliance.
   OS: Linux kernel - version 2.6
   Emulator: on Mac, Windows,
    Linux
   Hardware support:
      GSM Telephony

      Bluetooth, 3G, and WiFi

      Camera, GPS, compass, and
        accelerometer
            Android Architecture
               Linux Kernel
   Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system
    services such as security, memory management, process
    management, network stack, and driver model.
   The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the
    hardware and the rest of the software stack.
          Android Architecture

                         Runtime with its own instance
    Every Android application runs in its own process,
    of the Dalvik virtual machine.
   Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently.
    The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format
    which is optimized for minimal memory footprint.
   The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language
    compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included
    "dx" tool.
   The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality
    such as threading and low-level memory management.
             Android Architecture

                           Libraries by various
    Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used
    components of the Android system.
       Surface Manager - manages access to the display subsystem and
        seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple
        applications
       Media Libraries - support playback and recording of many popular audio
        and video formats, as well as static image file
       FreeType - bitmap and vector font rendering
       SQLite - a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available
        to all applications
                Android Architecture
                Application Framework
   Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client,
    SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications
    are written using Java.

   Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems, including:
        A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application,
         including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
        Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications
         (such as Contacts), or to share their own data
        A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized
         strings, graphics, and layout files
        A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the
         status bar
        An Activity Manager that manages the life cycle of applications and provides a
         common navigation backstack
1   Overview


2   Hardware

3   Software Platform


4   Services and Applications
Generation     Data Rate             Protocols

   2G        9.6 – 14.4 kbps   GSM, CDMA, TDMA, PDC

  2.5G       14.4 - 110 kbps          GPRS

  2.75G      144-384 kbps       EDGE, CDMA2000 1x

                               WCDMA, CDMA2000,
   3G        384k – 2 Mbps     TD-SCDMA, UWC-136,
                                     DECT+
            Services and Applications
   Basic     mobile phone services
      Mobile       telephony
           Voice over IP (VoIP) – 1~2 ¢/min international calls
            (WLAN/3G)
      Messaging       Services
         SMS                      EMS                    MMS
     •Simple Text        •Text and Simple Graphics    •Audio and Video
     •Limited to 160     •Uses same networks as SMS   •Greeting Cards
     characters
                                                      •Requires 2.5G
                                                      systems

SMS is the highest ranked mobile service in terms of consumer preference of use,
especially in Asia and Europe. Chinese people sent 592 billion in 2007.
         Personal Information Management
   email, calendar, task, address book,
    organizer, notepad, etc.
   Can be synchronized with computer
        MS active sync with Outlook
   Synchronization over-the-air
        Yahoo! Intellisync – calendar, address book and
         notepad
   Email services
        BlackBerry “Push Email”
        Microsoft “Direct Push Technology” on WM6




                                                           Picture source: http://www.developerone.com
                Mobile Internet
 Through 2.5G/3G networks or wireless LAN
 Smart phone customized websites
   Google: search engine, map service, YouTube video
    streaming, etc (http://mobile.google.com)
   Convert any website into mobile version through
    Google (http://www.google.com/gwt/n)
 Innovative   web-browsers
   iPhone   Safari
Source: youtube.com
    Mobile Instant Messaging
 AOL Instant Messenger
 MSN/Windows Live Messenger

 ICQ messenger

 Yahoo! Messenger

 Google Talk
    Mobile Multimedia Center
 DVD  quality movie
 Music download
   iTune

 Video and Music streaming
 Video games
        Location Based Services
 GPS   navigation
   Built-in/external GPS   receiver
   Point of interest
   Traffic information

 Enhanced   911 (E911)
   Emergency  localization through cellular network or
   built-in GPS
               And Many More…
   Mobile Social Networking
   Mobile ID
   Digital Wallet
       Secured with fingerprint reader/facial
        recognition/iris scanner
   Mobile Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
                   Summary
   Smart Phone – the convergence of “3C”
     Communication
     Computing

     Consumer Electronics
                      Q&A
   Questions?
   Thank you for your time.
References
   Pei Zheng, Lionel Ni. Smart Phone and Next Generation Mobile Computing, Morgan
    Kaufmann, December 16, 2005
   Google Android http://code.google.com/android/
   Wikipedia, "Smartphone", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartphone
   http://www.microsoft.com/windowsmobile
   http://www.arm.com
   http://www.blackberry.com
   http://www.apple.com/iphone

				
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