The World Wide Web

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					The World Wide Web
Outline
   Brief History
   7 Perceived Environments
   Technology Push
   Market Pull
   Type of Innovation
Brief History
   1945 Vannevar Bush’s Memex: first hypertext concept
   1960s Doug Englebart hypertext browsing and editing,
    invents mouse for this purpose; Ted Nelson coins the
    word “hypertext”, went on to develop Xanadu
   1980 Tim Berner-Lee at CERN (European Organization
    for Nuclear Research): program called ENQUIRE
   1990 Tim Berner-Lee works on hypertext GUI
    browser+editor, calls it “worldwideweb”
   First web server: nxoc01.cern.ch
   First web page:
    http://nxoc01.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html
Tim BL’s WorldWideWeb program
Growth the of WWW
   1991 CERN seminar on WWW
   1992 CERN releases “line mode” browser as
    freeware; followed by Erwise, Viola and Mida
   1993 Marc Andreessen develops Mosaic, releases
    free versions for mac and windows
   1993 CERN makes WWW technology freely
    available to anyone
   Later: growth in academia, industry and
    consumer market
                       WWW Growth
         100000000

          10000000

          1000000
number




           100000
                                        number of
            10000                       domains (com,
             1000                       org, co.uk etc)
                                        number of
              100
                                        websites
               10

                1

                1992   1994   1996     1998      2000
                                year
Designer’s Perceived
Environments
1. Intrapsychic environment
 Tim BL combines the idea of hypertext and
    computer networks
 Motivation at CERN: to share information more
    efficiently
 In 80s: many types of incompatible computer
    systems, document formats etc; different
    information had to be access in different ways
2. Construction/Manufacturing Environment
 Hardware: The Internet already existed
 Software: Backing from CERN to produce first
   browser and WWW standards: HTML, HTTP,
   and URL
3. Adoption Environment
 “The first three years were a phase of persuasion
   to get the web adopted” Tim BL
 CERN held seminar on the WWW in 1991
 Released “line mode” browser: platform
   independent freeware
 Made the WWW technology freely available to
   anyone
4. Use Environment
 The “line mode” browser did not have good
    usability
 CERN did not have resources to develop the
    browser, therefore encouraged other parties to
    work on this
 Andreessen’s Mosaic browser: first browser with
    good usability
5. Failure Environment
 An important part of Software Eng
 Recovery from failure part of the HTTP protocol
 The Internet and the TCP/IP protocol were
    already established technologies
6. Scrapping Environment
 Hardware: Will the Internet be dismantled?
 Software: Part of W3C’s role is to maintain the
    WWW technology

7. Political/Ecological Environment
 Political barrier in China/North Korea due to
    “freedom of speech” problem, but not in the west.
 Danger of misuse: supporting criminal or terrorist
    activities
Technology Push
   Charm: WWW idea never been implemented
    before, a much more powerful tool for
    information sharing than existing solutions.
   Feasibility: had backing from CERN, the internet
    already existed, designing the technology (HTTP,
    HTML) may have been difficult, but once
    designed, manufacturing is not an issue
   Belief market exists: market already existed at
    CERN, maybe less belief for world market.
Market Pull
   CERN’s efforts to generate market pull by
    spreading the word and make the technology free
   Market pull low at the beginning but has been
    increasing since
   From academia
   From consumer market
   From e-commerce
   Due to various reasons
Type of Innovation
   The initial WWW: A Knight’s move?
   Had precursors in hypertext and computer
    networks, but combining the two is a wholly new
    idea
   Had the backing from CERN
   Still needed other parties to take it further
   However, the increase in bandwidth that allowed
    for dynamic content, music and animation to be
    incorporated, may be considered passing over of
    quantity into quality?
Conclusion
   Initial Technology push, and subsequent
    increased market pull contributed to the success
    of the WWW.
   Evolved from simple document pages to richer
    GUI environment offering many uses, but what
    about its future?
   Ubiquitous/pervasive computing the next step?
   Will the WWW end? be replaced by a knight’s
    move?

				
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