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Cyber-Physical Systems

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					                                  CS 851: Seminar
                           Cyber-Physical Systems
                                 Professor John A. Stankovic
                              Department of Computer Science
                                          Spring 2009


Course Description
As computers and communication bandwidth become ever-faster and ever-cheaper, computing
and communication capabilities will be embedded in all types of objects and structures in the
physical environment. Applications with enormous societal impact and economic benefit will be
created by harnessing these capabilities in time and across space. We refer to systems that bridge
the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world as cyber-physical
systems. Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are physical and engineered systems whose operations
are monitored, coordinated, controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core.
This intimate coupling between the cyber and physical will be manifested from the nano-world to
large-scale wide-area systems of systems. The internet transformed how humans interact and
communicate with one another, revolutionized how and where information is accessed, and even
changed how people buy and sell in the marketplace. Similarly, CPSs will transform how
humans interact with and control the physical world around us.
Examples of CPSs include medical devices and systems, aerospace systems, transportation
vehicles and intelligent highways, defense systems, robotic systems, process control, factory
automation, building and environmental control and smart spaces. Since CPSs interact with the
physical world, they must operate dependably, safely, securely, efficiently and in real-time.
Building effective CPSs of the future require multi-disciplinary skills. In particular, the
confluence of real-time computing, wireless sensor networks, control theory, signal processing
and embedded systems are required to create these new systems. This seminar will cover some
basic material from these areas, but focus on advanced research papers related to CPS.


Prerequisites
Graduate standing. Background in operating systems and computer networking is necessary. It
would be helpful to also have a background in wireless sensor systems.


Grading
Reading Summaries:              10%
Paper presentation(s):          30%
Discussions:                    20%
Final Project:                  40%
Course Topics
  1. Introduction – What is CPS?
         a. Cyber Physical Systems: Design Challenges, Edward Lee. Technical Report No.
            UCB/EECS-2008-8.
         b. When Sensor and Actuator Networks Cover the World, John A. Stankovic. ETRI
            Journal, Volume 30, No. 5, Oct. 2008
         c. Extra: Opportunities and Obligations for Physical Computing Systems, J.
            Stankovic, I. Lee, A. Mok, R. Rajkumar. IEEE Computer, Nov. 2005
  2. Applications and Systems
         a. Nericell: Rich Monitoring of Road and Traffic Conditions using Mobile
            Smartphones. P. Mohan, V. Padmanabhan, R. Ramjee, Proceedings of SenSys
            ’08, Nov. 2008.
         b. Sensing Meets Mobile Social Networks; The Design, Implementation and
            Evaluation of the CanceMe Application. E. Miluzzo, N. Lane, K. Fodor, R.
            Peterson, H. Lu, M. Musolesi, S. Eisenman, X. Zheng, A. Cambell, Proceedings
            of SenSys ’08, Nov. 2008.
         c. Voxnet: An Interactive, Rapid-Deployable Acoustic Monitoring Platform. M.
            Allen, L. Girod, R. Newton, S. Madden, D. Blumstein, D. Estrin, IPSN 08.
         d. Extra: Towards Community Sensing, A. Krause, E. Horvitz, A. Kansal, F. Zhao.
            IPSN 08.
  3. Underlying Standards, Wireless Communications and Related Technologies
         a. Zigbee: TDBS: a time division beacon scheduling mechanism for Zigbee cluster-
            tree wireless sensor networks, A. Koubâa, A. Cunha, M. Alves, E. Tover. Real-
            Time Systems Journal.
         b. Bluetooth: Chapter 15 from text.
         c. 6LoWPAN
                  i. IP is Dead, Long Live IP for Wireless Sensor Networks, Jonathan W.
                     Hui and David E. Culler. Proceedings of SenSys ’08, Nov. 2008
                 ii. Extra: IETF Memo
                 iii. Extra: A Lightweight NEMO Protocol to Support 6LoWPAN, J.H. Kim,
                      C.S. Hong, and T. Shon. ETRI Journal, Vol. 30, No. 5, Oct. 2008
         d. Multi-channel: A Practical Multi-Channel Media Access Control Protocol for
            Wireless Sensor Networks, H.K. Le, D. Henriksson, and T. Abdelzaher. IPSN
            2008.
         e. Extra: Free Space Optical memos (2)
         f.   Extra: Power over Ethernet memos (2)
  4. Beyond the Communication Stack
       a. Energy Harvesting
               i. Extra: Survey on power, Dand Steingart and Joe Polastre – Sentilla
                  article
              ii. A Quantitative Investigation of Inertial Power Harvesting for Human-
                  Powered Devices. J. Yun, S. Patel, M. Reynolds and G. Abowd,
                  UbiComp ’08, Sept. 2008
       b. Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, M. Wang, J. Cao, J. Li,
          and S. Das. Journal of Computer Science and Technology 23(3): 305-326, May
          2008.
       c. Service Oriented Architectures (SOA)
               i. A Service Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor and Actor Network
                  Applications, J. Prinsloo, C. Schulz, D. Kourie, W.H.M. Theunissen, T.
                  Strauss, R. Van Den Heever, S. Grobbelaar. Proceedings of SAICSIT
                  2006.
              ii. Service Oriented Software Architecture for Sensor Networks, F.
                  Golatowski, J. Blumenthal, M. Handy, M. Haase, H. Burchardt, and D.
                  Timmermann.
       d. Livenet: Using Passive Monitoring to Reconstruct Sensor Network Dynamics, B.
          Chen, G. Peterson, G. Mainland and M. Welsh. DCOSS 2008, LNCS 5067, pp.
          79-98, 2008.
       e. Extra: Java for embedded systems: Java Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME),
          http://java.sun.com/javame/technology/index.jsp
5. Real-Time and Control Theory
       a. Achieving Real-Time Target Tracking Using Wireless Sensor Networks, T. He,
          P. Vicaire, T. Yan, L. Luo, L. Gu, G. Zhou, R. Stoleru, Q. Cao, J. Stankovic and
          T. Abdelzaher. RTAS 2006.
       b. Real-Time Tools and Analysis
               i. Synthesis of Task and Message Activation Models in Real-Time
                  Distributed Automotive Systems, W. Zheng, M. Di Natale, C. Pinello, P.
                  Giusto, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli. Design, Automation and Test in
                  Europe, April, 2007.
              ii. Definition of Task Allocation and Priority Assignment in Hard Real-
                  Time Distributed Systems, W. Zheng, Q. Zhu, M. Di Natale, A.
                  Sangiovanni-Vincentelli. RTSS Proceedings, 2007.
              iii. Period Optimization for Hard Real-Time Distributed Automotive
                   Systems, A. Davare, Q. Zhu, M. Di Natale, C. Pinello, S. Kanajan, A.
                   Sangiovanni-Vincentelli. DAC 2007.
       c. Control Theory Basic concepts
               i. Feedback Performance Control in Software Services, T. Abdelzaher, J.
                  Stankovic, C. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Lu. Control Systems Magazine, Vol.
                  23, Issue 3, pp. 74-90, 2003.
              ii. Feedback Control Real-Time Scheduling: Framework, Modeling and
                  Algorithms, C. Lu, J. Stankovic, g. Tao, S. Son. Journal of Real-Time
                   Systems, Special Issue on Control-Theoretical Approaches to Real-Time
                   Computing, 2001.
       d. DEUCON: Decentralized End-to-End Utilization Control for Distributed Real-
          Time Systems, X. Wang, D. Jia, C. Lu and X. Koutsoukos. IEEE Transactions
          on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 18, No. 7, July 2007.
       e. Extra: Control over Unreliable Networks Affected by packet Erasures and
          Variable Transmission Delays, D. Quevedo, E. Silva, and G. Goodwin. IEEE
          Journal on selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 26, No. 4, May 2008.
6. Sensor Fusion and Signal Processing
       a. Information Fusion for Wireless Sensor Networks: Methods, Models and
          Classifications, E. Nakamura, A. Loureiro, and A. Frery. ACM Computing
          Surveys, Vol. 39, No. 3, Article 9, August 2007.
       b. Detection, Classification and Tracking of Targets in Distributed Sensor
          Networks, D. Li, K. Wong, Y. Hu, and A. Sayeed. IEEE Signal Processing
          Magazine, 2002
       c. Distributed Activity Recognition with Fuzzy-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks,
          M. Marin-Perianu, C. Lombriser, O. Amft, P. Havinga, and G. Tröster. DCOSS
          2008, LNCS 5067, pp. 296-313, 2008.
       d. Extra: On Accurate and Efficient Statistical Counting in Sensor Based
          Surveillance Systems, S. Guo, T. He, M. Mokbel, J. Stankovic, and T.
          Abdelzaher. IEEE MASS 2008, April 2008. Best Paper Award (selected from 250
          papers)
7. Knowledge Creation
       a. Learning Techniques applied to activity inference

           1. Naive Bayesian inference: Applied in Tapia 2004 - Activity Recognition in the
           Home Using Simple and Ubiquitous Sensors, E. M. Tapia, S. S. Intille, and K.
           Larson. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3001, pp. 158-175, 2004.
           http://courses.media.mit.edu/2004fall/mas622j/04.projects/home/TapiaIntilleLars
           on04.pdf

           2. Harmonic Markov Models and Conditional Random Fields - Accurate Activity
           Recognition in a Home Setting, T. van Kasteren, A. Noulas, G. Englebienne and
           B. Kröse. Ubicomp 08. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1409635.1409637
       b. Inference Techniques

           1. Particle filters for location tracking: Simultaneous Tracking & Activity
           Recognition (STAR) Using Many Anonymous, Binary Sensors, Daniel Wilson
           and Chris Atkeson. The Third International Conference on Pervasive Computing,
           2005. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dwilson/papers/wilsonPERVASIVE2005.pdf

           2. Pedestrian localization in indoor environments, Oliver Woodman and Robert
           Harle. Ubicomp 08. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1409635.1409651
       c. New techniques applied to pattern inference

          Topic models - Discovery of activity patterns using topic models, Tâm Huỳnh,
          Mario Fritz and Bernt Schiele. Ubicomp 08.
          http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1409635.1409638
       d. Probabilistic Context Free Grammars
          D. Lymberopoulos, A. Barton-Sweeney, T. Teixeira and A. Savvides, An Easy-
          to-Program Sensor System for Parsing Human Activities, ENALAB Technical
          Report 090601, May 2006.
          D. Lymberopoulos, T. Teixeira and A. Savvides, BScope: A Scalable, Run-Time
          Architecture for Activity Recognition Using Wireless Sensor Networks,
          ENALAB Technical Report 040701
       e. Extra: At the Flick of a Switch: Detecting and Classifying Unique Electrical
          Events on the Residential Power Line, S. N. Patel, T. Robertson, J. A. Kientz, M.
          S. Reynolds, and G. D. Abowd. UbiComp 2007, LNCS 4717, pp. 271-288, 2007.
8. Security
       a. A Survey of Sensor Network Security, A. Vaseashta and S. Vaseashta. Sensors
          and Transducers, Vol. 94, Issue 7, July 2008.
       b. State of the Art: Denial of Service in WSN - Chapter 2 of Anthony Wood thesis
       c. Seluge: Secure and DoS-Resistant Code Dissemination in Wireless Sensor
          Networks, S. Hyun, P. Ning, A. Liu, and W. Du. IPSN 2008.
       d. Extra: Denial of Service in Sensor Networks, Anthony D. Wood and John A.
          Stankovic. Computer, Vol. 35, Issue 10, pp. 54-62, 2002.

				
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