PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
KEY : Present Perfect Tense is used to express something happened and started in the past
time and extends to the present time. This includes actual fact or in the mind of speaker. In
other words, this could happen or never happened at an unspesified time in the past.
(The exact time it happened is not important. see Betty Schrampfer Azar, p.29, 1989)
Study this following illustration!
From the illustration above, we find that time when the event or activity or imagination (in
the speakers' mind) happened in the past with unspesified time mentioned. When the event
extends in the present, the event still exists but does not know when it stops.
We have lived in the town since 1999.
The word /since/ just represents the year, but we can't find what date, what month, what
time it happens. To express the sentence which contains Present Perfect pattern, we can use
the time signal.
so far (=Sejauh ini)
up to now (=Hingga saat ini)
up to the present (=Hingga saat ini)
often (=Sering, sering kali)
never (=Tidak pernah)
always (=Selalu, senantiasa)
just (=Baru saja)
already or yet
recently or lately
Now let's study the present perfect structure!
(+) Subject + Have/Has + Past Participle
(-) Subject + Have/Has + Not + Past Participle
(?) Have/Has + Subject + Past Participle ?
Take notice that :
1. Have or has, here, is an auxilliary which is only used in perfect tense (either in past or
progressive. see Past perfect and present/past perfect progressive tense).
2. Place /not/ behind the auxilliary to make a negative sentence and place in the beginning
of the sentence to make an interrogative sentence.
3. Contraction of Have or Has. Take notice that /have/ is used for the subjects /I/, /You/,
/We/, or /They/ and /Has/ is for subjects /He/, /She/, or /It/.
In Positive :
In Negative :
Have + not ---> haven't
Has + Not ---> hasn't
4. Use /been/ instead of Past participle to make a nominal Present Perfect Pattern.
(+) Subject + Have/has + been + Complement
(-) Subject + Have/has + Not + been + Complement
(?) Have/has + Subject + been + Complement ?
Remember that /Complement/ must be in Non Verb Form (So, It may be pronoun, phrase,
adverb (Time or place), and noun)
5. Use or not use /already/ before the past participle or /been/ only in Positive Sentence and
/yet/ for negative or interrogative sentence.
6. The difference between /Since/ and /For/.
Since (A particular time)
For (A duration of time)
REPETITION OF PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Present perfect also expresses the repetition of an activity before now. Remember that the
exact time is not important. (Betty S.Azar, p.29, 1989).
I have met many people since I came here in June.
KEY : Passive form of Present Perfect is like a Nominal Present Perfect Pattern. Past
participle must be placed after the /been/ instead of /complement/.
Nominal Pattern : I have been here for two months.
Passive Form : I have been Taught an English Lessons for two months.
Remember that the passive Present Perfect is not a nominal sentence but Verbal because
this pattern uses Past Participle to be built. Here, The combination between be-perfect
(been) and Past Participle builds a passive form. (See Core-elements …..)
So, the formula would be like this below!
Been + Past Participle.