Tourists tourists…everywhere! The changing and now global pattern of this type of pop movement • From local to global • Growth over time has led to changes in location and type • Social, economic, political, media, etc have influenced growth and pattern of this industry Types… • Recreation, business, education, health • Mass tourism • Alternative tourism = ecotourism, green tourism • sustainable trends • World’s biggest industry • Growth = ..local..national, international • Length of time a resort sustains popularity • Problems that can drive tourists away…sickness, cost, politiacl problems, terrorism, better in another place, been there done that …,keeping up with the ‘Jones’’, etc Factors influencing global tourism • Transport.. particularly air • Tour operators /package • Internet • Economic • Political • Social Tourism and economic development • Amount per year on tourism ..increaes with development • HDI (life expectancy, literacy, and GDP) • See development notes • Eg = Thailand popular due to rise in standard of living in MEDC’s and neighbours and cheap air travel, rising cost of Spain etc, search by tourists for newer more exotic places, diversity within Thailand = beaches, western style resorts, nightlife, temples, history, culture • Important as = top earner, labour intensive, spin-offs, multiplier, trickle down • Eg = Iceland =ecotourism, change from hot, unspoilt, good exciting environment matches Alaska, Patagonia, etc. Concentrated in SW The growth of tourism issues • Opportunities and problems • Creates opportunities …employment, infrastructure, community development, environmental protection. • Creates problems … social and cultural change, inequality, seasonality of employment, environmental degradation. • Think of Spain's concrete coast • Eg = St Kitts and Nevis (Caribbean) • Physical and economic backgrounds, natural /cultural resources, fragile maintenance of tourism after 9/11, • Opportunities.. climate, well educated, spoken English, political stability, near N. America so…more jobs, spin-offs, generate foreign exchange, improved skills,investment, environmental protection. • Problems for LEDC’s… • Revenue goes out of country • Booked through MEDC’s • Transport owned by MEDC’s • Imported foods • Sensitive to downturn in global economy • Go out of fashion • (use of cruise ships, enclave tourism, environmental impact) • Eg = Tenerife = economic background, climate, volcano,growth through packages, brought employment, infrastructure and environmental protection = • Problems …degradation of local environments..skyscrappers, walking on volcano, break-up of community • Future…better class of tourist!! + ecotourism Managing tourism sustainably • Balancing socio-economic and environmental needs • By ecotourism, green tourism, etc. • ‘By meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs’ • Involving the locals • Respecting and retaining traditions • Ideas of equity • Eg = lake district… • Origins = poets etc • Creation of National Parks • Managing National Parks in Uk.. • Traffic, quality of landscape, conflict amongst users, water management, lake management, pollution, footpath erosion, infrastructure… To answer • With reference to named examples… • Show how management and planning can contribute to tourism’s sustainable use of environmental resources • Or • Describe and explain how travel and tourism have been a positive influence on the world.