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Theories of Play

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					Theories of Play
             Aims/Objectives

•   Describe the continuum of physical activity
•   Define the term „Play‟
•   Discuss the objectives of „Play‟
•   Identify the difference between Child and
    Adult „Play‟
The Physical Activity Continuum
Least                  Organised                    Most

Play
        Recreation
                     Leisure
                            Physical Education
                                     Outdoor Education
                                                    Sport
               Classical Theories


•   Surplus Energy        Concentration on
•   Preparation           instinctive nature and
•   Recapitulation        therefore only reflect
                          certain aspects of play
•   Relaxation            behaviour
         J Huizinga                     Piaget

•   Creative                  •   An end in itself
•   Stepping out of reality   •   Spontaneous
•   Uncertain                 •   Pleasurable
•   Has rules                 •   Devoid of organised
•   Social                        structure

                              • Assimilation
                              • Accomodation
                    Callois

•   Agnon – competition
•   Alea – chance
•   Mimicry – role taking
•   Ilynx – vertigo

• Padia – fun is the key element
• Ludus – when activities are more organised
    Place the following activities into the table :

 dice, children dressing up, fun fair rides ( max drop, roller
coasters ),national lottery, tag, merry go rounds, doctors and
                       nurses and chess

            Agnon        Alea         Mimicry Ilynx
Padia       Tag          Dice     children          merry go
                                  dressing          rounds
                                  up
Ludus       Chess        National doctors           fun fair
                         lottery  and               rides
                                  nurses
                      Ellis

•   Generalisation or Compensation
•   Catharsis
•   Psychoanalytic
•   Developmental
•   Ritualised- reinforce social traditions
                     Ellis
Integration of three theories :-

• Learning
• Developmental
• Arousal – Seeking Behaviour
“Play is activity – mental, physical or active. Play is
undertaken freely and is usually spontaneous. It s fun,
purposeless, self initiated and often extremely serious. Play
is indulged in for its own sake; it has intrinsic value; there
is innate satisfaction in the doing. Play transports the
player, as it were, to a world outside his/her normal world.
It can heighten arousal. IT can be vivid, colourful, creative
and innovative. Because the player shrugs off inhibitions
and is lost in the play, it seems to be much harder for
adults, with social and personal inhibitions to really play”
                                                  G.Tolkildsen
                    Homework / IL

Play and leisure seem to be necessary for the
    development of
human beings as individuals.
a Both children and adults may engage in play activities
i A group of children are playing hide and seek.How
    does an
activity like this display the characteristics of play?
(3 marks)
ii In terms of need how does adult play differ from child
    ’s play?
(2 marks)
             Aims/Objectives

•   Describe the continuum of physical activity
•   Define the term „Play‟
•   Discuss the objectives of „Play‟
•   Identify the difference between Child and
    Adult „Play‟

				
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