# Force and Motion Cycle I (for fourth grade) by uhj16850

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Force and Motion: Cycle I

Compiled by:

CJ Bergstrom, Instructional Facilitator
Truman Elementary School

Judy Boutz, Instructional Technology Facilitator
Baptiste Education Center

Becky Farabi, Instructional Facilitator
Dobbs Elementary School

Hickman Mills School District
Kansas City, MO

Fall 2003
CPU in 4th Grade – Force & Motion

Carla Bergstrom, Becky Farabi, & Judy Boutz

Hickman Mills C-1 School District

Major Concept: Slope (of linear graph representing constant speed on a distance-time
graph)

Desired Outcomes:

Missouri Standards

!     Science Standard 2 – Properties and principles of force and motion

Missouri Process Standard

!     GOAL 1: Students in Missouri public schools will acquire the
knowledge and skills to gather, analyze and apply information and
ideas.
!     1.8 organize data, information and ideas into useful forms
(including charts, graphs, outlines) for analysis or presentation

1. Benchmark - The motion of an object can be described as a change in
position, direction and speed

2. Scope & Sequence – Exploring Force & Energy

a. Describe an object’s motion in terms of distance over time
(speed)

Assessment: The pre- and post- content & attitude tests developed by Nancy Donaldson

Time Required: 5 days – 1 hour per day.

Overview:

Introduction: Fourth grade students will explore the ideas of slope of a linear graph.
Students will practice predicting, collecting data, and graphing height x volume of
various containers (that have straight sides and varying diameters). Students will apply
these ideas to motion at a constant speed. They will graph constant speed, twice as fast,
and half as fast. Students will also examine strobe diagrams at constant speed, twice as
fast, and half as fast.
Underpinnings

Prior Knowledge Necessary –:

o   Measure volume in centimeters
o   Measurement height in centimeters
o   Coordinate plane
o   Construction of a line graph
o   Plotting a line graph

Outline

Elicitation Activities: Activity E - Constructing Bottle Graph

Development Activities:

1. Motion Detector Walking at Constant Speed - F&M Activity 1-D1
2. Strobe Walking – F&M Activity 1-D2
3. Representing Faster and Slower - Battery operated red & blue cars on
table or floor surface set up with motion detector – 1D2
4. Motion Challenege (move away from motion detector at constant rate.
Stop. Move forward toward detector at a faster constant rate.)

Application Activities (Consensus)

1. Bottle Activity
2. Enrichment Activity

What’s Next After this Unit

Missouri Process Standard

o   GOAL 1: Students in Missouri public schools will acquire the knowledge
and skills to gather, analyze and apply information and ideas.
o   1.6 discover and evaluate patterns and relationships in information, ideas
and structures

1. Benchmark - An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed,
direction of motion or both
2. Scope & Sequence – Exploring Force & Energy
a. Compare the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object’s
motion

b. Discuss how change of speed is affected by the amount of force and the
mass of the object

Student Objectives:

1. Cycle 1: Representing Motion

Distance-Time Graphs

It is expected that the learner will be able to:

a. Collect distance-time data
b. Construct distance-time graphs to represent constant speed (slow –
fast)
c. Analyze distance-time graphs qualitatively to determine if an
object is traveling a constant speed (slow – fast)

Strobe Diagrams

It is expected that the learner will be able to:

a. Construct strobe diagrams to represent the motion of objects that
are traveling at a constant speed (slow – fast)
b. Analyze strobe diagrams qualitatively to determine if an object is
traveling a constant speed (slow – fast)

Background:

This Force and Motion Unit was designed for fourth grade students. Many of the
concepts, activities, and simulations included in the unit were developed by Constructing
Physics Understanding (CPU), and were adapted by us for fourth grade students. The
unit was designed to provide opportunities for students to construct ideas listed below.
At the end of each activity in the development phase, students are asked to add or modify
an idea in their Idea Journal, based on evidence gathered within that activity. Within
their consensus discussion, students should develop these ideas in their own words.
However, the conceptual content should be similar to ideas listed below. The CPU
Teacher Guide for each cycle provides examples of the kinds of statements students
actually develop in the class. After the class agrees on a set of ideas the teacher should
introduce appropriate terminology and conventions so that the students' are more closely
aligned with the corresponding ideas they would find in their textbooks as well as state
and national science standards.

Target Ideas for Cycle I

1. Distance-Time Graph Idea: Graphs are plotted on a coordinate plane. Distance
is plotted on the vertical axis and time is plotted on the horizontal axis. The
resulting linear graph shows constant speed. An object moving at a constant
speed has a distance-time graph that is a straight line with a positive slope (linear
graph). Objects that are not moving have a distance-time graph that is a
horizontal straight line.

2. Strobe Diagram Idea: Objects that are moving at constant speed have dots that
are evenly spaced. Objects that are increasing their speed (accelerating) have dots
that are increasingly further and further apart. Objects that are decreasing their
speed have dots that become closer and closer together.

Materials:

•   3 Laptop Computers with CPU & Logger Pro Installed
•   3 Motion Detectors
•   Butcher Block Paper
•   1 liter bottles
•   6 Battery Powered Cars
•   Beakers
•   Miscellaneous bottles for final activity (straight sides but different diameters)
•   Modified Worksheets

Lesson Activities:

Elicitation Activities: Activity E - Constructing Bottle Graph

Predict & Construct a bottle graph for graduated cylinder and a small beaker
based on volume (fat * thin)

Do the experiment to check the volume and make the graph with the students
with

Development Activities:

5. Motion Detector Walking at Constant Speed - F&M Activity 1-D1
a. First walk slow
c. Second walk fast
d. Talk about slope and relate to bottle activity

6. Strobe Walking – F&M Activity 1-D2
a. Students will do the Oil Drop Worksheet for prediction (constant)
b. Predict graph/slope
c. Kids will use a pin hole in an empty 1 liter bottle on butcher block
paper.
d. Students will go to computer and do simulation – 1D2

3. Representing Faster and Slower - Battery operated red & blue cars on
table or floor surface set up with motion detector – 1D2
a. Predict graph/slope
b. Graph on the Logger Pro

4. Do a trip (move away from motion detector at constant rate. Stop. Move
forward toward detector at a faster constant rate.)
a. Predict graph/slope
b. Compare slopes

Application Activities (Consensus):

3. Bottle Activity Student Comparison of thinner and thicker bottles
a. Students will predict graph/slope
b. Do the experiment to make the two graphs to compare the slopes.
Measure in small increments.
c. Discuss results
4. Student Enrichment Activity

Sources:

Constructing Physics Understanding (CPU) www.cpucips.sdsu.edu
Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE)
www.dese.state.mo.us
Activity E:

Constructing Bottle Graph

1. Imagine taking a thin tall bottle called a graduated
cylinder and filling it with different amounts of
water. Make a line graph with the height of the
water level on the vertical axis and the volume of
water in the container on the horizontal axis. (If you
need help with remembering what a line graph looks
like, click to Kids Graphing.)
1. Draw that you think the graph would look like.
1. What scale will you use on the vertical axis that
measures the height of the water in centimeters?
2. What scale will you use for the horizontal axis that
measures the volume of the water in millimeters?
3. What will the the graph look like at the beginning of the
graph?

different ideas that were used to help set up your graph.
3. Using the same information you used for the
cylinder, make a similar line graph, except imagine
what the graph will look like using a short, fat
container like a beaker.

4. Testing the predictions

•   Materials: a graduated cylinder, a beaker, a ruler for measuring

height, a second graduated cylinder for measuring volume of water,

and table to record information.

Experiment:

1. Add small measured amounts of water to the container.
2. Measure the height of the water in the container.

3. Record the data on the table below each time you add more

water (volume) to the container.

Total amount        Measured       Measured        Height Change
of water in        amount of     heights of

(Volume)                         (Height)
O ml (no water)
5. Graph the Height of the Water on the vertical axis versus the Volume
of Water in the Container on the horizontal axis.

6. In the class discuss your graph and ideas with others. Summarize the
important issues, ideas, and questions you have about these graphs and
what they show.
F & M Activity 1-D1: Can You Represent Motion With Graphs?

Materials: Logger Pro, Motion Detector, meter sticks, masking tape, small
white board

Prediction.

Predict what the time-distance graph would look like if a person walks slowly
at a constant speed away from the motion detector for three seconds
followed by standing still for two seconds. Use a thin blue line to sketch
graph lines on your graph handout. Now predict what the time-distance
graph would look like if a person walks faster at a constant speed away from
the motion detector for three seconds followed by standing still for two
seconds. Use a thin red line for this prediction. Add the word “Prediction”

Walk away from the motion detector slowly at a constant speed for three
seconds. Then stand still for two seconds. (Teacher will help you set up
a snapshot. (Teacher will have Logger Pro opened to Act I-D1 MBL). Hint:
Walk with small steps walking backwards with the white board in front of
you.

Walk away from the motion detector faster at a constant speed for three
seconds. Then stand still for two seconds. (Teacher will help you set up
a snapshot. (Teacher will have Logger Pro opened to CPU Act I-D1 MBL).
Hint: Walk with small steps walking backwards with the white board in front
of you.

Sketch your results from the Logger Pro onto your Prediction Graph using
thicker lines (markers). Label your legend with the correct information.

Summarize what you have learned.

Did you predict the graph correctly? If not, what needed changing?

How can you tell from a distance-time graph whether or not an object is
moving at a constant speed?

How can you tell from a distance-time graph when an object is moving and
when it is standing still?

How can you tell from the distance-time graphs showing different objects
moving at different constant speeds, which object was moving the fastest
and which object was moving the slowest?
F & M Activity 1-D2: Representing Faster and Slower Motions

Materials: Lab Pro, Motion Detector, Red toy car, Blue toy car

The cars are different colors. The RED car goes faster than the BLUE car.

Prediction.

Predict what the graph would look like by using two different colored pencils
(RED, BLUE). Sketch graph lines on the chart below. Add labels to indicate
which line represents a faster car and which represents a slower car. Add

take data on its motion. Save your Data and take a snapshot. (CPU Act I-D1
MBL)

Get the other color car. Take the same data.

When you have two good graphs compare it to your prediction. Sketch the
observed graphs in the color to match your car but with thicker lines
(markers) and label them “Observation “.

Summarize what you have learned.

Did you predict the graph correctly? If not, what needed changing?

How does a position-time graph indicate different speeds?
Name: _____________________________________

4

3
Distance (m)

2

1

0
0   1   2    3     4      5         6   7   8     9
Time (seconds)

Thin Blue Line
Thin Red Line
Thick Blue Line
Thick Red Line
4

3
Distance (m)

2

1

0
0   1   2    3      4      5     6    7   8   9
Time (seconds)

F&M Activity I-D2
Strobe Diagrams

Prediction: Students complete the Oil Drop Worksheet in their groups. Students
discuss and predict the motion of a car, with an oil leak, by examining the oil
traces left behind.

Students sketch their predictions in graph form.

Materials: One-liter bottles (empty water or soda bottles), straight pins, water
source, butcher paper

Logistics: Locate an area where students will be able to walk a straight distance
of about 30 feet. Possibilities include outside, the gym, a corridor. Students
should work in teams of four students each.

Procedure: Each team should do the following: Fill liter bottle about halfway.
Spread butcher paper along the ground or floor. Pinprick the bottle once.

One student walks slowly at a constant speed. Next, another student walks
quickly at a constant speed. Then, a third student walks at an increasing rate.
Finally, a fourth starts out quickly and decreases speed.

Students record results in their Idea Journals. Students discuss results of
experiment and compare with Oil Drop Worksheet predictions.

Teachers, please refer to CPU F&M Activity I-D2 for full directions on use of the
simulator to demonstrate strobe diagrams at constant speed, twice as fast,
and half as fast. Student worksheets have been modified. Students need to
use the CPU Act I-D2 Sim 1 simulation to complete the worksheet.
Name_________________________

Oil Drop Worksheet

Imagine a car that leaks oil at a regular rate. As the car travels
through town, it would leave spots of oil on the street. These
“spots” would tell us information about the motion of the car.
Andre’s car is leaking oil. It leaves a trail of his motion wherever
he goes. Analyze the three trails of Andre’s trips as shown
below. Assume that Andre is traveling left to right. Describe
Andre’s motion during each section on the diagram below.
(Pattern of dots)

1. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
●

2. ●               ●        ●         ●        ●         ●
●
3.
●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●

Name: ________________________
OIL DROP WORKSHEET
Prediction Graphs

1.

2.

3.
F&M Activity I-D2
Worksheet for Students

1. Predict how you could tell from the strobe diagram that an object is
moving at a constant speed.

______________________________________________________________

2. If the launcher pushes the ball so that the ball moves twice as fast, what
will the strobe pattern look like? Sketch the pattern of dots. Explain how
you decided.

Sketch prediction:

Explanation:

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

3. Now, suppose the launcher pushes the ball so that the ball moves half as
fast. Sketch the pattern of dots. Explain how you decided.

Sketch prediction:

Explanation:
3. Use the simulator. How do the diagrams compare?

Sketch results at constant speed:

Explanation:

Sketch results at twice as fast:

Explanation:

Sketch results of half as fast:

Explanation:

Return to simulator. How did the length of the three speed arrows compare to
each other?
F&M Activity I – A1
Motion Challenge
Prediction:

1. The graph below is an idealized distance-time graph. Predict how you should move across the
floor to come as close as possible to reproducing the idealized motion represented in this graph.
Write down your prediction for how you should move in the space below the graph.

Write here.

2. Practice the motion using meter sticks and watches until you think you can perform the motion
well. (Do not use the motion detector for this.)

data and try to duplicate the motion represented on the graphs. Repeat a few times if necessary.
Take a snapshot of your best effort. Print out graph.
determine what differences are due to mistakes and what differences are due to the
difference between real motion and idealized motion.
Application Activities
Consensus

Materials: Over time students should collect and bring to school various bottles.
Bottles must have straight sides, but should have various diameters. Suggested
bottles include pickle jars, peanut butter jars, olive jars, cherry jars, etc. Other
materials needed include: rulers for measuring height, graduated cylinders for
measuring volume, and a table for recording results.

Logistics: Students work in teams of four students each. Each team should
have two bottles to work with. Bottles should vary in height and diameter.

Prediction: Students should sketch prediction graphs on a coordinate plane.
The horizontal axis should record the volume in milliliters, and the vertical axis
will record height in centimeters corresponding to the volume.

Procedure: Students complete the experiment by adding small measured
amounts of water to one bottle. Students measure the height of water in the
bottle. Students record the data on the first table each time more water is added.
Students repeat the procedure for the second bottle. Students record the data
on the second table.

Students graph the results and compare experimental results with their
predicitons.

Discussion: Discuss slope. Slope shows change over time. As the volume of
water increased the height increased. The resulting graph is a line, so we call
the graph of the line linear. The diameter of the container determines the
steepness of the slope. Wider bottles will have less steep slope and thinner
bottles will have a steeper slow. Relate this activity to constant speed, twice as
fast, and half as fast. At a faster constant speed the slope is steeper. At a
slower constant speed the slope is less steep. Match strobe diagrams for
constant speed, twice as fast, and half as fast to their corresponding linear
graphs.

Enrichment Activity: Students may use the web site: http://www.crocodile-
clips.com/absorb/AP5/sample/010103.html
First Bottle
Second Bottle

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