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					           Ethics
National Judging Advisory Committee
YSF Ethics:
                                         Youth Science Canada
                                        Sciences jeunesse Canada




      Developing Awareness,
           Understanding
          and Compliance
        Judith Soon & Patrick Whippey

                                                          2
                                              Youth Science Canada
                                             Sciences jeunesse Canada




“Business in Canada must have a
conscience and ethics”. Lt.-Gen. Roméo Dallaire
                                                               3
                           Goals
                                                     Youth Science Canada
                                                    Sciences jeunesse Canada




•   To present the information that Regional Science Fair
    Committees need to understand the ethical issues

•   To define clearly the rules that participants must follow
•   To make it easy for participants to follow the rules



                                                                      4
                   Background
                                             Youth Science Canada
                                            Sciences jeunesse Canada




•   Regional Science Fairs (RSF) need to ensure that
    projects comply with YSF rules and regulations
•   Need to get out of the mode of “Backwards
    Compliance” and surprises at the CWSFs

•   Help us encourage Canada’s young scientists to conduct
    ethical and sound research
                                                              5
     National Judging Advisory
                                          Youth Science Canada
                Committee                Sciences jeunesse Canada




The National Judging Advisory Committee
(NJAC) monitors YSF Canada policies and
procedures relating to all aspects of judging




                                                           6
    YSF Canada Ethics
                                        Youth Science Canada
                                       Sciences jeunesse Canada
         Committee

•   Responsible for the oversight of human and
    animal research at RSF and CWSF

•   Reviews challenging projects submitted by RSF
    Ethics Committees


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Ethics: What Types of Research?
                                          Youth Science Canada
                                         Sciences jeunesse Canada

          Human Research
          •   Ingestion and absorption

          •   Psychological risk

          •   Physical activities

          Animal Research
          •   Inhumane treatment

                                                           8
We propose to
change this to
  required
                 Regional Science Fair
                   Ethics Committee               Youth Science Canada
                                                 Sciences jeunesse Canada




       Each region is expected to set up an Ethics
        Committee which will become knowledgeable
        about the rules and ethical issues related to student
        research



                                                                   9
Ethics Review Committee
                                                       Youth Science Canada
                                                      Sciences jeunesse Canada
 •   A group of adults knowledgeable about regulations
     concerning experimentation in restricted areas

 •   Role is to educate and support

 •   Members (1-3 people):
     •   Ethics Consultant
     •   Veterinarian
     •   Health care professional
     •   RSF Chief Judge
                                                                       10
Ethics Review Process
                                             Youth Science Canada
                                            Sciences jeunesse Canada

    * All animal research

    * All human research

    Research proposals must be reviewed by the RSF
    Ethics Committee

    An Adult and Scientific Supervisor are required


                                                             11
Adult Supervisor
                                               Youth Science Canada
                                              Sciences jeunesse Canada
   •   Required for projects involving human and animal
       research

   •   Parent, teacher or scientist

   •   Ensures student understands ethical issues at an
       appropriate level

   •   Ensures YSF rules are followed

                                                               12
Scientific Supervisor
                                                   Youth Science Canada
                                                  Sciences jeunesse Canada

    •   Involved if there is more than trivial risk

    •   Often located in University or industrial
        laboratory setting

    •   Usually has professional qualifications

    •   May be the Adult Supervisor


                                                                   13
Ethics Review Process
                                             Youth Science Canada
                                            Sciences jeunesse Canada


  •   Can use primarily email and phone discussions

  •   Communicate Ethics Rules and expectations to
      teachers, students and parents

  •   Be prepared to enforce the rules




                                                             14
Challenging Issues
                                                       Youth Science Canada
                                                      Sciences jeunesse Canada



 RSF Chief Judge refers to YSF Ethics Committee
 •   Chair, Dr. Patrick Whippey

 •   After seeking appropriate professional advice, the Committee will
     assist students where possible so that the methodology can meet
     the ethical rules for animal or human research



                                                                       15
      Human Participation
        Low Risk Projects               Youth Science Canada
                                       Sciences jeunesse Canada



•   Surveys of attitudes and beliefs

•   Skill tests

•   Observations of behaviour

•   4.1A Approval of Low Risk Projects


                                                        16
One Minute Moment                       Youth Science Canada
                                       Sciences jeunesse Canada




      Examples of a low risk survey?




                                                        17
Human Participation
                               Youth Science Canada
                              Sciences jeunesse Canada
High Risk Projects

            Everything Else




                                               18
              High Risk Projects
                                                Youth Science Canada
                                               Sciences jeunesse Canada




•   Approval required before experiments begin

•   Projects often done in a research laboratory

•   Reviewed by RSF Ethics Committee
•   4.1B Application For Review of Research with
        Human Participants Involving Significant Risk

•   4.1C Human & Animal Research Approval
                                                                19
 One Minute Moment                       Youth Science Canada
                                        Sciences jeunesse Canada




Examples of surveys with significant risk?




                                                         20
        Informed Consent                       Youth Science Canada
                                              Sciences jeunesse Canada


•   Is a process
•   Ethics committee in place
•   Points student & supporting adults to ethics web site
•   Reviews the Informed Consent Form
•   Ensures the required elements are present.
•   Monitors compliance by the student & participants


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Informed Consent Form
Low & High Risk projects                         Youth Science Canada
                                                Sciences jeunesse Canada



  •   The right to be informed of risks
  •   The right to remain anonymous
  •   The right to withdraw:
      •   at any time
      •   for any reason

  •   The right to be informed of the results
  •   Informed Consent Form
                                                                 22
               What is a Drug?
                                                    Youth Science Canada
                                                   Sciences jeunesse Canada

Health Canada definition:
“Drug" includes any substance or mixture of substances
manufactured, sold, or represented for use in:
(a) the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of a
   disease, disorder, abnormal physical state, or its
   symptoms, in humans or animals;
(b) Restoring, correcting, or modifying organic functions
   in human beings or animals;
(c) Disinfection in premises food is manufactured,
   prepared or kept.                                                23
    Questions to ask of Projects
     with Human Participation                 Youth Science Canada
                                             Sciences jeunesse Canada


1. Is the project high or low risk?
2. Is there supervision by an appropriate scientific
   advisor?
3. Is the student familiar with the ethics web site(s).
4. Does the informed consent form have all the
   required elements?
5. Is the student familiar with the definition of a drug?
6. Is a drug involved?

                                                              24
Non-Vertebrate Animals
 Except Cephalopods   Youth Science Canada
                     Sciences jeunesse Canada


       Allowed




                                      25
            Vertebrate Animals,
      (fishes, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals)

                   Cephalopods                       Youth Science Canada
                                                    Sciences jeunesse Canada
               (Octopus, Squid, Cuttle Fish)
Allowed only under four conditions
•   Observation only

•   Behavioural experiments

•   Projects conducted in a registered laboratory

•   Studies of embryos

•   4.1C Human & Animal Research Approval
       Questions to ask if
                                               Youth Science Canada
      Animals are involved                    Sciences jeunesse Canada

•   Is the animal governed by the rules for vertebrates
    or invertebrates?
•   Is there supervision by an appropriate scientific
    advisor?
•   Is the student familiar with the ethics web site(s)?
•   Invertebrates – any scientifically legitimate project
    is allowed.
•   Vertebrates – is it one of the four types of projects
    allowed?
                                                               27
         Off-Side Projects
                                            Youth Science Canada
                                           Sciences jeunesse Canada
Please do not send projects that are in violation of
the Ethics Rules to the CWSF,
no matter how meritorious


We get two or three a year that are in clear violation


              We are raising the bar


                                                            30
                 Resources
                                          Youth Science Canada
                                         Sciences jeunesse Canada
YSF Web Site Devoted to Ethics - New:
•   http://www.ldstf.ca/ethics/

YSF Policy Manual – the Official Rules:
•   http://www.ysf.ca/Members/policydirectory.aspx




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                        Summary
                                                     Youth Science Canada
                                                    Sciences jeunesse Canada




•   Adopt the YSF Ethics Rules for your Regional Science Fair

•   Form a Regional Science Fair Ethics Committee

•   Developing awareness and understanding of the ethical
    issues involved with Science Fairs will empower Canada’s
    young scientists to conduct ethical and sound research



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              Youth Science Canada
             Sciences jeunesse Canada




Questions?


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