The World Wide Web Outline Brief History 7 Perceived Environments Technology Push Market Pull Type of Innovation Brief History 1945 Vannevar Bush’s Memex: first hypertext concept 1960s Doug Englebart hypertext browsing and editing, invents mouse for this purpose; Ted Nelson coins the word “hypertext”, went on to develop Xanadu 1980 Tim Berner-Lee at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research): program called ENQUIRE 1990 Tim Berner-Lee works on hypertext GUI browser+editor, calls it “worldwideweb” First web server: nxoc01.cern.ch First web page: http://nxoc01.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html Tim BL’s WorldWideWeb program Growth the of WWW 1991 CERN seminar on WWW 1992 CERN releases “line mode” browser as freeware; followed by Erwise, Viola and Mida 1993 Marc Andreessen develops Mosaic, releases free versions for mac and windows 1993 CERN makes WWW technology freely available to anyone Later: growth in academia, industry and consumer market WWW Growth 100000000 10000000 1000000 number 100000 number of 10000 domains (com, 1000 org, co.uk etc) number of 100 websites 10 1 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 year Designer’s Perceived Environments 1. Intrapsychic environment Tim BL combines the idea of hypertext and computer networks Motivation at CERN: to share information more efficiently In 80s: many types of incompatible computer systems, document formats etc; different information had to be access in different ways 2. Construction/Manufacturing Environment Hardware: The Internet already existed Software: Backing from CERN to produce first browser and WWW standards: HTML, HTTP, and URL 3. Adoption Environment “The first three years were a phase of persuasion to get the web adopted” Tim BL CERN held seminar on the WWW in 1991 Released “line mode” browser: platform independent freeware Made the WWW technology freely available to anyone 4. Use Environment The “line mode” browser did not have good usability CERN did not have resources to develop the browser, therefore encouraged other parties to work on this Andreessen’s Mosaic browser: first browser with good usability 5. Failure Environment An important part of Software Eng Recovery from failure part of the HTTP protocol The Internet and the TCP/IP protocol were already established technologies 6. Scrapping Environment Hardware: Will the Internet be dismantled? Software: Part of W3C’s role is to maintain the WWW technology 7. Political/Ecological Environment Political barrier in China/North Korea due to “freedom of speech” problem, but not in the west. Danger of misuse: supporting criminal or terrorist activities Technology Push Charm: WWW idea never been implemented before, a much more powerful tool for information sharing than existing solutions. Feasibility: had backing from CERN, the internet already existed, designing the technology (HTTP, HTML) may have been difficult, but once designed, manufacturing is not an issue Belief market exists: market already existed at CERN, maybe less belief for world market. Market Pull CERN’s efforts to generate market pull by spreading the word and make the technology free Market pull low at the beginning but has been increasing since From academia From consumer market From e-commerce Due to various reasons Type of Innovation The initial WWW: A Knight’s move? Had precursors in hypertext and computer networks, but combining the two is a wholly new idea Had the backing from CERN Still needed other parties to take it further However, the increase in bandwidth that allowed for dynamic content, music and animation to be incorporated, may be considered passing over of quantity into quality? Conclusion Initial Technology push, and subsequent increased market pull contributed to the success of the WWW. Evolved from simple document pages to richer GUI environment offering many uses, but what about its future? Ubiquitous/pervasive computing the next step? Will the WWW end? be replaced by a knight’s move?