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CPU Project Force and Motion: Cycle I (for fourth grade) Compiled by: CJ Bergstrom, Instructional Facilitator Truman Elementary School Judy Boutz, Instructional Technology Facilitator Baptiste Education Center Becky Farabi, Instructional Facilitator Dobbs Elementary School Hickman Mills School District Kansas City, MO Fall 2003 CPU in 4th Grade – Force & Motion Carla Bergstrom, Becky Farabi, & Judy Boutz Hickman Mills C-1 School District Major Concept: Slope (of linear graph representing constant speed on a distance-time graph) Desired Outcomes: Missouri Standards ! Science Standard 2 – Properties and principles of force and motion Missouri Process Standard ! GOAL 1: Students in Missouri public schools will acquire the knowledge and skills to gather, analyze and apply information and ideas. ! 1.8 organize data, information and ideas into useful forms (including charts, graphs, outlines) for analysis or presentation Missouri Grade Level Expectations 1. Benchmark - The motion of an object can be described as a change in position, direction and speed 2. Scope & Sequence – Exploring Force & Energy a. Describe an object’s motion in terms of distance over time (speed) Assessment: The pre- and post- content & attitude tests developed by Nancy Donaldson Time Required: 5 days – 1 hour per day. Overview: Introduction: Fourth grade students will explore the ideas of slope of a linear graph. Students will practice predicting, collecting data, and graphing height x volume of various containers (that have straight sides and varying diameters). Students will apply these ideas to motion at a constant speed. They will graph constant speed, twice as fast, and half as fast. Students will also examine strobe diagrams at constant speed, twice as fast, and half as fast. Underpinnings Prior Knowledge Necessary –: o Measure volume in centimeters o Measurement height in centimeters o Coordinate plane o Construction of a line graph o Plotting a line graph Outline Elicitation Activities: Activity E - Constructing Bottle Graph Development Activities: 1. Motion Detector Walking at Constant Speed - F&M Activity 1-D1 2. Strobe Walking – F&M Activity 1-D2 3. Representing Faster and Slower - Battery operated red & blue cars on table or floor surface set up with motion detector – 1D2 4. Motion Challenege (move away from motion detector at constant rate. Stop. Move forward toward detector at a faster constant rate.) Application Activities (Consensus) 1. Bottle Activity 2. Enrichment Activity What’s Next After this Unit Missouri Process Standard o GOAL 1: Students in Missouri public schools will acquire the knowledge and skills to gather, analyze and apply information and ideas. o 1.6 discover and evaluate patterns and relationships in information, ideas and structures Missouri Grade Level Expectations 1. Benchmark - An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed, direction of motion or both 2. Scope & Sequence – Exploring Force & Energy a. Compare the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object’s motion b. Discuss how change of speed is affected by the amount of force and the mass of the object Student Objectives: 1. Cycle 1: Representing Motion Distance-Time Graphs It is expected that the learner will be able to: a. Collect distance-time data b. Construct distance-time graphs to represent constant speed (slow – fast) c. Analyze distance-time graphs qualitatively to determine if an object is traveling a constant speed (slow – fast) Strobe Diagrams It is expected that the learner will be able to: a. Construct strobe diagrams to represent the motion of objects that are traveling at a constant speed (slow – fast) b. Analyze strobe diagrams qualitatively to determine if an object is traveling a constant speed (slow – fast) Background: This Force and Motion Unit was designed for fourth grade students. Many of the concepts, activities, and simulations included in the unit were developed by Constructing Physics Understanding (CPU), and were adapted by us for fourth grade students. The unit was designed to provide opportunities for students to construct ideas listed below. At the end of each activity in the development phase, students are asked to add or modify an idea in their Idea Journal, based on evidence gathered within that activity. Within their consensus discussion, students should develop these ideas in their own words. However, the conceptual content should be similar to ideas listed below. The CPU Teacher Guide for each cycle provides examples of the kinds of statements students actually develop in the class. After the class agrees on a set of ideas the teacher should introduce appropriate terminology and conventions so that the students' are more closely aligned with the corresponding ideas they would find in their textbooks as well as state and national science standards. Target Ideas for Cycle I 1. Distance-Time Graph Idea: Graphs are plotted on a coordinate plane. Distance is plotted on the vertical axis and time is plotted on the horizontal axis. The resulting linear graph shows constant speed. An object moving at a constant speed has a distance-time graph that is a straight line with a positive slope (linear graph). Objects that are not moving have a distance-time graph that is a horizontal straight line. 2. Strobe Diagram Idea: Objects that are moving at constant speed have dots that are evenly spaced. Objects that are increasing their speed (accelerating) have dots that are increasingly further and further apart. Objects that are decreasing their speed have dots that become closer and closer together. Materials: • 3 Laptop Computers with CPU & Logger Pro Installed • 3 Motion Detectors • Butcher Block Paper • 1 liter bottles • 6 Battery Powered Cars • Graduated Cylinders • Beakers • Miscellaneous bottles for final activity (straight sides but different diameters) • Modified Worksheets Lesson Activities: Elicitation Activities: Activity E - Constructing Bottle Graph Predict & Construct a bottle graph for graduated cylinder and a small beaker based on volume (fat * thin) Do the experiment to check the volume and make the graph with the students with Development Activities: 5. Motion Detector Walking at Constant Speed - F&M Activity 1-D1 a. First walk slow b. Predict about walking fast c. Second walk fast d. Talk about slope and relate to bottle activity 6. Strobe Walking – F&M Activity 1-D2 a. Students will do the Oil Drop Worksheet for prediction (constant) b. Predict graph/slope c. Kids will use a pin hole in an empty 1 liter bottle on butcher block paper. d. Students will go to computer and do simulation – 1D2 3. Representing Faster and Slower - Battery operated red & blue cars on table or floor surface set up with motion detector – 1D2 a. Predict graph/slope b. Graph on the Logger Pro 4. Do a trip (move away from motion detector at constant rate. Stop. Move forward toward detector at a faster constant rate.) a. Predict graph/slope b. Compare slopes Application Activities (Consensus): 3. Bottle Activity Student Comparison of thinner and thicker bottles a. Students will predict graph/slope b. Do the experiment to make the two graphs to compare the slopes. Measure in small increments. c. Discuss results 4. Student Enrichment Activity Sources: Constructing Physics Understanding (CPU) www.cpucips.sdsu.edu Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) www.dese.state.mo.us Activity E: Constructing Bottle Graph 1. Imagine taking a thin tall bottle called a graduated cylinder and filling it with different amounts of water. Make a line graph with the height of the water level on the vertical axis and the volume of water in the container on the horizontal axis. (If you need help with remembering what a line graph looks like, click to Kids Graphing.) 1. Draw that you think the graph would look like. 1. What scale will you use on the vertical axis that measures the height of the water in centimeters? 2. What scale will you use for the horizontal axis that measures the volume of the water in millimeters? 3. What will the the graph look like at the beginning of the graph? 2. Discuss your thinking with others in your group. Summarize any different ideas that were used to help set up your graph. 3. Using the same information you used for the cylinder, make a similar line graph, except imagine what the graph will look like using a short, fat container like a beaker. 4. Testing the predictions • Materials: a graduated cylinder, a beaker, a ruler for measuring height, a second graduated cylinder for measuring volume of water, and table to record information. Experiment: 1. Add small measured amounts of water to the container. 2. Measure the height of the water in the container. 3. Record the data on the table below each time you add more water (volume) to the container. Total amount Measured Measured Height Change of water in amount of heights of container water added water surface (Volume) (Height) O ml (no water) 5. Graph the Height of the Water on the vertical axis versus the Volume of Water in the Container on the horizontal axis. 6. In the class discuss your graph and ideas with others. Summarize the important issues, ideas, and questions you have about these graphs and what they show. F & M Activity 1-D1: Can You Represent Motion With Graphs? Materials: Logger Pro, Motion Detector, meter sticks, masking tape, small white board Prediction. Predict what the time-distance graph would look like if a person walks slowly at a constant speed away from the motion detector for three seconds followed by standing still for two seconds. Use a thin blue line to sketch graph lines on your graph handout. Now predict what the time-distance graph would look like if a person walks faster at a constant speed away from the motion detector for three seconds followed by standing still for two seconds. Use a thin red line for this prediction. Add the word “Prediction” to your graph. Use your Graph Handout. Test your prediction. Walk away from the motion detector slowly at a constant speed for three seconds. Then stand still for two seconds. (Teacher will help you set up your motion detector to take data on your motion). Save your Data and take a snapshot. (Teacher will have Logger Pro opened to Act I-D1 MBL). Hint: Walk with small steps walking backwards with the white board in front of you. Walk away from the motion detector faster at a constant speed for three seconds. Then stand still for two seconds. (Teacher will help you set up your motion detector to take data on your motion). Save your Data and take a snapshot. (Teacher will have Logger Pro opened to CPU Act I-D1 MBL). Hint: Walk with small steps walking backwards with the white board in front of you. Take your motion detector graph and compare it to your prediction. Sketch your results from the Logger Pro onto your Prediction Graph using thicker lines (markers). Label your legend with the correct information. Summarize what you have learned. Did you predict the graph correctly? If not, what needed changing? How can you tell from a distance-time graph whether or not an object is moving at a constant speed? How can you tell from a distance-time graph when an object is moving and when it is standing still? How can you tell from the distance-time graphs showing different objects moving at different constant speeds, which object was moving the fastest and which object was moving the slowest? F & M Activity 1-D2: Representing Faster and Slower Motions Materials: Lab Pro, Motion Detector, Red toy car, Blue toy car The cars are different colors. The RED car goes faster than the BLUE car. Prediction. Predict what the graph would look like by using two different colored pencils (RED, BLUE). Sketch graph lines on the chart below. Add labels to indicate which line represents a faster car and which represents a slower car. Add the word “Prediction” to your graph. Use your Graph Handout. Test your prediction. Get one of the toy cars. Your teacher will set up your detector and help you take data on its motion. Save your Data and take a snapshot. (CPU Act I-D1 MBL) Get the other color car. Take the same data. When you have two good graphs compare it to your prediction. Sketch the observed graphs in the color to match your car but with thicker lines (markers) and label them “Observation “. Summarize what you have learned. Did you predict the graph correctly? If not, what needed changing? How does a position-time graph indicate different speeds? Name: _____________________________________ 4 3 Distance (m) 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time (seconds) Thin Blue Line Thin Red Line Thick Blue Line Thick Red Line 4 3 Distance (m) 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time (seconds) F&M Activity I-D2 Strobe Diagrams Prediction: Students complete the Oil Drop Worksheet in their groups. Students discuss and predict the motion of a car, with an oil leak, by examining the oil traces left behind. Students sketch their predictions in graph form. Materials: One-liter bottles (empty water or soda bottles), straight pins, water source, butcher paper Logistics: Locate an area where students will be able to walk a straight distance of about 30 feet. Possibilities include outside, the gym, a corridor. Students should work in teams of four students each. Procedure: Each team should do the following: Fill liter bottle about halfway. Spread butcher paper along the ground or floor. Pinprick the bottle once. One student walks slowly at a constant speed. Next, another student walks quickly at a constant speed. Then, a third student walks at an increasing rate. Finally, a fourth starts out quickly and decreases speed. Students record results in their Idea Journals. Students discuss results of experiment and compare with Oil Drop Worksheet predictions. Teachers, please refer to CPU F&M Activity I-D2 for full directions on use of the simulator to demonstrate strobe diagrams at constant speed, twice as fast, and half as fast. Student worksheets have been modified. Students need to use the CPU Act I-D2 Sim 1 simulation to complete the worksheet. Name_________________________ Oil Drop Worksheet Imagine a car that leaks oil at a regular rate. As the car travels through town, it would leave spots of oil on the street. These “spots” would tell us information about the motion of the car. Andre’s car is leaking oil. It leaves a trail of his motion wherever he goes. Analyze the three trails of Andre’s trips as shown below. Assume that Andre is traveling left to right. Describe Andre’s motion during each section on the diagram below. (Pattern of dots) 1. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 2. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 3. ●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●● Name: ________________________ OIL DROP WORKSHEET Prediction Graphs 1. 2. 3. F&M Activity I-D2 Worksheet for Students 1. Predict how you could tell from the strobe diagram that an object is moving at a constant speed. ______________________________________________________________ 2. If the launcher pushes the ball so that the ball moves twice as fast, what will the strobe pattern look like? Sketch the pattern of dots. Explain how you decided. Sketch prediction: Explanation: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. Now, suppose the launcher pushes the ball so that the ball moves half as fast. Sketch the pattern of dots. Explain how you decided. Sketch prediction: Explanation: 3. Use the simulator. How do the diagrams compare? Sketch results at constant speed: Explanation: Sketch results at twice as fast: Explanation: Sketch results of half as fast: Explanation: Return to simulator. How did the length of the three speed arrows compare to each other? F&M Activity I – A1 Motion Challenge Prediction: 1. The graph below is an idealized distance-time graph. Predict how you should move across the floor to come as close as possible to reproducing the idealized motion represented in this graph. Write down your prediction for how you should move in the space below the graph. Write here. 2. Practice the motion using meter sticks and watches until you think you can perform the motion well. (Do not use the motion detector for this.) 3. Test your Prediction: Your teacher will open Act I-A1 MBL1. With your teachers help collect data and try to duplicate the motion represented on the graphs. Repeat a few times if necessary. Take a snapshot of your best effort. Print out graph. Compare your actual walking graph to your predicted graph. Critique your results. Try to determine what differences are due to mistakes and what differences are due to the difference between real motion and idealized motion. Application Activities Consensus Materials: Over time students should collect and bring to school various bottles. Bottles must have straight sides, but should have various diameters. Suggested bottles include pickle jars, peanut butter jars, olive jars, cherry jars, etc. Other materials needed include: rulers for measuring height, graduated cylinders for measuring volume, and a table for recording results. Logistics: Students work in teams of four students each. Each team should have two bottles to work with. Bottles should vary in height and diameter. Prediction: Students should sketch prediction graphs on a coordinate plane. The horizontal axis should record the volume in milliliters, and the vertical axis will record height in centimeters corresponding to the volume. Procedure: Students complete the experiment by adding small measured amounts of water to one bottle. Students measure the height of water in the bottle. Students record the data on the first table each time more water is added. Students repeat the procedure for the second bottle. Students record the data on the second table. Students graph the results and compare experimental results with their predicitons. Discussion: Discuss slope. Slope shows change over time. As the volume of water increased the height increased. The resulting graph is a line, so we call the graph of the line linear. The diameter of the container determines the steepness of the slope. Wider bottles will have less steep slope and thinner bottles will have a steeper slow. Relate this activity to constant speed, twice as fast, and half as fast. At a faster constant speed the slope is steeper. At a slower constant speed the slope is less steep. Match strobe diagrams for constant speed, twice as fast, and half as fast to their corresponding linear graphs. Enrichment Activity: Students may use the web site: http://www.crocodile- clips.com/absorb/AP5/sample/010103.html First Bottle Second Bottle