Tourists tourists…everywhere_

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					Tourists tourists…everywhere!

   The changing and now global
    pattern of this type of pop
• From local to global
• Growth over time has led to changes in
  location and type
• Social, economic, political, media, etc
  have influenced growth and pattern of this
• Recreation, business, education, health
• Mass tourism
• Alternative tourism = ecotourism, green
• sustainable
•   World’s biggest industry
•   Growth = ..local..national, international
•   Length of time a resort sustains popularity
•   Problems that can drive tourists
    away…sickness, cost, politiacl problems,
    terrorism, better in another place, been
    there done that …,keeping up with the
    ‘Jones’’, etc
    Factors influencing global tourism
•   Transport.. particularly air
•   Tour operators /package
•   Internet
•   Economic
•   Political
•   Social
          Tourism and economic
• Amount per year on tourism ..increaes with development
• HDI (life expectancy, literacy, and GDP)
• See development notes
• Eg = Thailand popular due to rise in standard of living in
  MEDC’s and neighbours and cheap air travel, rising cost
  of Spain etc, search by tourists for newer more exotic
  places, diversity within Thailand = beaches, western
  style resorts, nightlife, temples, history, culture
• Important as = top earner, labour intensive, spin-offs,
  multiplier, trickle down
• Eg = Iceland =ecotourism, change from hot, unspoilt,
  good exciting environment matches Alaska, Patagonia,
  etc. Concentrated in SW
   The growth of tourism issues
• Opportunities and problems
• Creates opportunities …employment, infrastructure, community
  development, environmental protection.
• Creates problems … social and cultural change, inequality,
  seasonality of employment, environmental degradation.
• Think of Spain's concrete coast
• Eg = St Kitts and Nevis (Caribbean)
• Physical and economic backgrounds, natural /cultural resources,
  fragile maintenance of tourism after 9/11,
• Opportunities.. climate, well educated, spoken English, political
  stability, near N. America so…more jobs, spin-offs, generate foreign
  exchange, improved skills,investment, environmental protection.
• Problems for LEDC’s…
• Revenue goes out of country
• Booked through MEDC’s
• Transport owned by MEDC’s
• Imported foods
• Sensitive to downturn in global economy
• Go out of fashion
• (use of cruise ships, enclave tourism, environmental impact)
• Eg = Tenerife = economic background, climate, volcano,growth
  through packages, brought employment, infrastructure and
  environmental protection =
• Problems …degradation of local environments..skyscrappers,
  walking on volcano, break-up of community
• Future…better class of tourist!! + ecotourism
 Managing tourism sustainably
• Balancing socio-economic and
  environmental needs
• By ecotourism, green tourism, etc.
• ‘By meeting the needs of the present
  without compromising the ability of future
  generations to meet their needs’
• Involving the locals
• Respecting and retaining traditions
• Ideas of equity
•   Eg = lake district…
•   Origins = poets etc
•   Creation of National Parks
•   Managing National Parks in Uk..
•   Traffic, quality of landscape, conflict
    amongst users, water management, lake
    management, pollution, footpath erosion,
               To answer
• With reference to named examples…
• Show how management and planning can
  contribute to tourism’s sustainable use of
  environmental resources
• Or
• Describe and explain how travel and
  tourism have been a positive influence on
  the world.