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SOLAR AFF CASE INDEX by dla17169

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									Solar PVC AFF CASE


SOLAR AFF CASE INDEX

1ST AFFIRMATIVE CONSTRUCTIVE…..            1–8

DON’T RECEIVE ENOUGH ATTENTION…..          9

INCENTIVES ARE KEY TO GROWTH….             10

PVC = SOLVENCY….                           11

F.F. HURT THE ENVIRONMENT…..               12

ANSWER TO – NO ELECTRICAL GRID NOW…..      13




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1AC

OBSERVATION 1 – Harms

A. Fossil Fuel use will increase
Daniel Ben-Ami, Editor of Fund Strategy, “fossil fuels vital to future development” Sept
8, 2008 page http://www.fundstrategy.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=172433

Few seem willing to put the case that fossil fuel has brought enormous benefits to
humanity and, if allowed, is likely to continue to do so. It is a relatively cheap and highly
flexible form of energy. That is why the International Energy Agency estimates it is
likely to account for 84% of the overall increase in energy demand from 2005-2030.

B. Fossil Fuel use destroys our environment
Union of Concerned Scientists, “the hidden cost of fossil fuels” last updated Oct 29, 2002
page http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-hidden-
cost-of-fossil.html

Environmental Impacts of Fossil Fuel Use
Many of the environmental problems our country faces today result from our fossil fuel
dependence. These impacts include global warming, air quality deterioration, oil spills,
and acid rain.


C. Fossil Fuel use destroys human health
Paul Wilkinsn, Dr. and Kirk Smith Professor and Michael Joffe PHD, and Andrew
Haines, Professor, The Lancet “a global perspective on energy health effects and
injustices” page lexus

The exploitation of fossil fuels is integral to modern living and has been a key element of
the rapid technological, social, and cultural changes of the past 250 years. Although such
changes have brought undeniable benefits, this exploitation has contributed to a burden of
illness through pollution of local and regional environments, and is the dominant cause of
climate change. This pattern of development is therefore unsustainable at a global level.




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Observation 2 – Inherency

A. The Coal and Nuclear Lobby are preventing Solar Energy
New York Times, Andrew Revkin and Matthew Wald, “solar power wins enthusiasts but
not money” July 16, 2007 page
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/16/business/16solar.html

In the battle for money from Washington, solar lobbyists say they are outgunned by their
counterparts representing coal, corn and the atom.“Coal and nuclear count their lobbying
budgets in the tens of millions,” said Rhone Resch, president of the Solar Energy
Industries Association. “We count ours in the tens of thousands.”Government spending
on energy research has long been shaped by political constituencies.

B. Solar Energy is going to lose its incentives
Marketwatch wire, a division of the wall street journal, “time is now to extend renewable
enrgy tax credits, says SPIE” Sept 9, 2008 page
http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/time-now-extend-renewable-
energy/story.aspx?guid={F9DF50E1-17C9-47B2-AAE7-E1F521FEEE32}&dist=hppr

A standoff between Democrats and Republicans in Congress has prevented the renewal
of tax credits for alternative energy that experts say are critical to the wide adoption of
solar and wind energy in the United States. As the December 31 expiration of the credits
looms closer, it is important that Congress act quickly to end industry uncertainty,
according to SPIE and its members.
Renewable energy industries, including solar photovoltaic companies, totaled nearly $40
billion in gross revenues in 2006 and were responsible for more than 450,000 direct and
indirect jobs, according to the American Society for Solar Energy.
"Without assurance of the tax credits, progress toward energy independence and cost
efficiency enabled by recent advances could be drastically delayed," said SPIE CEO
Eugene Arthurs. "The U.S. will not be in a position to benefit from recent technology
breakthroughs and ongoing research."

C. Solar Energy doesn’t receive enough attention
New York Times, Andrew Revkin and Matthew Wald, “solar power wins enthusiasts but
not money” July 16, 2007 page
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/16/business/16solar.html

Yet research on solar power and methods for storing intermittent energy has long
received less spending, both in the United States and in other industrialized countries,
than energy options with more political support.

Indeed, there are few major programs looking for ways to drastically reduce the cost of
converting sunlight to energy and — of equal if not more importance — of efficiently
storing it for when the sun is not shining.




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D. Solar Energy needs incentives to be cheaper than fossil fuels
 Michael Vickerman, RENEW Wisconsin member, “an open letter to congress” July 10,
2008 page http://renewenergyblog.wordpress.com/2008/07/10/congress-must-extend-
renewable-energy-tax-incentives/

As you very well know, federal tax credits have been the principal policy tool for
accelerating renewable energy development in this country. Right now, most renewable
energy technologies are more expensive than fossil fuels, but the federal incentives level
the economic playing field, providing breathing room for solar, wind and biogas to
mature and become cost-competitive with more established energy resources.




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PLAN

Plan Plank 1 – Mandates

       A. The United States Federal Government will create a Production Tax Credit for
       the use of Solar Photovoltaic Cells

       B. The Tax Credit will be of an amount that makes Solar Energy equal to the
       price of fossil fuel energy use

Plan Plank 2 – Administration and Enforcement

       -   The department of the treasury will oversee the monetary policy

Plan Plank 3 – Funding

       -   The plan will be funded through normal means – this is the normal way that
           our government receives money

Plan Plank 4 – Intent

       -   We reserve the right to clarify our meaning and intention in running this case




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Observation 2 – Solvency

A. Solar Voltaic Cells will decrease pollution
Congressman Jay Inslee, Living on Earth interview transcript by Mr. Curwood, “peering
into the platform” air date August 29, 2008

I've been waiting now for at least half a decade for democrats to lead the country to an
optimistic energy future based on clean energy and I think the moment has arrived. The
planets have just aligned perfectly where the technology for the new clean energy from
solar to thermal to photovoltaic to enhanced geo thermal, they've all arrived. The science
of global warming is absolute consensus and clear as a bell.

B. Tax Incentives are key to increasing Solar Energy
Market Watch news wire, “time is now to extend renewable energy tax credits, says
SPIE, Marketwatch is part of the Wall Street Journal Digital network, Sept 9, 2008 page
http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/time-now-extend-renewable-
energy/story.aspx?guid={F9DF50E1-17C9-47B2-AAE7-E1F521FEEE32}&dist=hppr

"Photovoltaic electricity is on the cusp of reaching grid parity, becoming competitive
with petroleum, natural gas, and coal-fired utilities," said Ravi Durvasula, Director of
Optical Engineering at Lightfleet Corporation. "Extending renewable energy tax
incentives at this critical juncture will undoubtedly hasten the technical progress and thus
shorten the timelines needed for reaching the tipping point." Durvasula was Symposium
Chair of SPIE's Solar Energy conferences at its 2008 Optics and Photonics event.
"Solar photovoltaic and other renewable energy technologies have advanced rapidly in
the U.S. over the past few years," said Robert J. Phillippy, President and CEO of
Newport Corporation, a Corporate Member of SPIE. "Extension of the renewable energy
tax credits will enable development of more cost-effective and efficient sources of
renewable energy to continue at this rapid pace. This will provide significant and
sustainable benefits to our environment and our economy."

C. Solar Energy can meet all of our energy needs
New York Times, Andrew Revkin and Matthew Wald, “solar power wins enthusiasts but
not money” July 16, 2007 page
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/16/business/16solar.html

Scientists long ago calculated that an hour’s worth of the sunlight bathing the planet held
far more energy than humans worldwide could use in a year, and the first practical
devices for converting light to electricity were designed more than half a century ago.




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D. Americans want solar energy
Mongabay Newsletter, “94% of Americans support solar energy development” June 11,
2008 page http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0611-solar.html


94 percent of Americans say it's important for the U.S. to develop and use solar
energy, according to a new poll that found support for solar power runs across the
political spectrum.




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Advantage 1 – Biodiversity

A. Fossil Fuel use harms biodiversity

Australian Brocasting Corporation, “humans causing new extinction event: academic,
April 1, 2008 page lexus

An Australian National University scientist says the planet is losing species at a similar
rate to the period when the dinosaurs were wiped out.

Will Steffen from the Fenner School of Environment says the planet is in the midst of a
new geological age, the Anthropocene, in which humans are causing mass species
extinction.

He says the era began with the industrial revolution and accelerated in the 1950s as
humans began burning more fossil fuels and consuming more resources.

Professor Steffen says the current levels of species extinction are at least a hundred times
greater than natural loss rates.

B. Biodiversity is key to the food chain and human life
The Irish Times, “sixth extinction now well under way on the planet” March 28, 2008
page lexus-nexus

Though you wouldn't think it by looking out the window, or even flicking through the
newspapers or TV channels, the sixth extinction is in full swing right now. And that's
official. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF): "The world is currently
undergoing a very rapid loss of biodiversity comparable with the great mass extinction
events that have previously occurred only five or six times in the Earth's history." The
WWF's Living Planet Index measures trends in the Earth's biological diversity and
between 1970 and 2003, the index fell by some 30 per cent. "This global trend suggests
we are degrading natural ecosystems at a rate unprecedented in human history," says the
WWF. This analysis is supported by the United Nations Environment Programme, which
adds: "The effects of human activities on biodiversity have increased so greatly that the
rate of species extinctions is rising to hundreds or thousands of times the background
level." Life on Earth is astonishingly diverse. About 1.5 million species have so far been
catalogued, but that is probably barely 10 per cent of the actual number of species on the
planet. Tens of thousands of species are now going extinct - in many cases, even before
we've had the chance to identify or name them. The web of life is unravelling, right
before our eyes, in real time. How can this be happening? What's driving it? And can it
be reversed? While estimates vary, it's likely that upwards of 50,000 species went extinct
in 2007. To put it another way, an entire species disappeared every six minutes last year.




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C. Green technology, like solar energy, helps prevent biodiversity loss
Stephen Kotkin, New York Times, “off the shelf – a call to action, for earth and profit”
Sept 6, 2008 page
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/business/07shelf.html?ref=business

Lacerating the ubiquitous, feel-good, magaziney “205 easy ways to save the earth,” Mr.
Friedman, a columnist for The New York Times, exhorts sacrifice to stem rapidly
accelerating biodiversity loss. He wants a green revolution as part of nothing less than
“nation building” in America.

He also says that renewable energy driven by technology plays to American strengths:
great laboratories and entrepreneurs, a start-up culture of risk and reward. If the United
States gets serious, it will dominate, creating not just jobs but also whole new industries.




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                              Fossil fuel hurts Environment

1.) Fossil Fuels cause massive environmental damage
Domain-b, “hydrogen fuel gets going with road tour” August 14, 2008 page
http://www.domain-b.com/automotive/features/20080814_hydrogen_fuel.html

Currently, non renewable fossil fuels make up the bulk of the world's primary energy
sources. With global demand for energy increasing, there is a dearth in the supply of
fossil fuels, with resources getting exhausted. The result is soaring crude oil prices,
inducing a plunge in global stock markets,which is leading to inflation.

Fossil fuels are also a major source of carbon emissions leading to environmental
pollution. Recent studies indicate that the concentration of CO2, the most prevalent
greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, is now at its peak with approximately 1,000 tonnes of
the gas being released into the Earth's atmosphere every second.

Carbon-related pollution occurs primarily due to burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and
other human activities.




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                                  Not enough Attention

1) Solar receives much less attention than other fuels
New York Times, Andrew Revkin and Matthew Wald, “solar power wins enthusiasts but
not money” July 16, 2007 page
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/16/business/16solar.html

For decades, conventional nuclear power and nuclear fusion received dominant shares of
government energy-research money. While venture capitalists often support the
commercialization of new technologies, basic research money comes almost entirely
from the federal government.

These days, a growing amount of government money is headed to the farm-state favorite,
biofuels, and to research on burning coal while capturing the resulting carbon dioxide, the
main heat-trapping smokestack gas.

In the current fiscal year, the Energy Department plans to spend $159 million on solar
research and development. It will spend nearly double, $303 million, on nuclear energy
research and development, and nearly triple, $427 million, on coal, as well as $167
million on other fossil fuel research and development.

2) Government support is not strong enough
Same Cite as above

For the moment, the strongest government support for solar power is coming from the
states, not Washington. But there, too, the focus remains on stimulating markets, not
laboratory research.

The federal government is proposing more spending on solar research now, but not
enough to set off a large, sustained energy quest, many experts say.




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                                 Incentives key to growth

1. Lack of credits is destroying the US Solar industry
US news and world report, Kent Garber, “congress blows hot and cold over tax breaks
for wind energy” July 28, 2008

The solar industry, which gets a 30 percent credit on new investments, is in the midst of a
similar shake-up. Some large-scale developers have tabled projects as they await
Congress's decision, while smaller operations are scrambling to get solar installations up
and running by December. "With solar, we can put things in place a little more quickly,
so you are seeing a tremendous jump in solar installations right now," says Gilbert
Metcalf, a professor of economics at Tufts University and noted tax policy expert. "It is
driving up the cost of solar panels and installations."

If the credits are not renewed, he warns, the solar market could collapse, and solar-
technology firms may have to lay off workers. "It will retard the progress we are
making," he says.




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                                 A/T – No Electrical Grid

1. Solar can be adapted easily to “the grid”
Chris Dudley, March 06, 2008, Solar Power Helps the Environment Energy Grid and
Economy, http://www.mdsolarpower.com/whysolarout.pdf)

The Energy Grid – PV has an elegant design which allows it to be scaled and placed
directly where power is consumed, or where the energy grid needs to shoreup capacity
and energy for evolving demand. It is mobile and can be relocated with ease. In addition,
it does not need to transport or use combustible fuels from divergent regions of the world;
it uses a natural, abundant and free fuel source – the Sun. Because of this it can guarantee
energy at times when demand is at its peak – seasonal and cyclical variations are well
matched. All of this makes photovoltaics a sensible and secure candidate for enabling
energy assurance. The grid can be designed to be redundant with a fixed energy price, as
opposed to the shaky centralized infrastructure that is dependent upon unreliable fuel
sources and is open to disruption from disasters either natural or manmade. Just consider
how differently we would respond to a hurricane if every fourth house had enough power
for a refrigerator and some tools. People could get right to work on recovery and not wait
on ice. Medicines and food would not spoil. When the grid is gone, solar can save the
day.




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                                   PVC = SOLVENCY

1. PV Cells are the best energy source to replace our old
Miguel Mendonca 2007, Researcher-World Future Council, “Feed-in-Tariffs:
accelerating the deployment of renewable energy”, p. xi, books.google.com

In my of country wind power has been making particularly rapid progress on the back of
this legislation, but I would argue that Phototoltaics (PV) is ultimately the most
promising of all energy technologies, giving us the best option to overcome global energy
crises. Currently, It only generates a small proportion of total renewable energy supply,
much less than wind, hydropower or biomass. Photovoltaic energy could soon become
the 'prima donna’ of renewable energy technologies. Solar energy radiation is the only
primary source directly exploitable at every place on Earth. It therefore offers everyone
free access to energy and, moreover, to electricity, that most modern and multifaceted
form of energy services. Thus PV has the potential to facilitate energy freedom for
everybody - free from discrimination, artificial national borders and administrative
hurdles, and free from dependency on energy monopolies. It bears by far the biggest
potential - larger than that of all other renewable energy sources, larger than anything to
which fossil fuels and nuclear power could ever aspire.




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                            Solar Good for Environment




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