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					Looking
for the
Best Mortgage?

          Shopping around                                                  interest rate, or both. You should ask
 Shop,
Compare, for a home loan       Obtain Information                          each broker you work with how he or
                                                                           she will be compensated so that you
Negotiate
           or mortgage will    from Several Lenders                        can compare the different fees. Be
                                                                           prepared to negotiate with the brokers
help you to get the best       Home loans are available from several
                                                                           as well as the lenders.
financing deal. A mort-        types of lenders—thrift institutions*,
                               commercial banks, mortgage compa-
gage—whether it’s a home       nies, and credit unions. Different
purchase, a refinancing, or    lenders may quote you different
                               prices, so you should contact several       Obtain All Important
a home equity loan—is a
product, just like a car, so
                               lenders to make sure you’re getting         Cost Information
                               the best price. You can also get a
the price and terms may be     home loan through a mortgage broker.        Be sure to get information about
                               Brokers arrange transactions rather         mortgages from several lenders or
negotiable. You’ll want to     than lending money directly; in other       brokers. Know how much of a down
compare all the costs in-      words, they find a lender for you. A        payment you can afford, and find out
                               broker’s access to several lenders can      all the costs involved in the loan.
volved in obtaining a mort-
                               mean a wider selection of loan prod-        Knowing just the amount of the
gage. Shopping, comparing,     ucts and terms from which you can           monthly payment or the interest rate is
and negotiating may save       choose. Brokers will generally contact      not enough. Ask for information about
                               several lenders regarding your appli-       the same loan amount, loan term, and
you thousands of dollars.      cation, but they are not obligated to       type of loan so that you can compare
                               find the best deal for you unless they      the information. The following informa-
                               have contracted with you to act as          tion is important to get from each
                               your agent. Consequently, you should        lender and broker:
                               consider contacting more than one
                               broker, just as you should with banks
                               or thrift institutions.
                                                                           Rates
                                                                           • Ask each lender and broker for a
                               Whether you are dealing with a lender
                                                                             list of its current mortgage interest
                               or a broker may not always be clear.
                                                                             rates and whether the rates being
                               Some financial institutions operate as
                                                                             quoted are the lowest for that day
                               both lenders and brokers. And most
                                                                             or week.
                               brokers’ advertisements do not use the
                               word “broker.” Therefore, be sure to        • Ask whether the rate is fixed or
                               ask whether a broker is involved. This        adjustable. Keep in mind that when
                               information is important because              interest rates for adjustable-rate
                               brokers are usually paid a fee for their      loans go up, generally so does the
                               services that may be separate from            monthly payment.
                               and in addition to the lender’s origina-
                                                                           • If the rate quoted is for an
                               tion or other fees. A broker’s compen-
                                                                             adjustable-rate loan, ask how your
                               sation may be in the form of “points”
                                                                             rate and loan payment will vary,
                               paid at closing or as an add-on to your
                                                                             including whether your loan pay-
                               *Words and terms appearing in bold in the     ment will be reduced when rates go
                               text are defined in the glossary.             down.
• Ask about the loan’s annual              • Ask for an explanation of any fee
  percentage rate (APR). The APR             you do not understand. Some             Obtain the Best Deal
  takes into account not only the            common fees associated with a
  interest rate but also points, broker      home loan closing are listed on the     That You Can
  fees, and certain other credit             Mortgage Shopping Worksheet in
                                                                                     Once you know what each lender has
  charges that you may be required           this brochure.
                                                                                     to offer, negotiate for the best deal that
  to pay, expressed as a yearly rate.
                                                                                     you can. On any given day, lenders
                                           Down Payments and                         and brokers may offer different prices
Points                                     Private Mortgage Insurance                for the same loan terms to different
                                           Some lenders require 20 percent of        consumers, even if those consumers
Points are fees paid to the lender or
                                           the home’s purchase price as a down       have the same loan qualifications. The
broker for the loan and are often linked
                                           payment. However, many lenders now        most likely reason for this difference in
to the interest rate; usually the more
                                           offer loans that require less than 20     price is that loan officers and brokers
points you pay, the lower the rate.
                                           percent down—sometimes as little as       are often allowed to keep some or all
• Check your local newspaper for           5 percent on conventional loans. If a     of this difference as extra compensa-
  information about rates and points       20 percent down payment is not            tion. Generally, the difference between
  currently being offered.                 made, lenders usually require the         the lowest available price for a loan
                                           home buyer to purchase private            product and any higher price that the
• Ask for points to be quoted to you
                                           mortgage insurance (PMI) to protect       borrower agrees to pay is an overage.
  as a dollar amount—rather than just
                                           the lender in case the home buyer fails   When overages occur, they are built
  as the number of points—so that
                                           to pay. When government-assisted          into the prices quoted to consumers.
  you will actually know how much
                                           programs such as FHA (Federal             They can occur in both fixed and
  you will have to pay.
                                           Housing Administration), VA (Veterans     variable-rate loans and can be in the
                                           Administration), or Rural Development     form of points, fees, or the interest
Fees                                       Services are available, the down          rate. Whether quoted to you by a loan
                                           payment requirements may be sub-          officer or a broker, the price of any
A home loan often involves many fees,
                                           stantially smaller.                       loan may contain overages.
such as loan origination or under-
writing fees, broker fees, and trans-      • Ask about the lender’s                  Have the lender or broker write down
action, settlement, and closing              requirements for a down payment,        all the costs associated with the loan.
costs. Every lender or broker should         including what you need to do to        Then ask if the lender or broker will
be able to give you an estimate of its       verify that funds for your down         waive or reduce one or more of its
fees. Many of these fees are nego-           payment are available.                  fees or agree to a lower rate or fewer
tiable. Some fees are paid when you                                                  points. You’ll want to make sure that
apply for a loan (such as application      • Ask your lender about special
                                                                                     the lender or broker is not agreeing to
and appraisal fees), and others are          programs it may offer.
                                                                                     lower one fee while raising another or
paid at closing. In some cases, you        If PMI is required for your loan,         to lower the rate while raising points.
can borrow the money needed to pay                                                   There’s no harm in asking lenders or
these fees, but doing so will increase     • Ask what the total cost of the
                                                                                     brokers if they can give better terms
your loan amount and total costs. “No        insurance will be.
                                                                                     than the original ones they quoted or
cost” loans are sometimes available,       • Ask how much your monthly               than those you have found elsewhere.
but they usually involve higher rates.       payment will be when including the
                                                                                     Once you are satisfied with the terms
• Ask what each fee includes.                PMI premium.
                                                                                     you have negotiated, you may want to
  Several items may be lumped into         • Ask how long you will be required to    obtain a written lock-in from the
  one fee.                                   carry PMI.                              lender or broker. The lock-in should
include the rate that you have agreed     with you when you speak to each
upon, the period the lock-in lasts, and   lender or broker and write down the        Credit Problems?
the number of points to be paid. A fee    information you obtain. Don’t be afraid
may be charged for locking in the loan    to make lenders and brokers compete        Still Shop, Compare,
rate. This fee may be refundable at       with each other for your business by       and Negotiate
closing. Lock-ins can protect you from    letting them know that you are shop-
rate increases while your loan is being   ping for the best deal.                    Don’t assume that minor credit prob-
processed; if rates fall, however, you                                               lems or difficulties stemming from
could end up with a less favorable                                                   unique circumstances, such as illness
rate. Should that happen, try to                                                     or temporary loss of income, will limit
negotiate a compromise with the           Fair Lending Is                            your loan choices to only high-cost
lender or broker.                         Required by Law                            lenders.
                                                                                     If your credit report contains negative
                                          The Equal Credit Opportunity Act
                                                                                     information that is accurate, but there
Remember:                                 prohibits lenders from discriminating
                                                                                     are good reasons for trusting you to
                                          against credit applicants in any aspect
Shop, Compare,                            of a credit transaction on the basis of
                                                                                     repay a loan, be sure to explain your
                                                                                     situation to the lender or broker. If your
Negotiate                                 race, color, religion, national origin,
                                                                                     credit problems cannot be explained,
                                          sex, marital status, age, whether all or
                                                                                     you will probably have to pay more
When buying a home, remember to           part of the applicant’s income comes
                                                                                     than borrowers who have good credit
shop around, to compare costs and         from a public assistance program, or
                                                                                     histories. But don’t assume that the
terms, and to negotiate for the best      whether the applicant has in good faith
                                                                                     only way to get credit is to pay a high
deal. Your local newspaper and the        exercised a right under the Consumer
                                                                                     price. Ask how your past credit history
Internet are good places to start         Credit Protection Act.
                                                                                     affects the price of your loan and what
shopping for a loan. You can usually
                                          The Fair Housing Act prohibits dis-        you would need to do to get a better
find information both on interest rates
                                          crimination in residential real estate     price. Take the time to shop around
and on points for several lenders.
                                          transactions on the basis of race,         and negotiate the best deal that you
Since rates and points can change
                                          color, religion, sex, handicap, familial   can.
daily, you’ll want to check your news-
                                          status, or national origin.
paper often when shopping for a home                                                 Whether you have credit problems or
loan. But the newspaper does not list     Under these laws, a consumer cannot        not, it’s a good idea to review your
the fees, so be sure to ask the lenders   be refused a loan based on these           credit report for accuracy and com-
about them.                               characteristics nor be charged more        pleteness before you apply for a loan.
                                          for a loan or offered less favorable       To order a copy of your credit report,
The Mortgage Shopping Worksheet
                                          terms based on such characteristics.       contact:
that follows may also help you. Take it
                                                                                     Equifax: (800) 685-1111
                                                                                     TransUnion: (800) 916-8800
                                                                                     Experian: (800) 682-7654
Glossary




Adjustable-rate loans, also known as            years. Both the interest rate and   Points are fees paid to the lender for
    variable-rate loans, usually offer          the monthly payments (for                the loan. One point equals 1
    a lower initial interest rate than          principal and interest) stay the         percent of the loan amount.
    fixed-rate loans. The interest rate         same during the life of the loan.        Points are usually paid in cash at
    fluctuates over the life of the loan                                                 closing. In some cases, the
    based on market conditions, but        The interest rate is the cost of              money needed to pay points can
    the loan agreement generally                borrowing money expressed as a           be borrowed, but doing so will
    sets maximum and minimum                    percentage rate. Interest rates          increase the loan amount and
    rates. When interest rates rise,            can change because of market             the total costs.
    generally so do your loan pay-              conditions.
    ments; and when interest rates                                                  Private mortgage insurance (PMI)
    fall, your monthly payments may        Loan origination fees are fees                protects the lender against a loss
    be lowered.                                charged by the lender for pro-            if a borrower defaults on the
                                               cessing the loan and are often            loan. It is usually required for
Annual percentage rate (APR) is the            expressed as a percentage of              loans in which the down payment
    cost of credit expressed as a              the loan amount.                          is less than 20 percent of the
    yearly rate. The APR includes                                                        sales price or, in a refinancing,
    the interest rate, points, broker      Lock-in refers to a written agreement         when the amount financed is
    fees, and certain other credit                                                       greater than 80 percent of the
                                               guaranteeing a home buyer a
    charges that the borrower is                                                         appraised value.
                                               specific interest rate on a home
    required to pay.                           loan provided that the loan is
                                                                                    Thrift institution is a general term for
                                               closed within a certain period of
Conventional loans are mortgage                                                           savings banks and savings and
                                               time, such as 60 or 90 days.
    loans other than those insured or                                                     loan associations.
                                               Often the agreement also
    guaranteed by a government                 specifies the number of points to
    agency such as the FHA (Fed-                                                    Transaction, settlement, or closing
                                               be paid at closing.
    eral Housing Administration), the                                                   costs may include application
    VA (Veterans Administration), or                                                    fees; title examination, abstract
                                           A mortgage is a document signed by
    the Rural Development Services                                                      of title, title insurance, and
                                               a borrower when a home loan is
    (formerly know as Farmers                                                           property survey fees; fees for
                                               made that gives the lender a
    Home Administration, or FmHA).                                                      preparing deeds, mortgages, and
                                               right to take possession of the
                                                                                        settlement documents; attorneys’
                                               property if the borrower fails to
                                                                                        fees; recording fees; and notary,
Escrow is the holding of money or              pay off on the loan.
                                                                                        appraisal, and credit report fees.
    documents by a neutral third
                                                                                        Under the Real Estate Settle-
    party prior to closing. It can also    Overages are the difference between          ment Procedures Act, the
    be an account held by the lender           the lowest available price and           borrower receives a good faith
    (or servicer) into which a home-           any higher price that the home           estimate of closing costs at the
    owner pays money for taxes and             buyer agrees to pay for the loan.        time of application or within three
    insurance.                                 Loan officers and brokers are            days of application. The good
                                               often allowed to keep some or all        faith estimate lists each expected
Fixed-rate loans generally have                of this difference as extra com-         cost either as an amount or a
     repayment terms of 15, 20, or 30          pensation.                               range.
Mortgage Shopping Worksheet
                                                                                                  Lender 1                   Lender 2

Name of Lender: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Name of Contact: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date of Contact: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mortgage Amount: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                                                                                          mortgage 1    mortgage 2   mortgage 1    mortgage 2
Basic Information on the Loans
Type of Mortgage: fixed rate, adjustable rate, conventional,
  FHA, other? If adjustable, see below . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum down payment required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loan term (length of loan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contract interest rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annual percentage rate (APR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Points (may be called loan discount points) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monthly Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) premiums . . . .
How long must you keep PMI? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimated monthly escrow for taxes and hazard insurance
Estimated monthly payment (Principal, Interest, Taxes,
   Insurance, PMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fees
    Different institutions may have different names for some
    fees and may charge different fees. We have listed
    some typical fees you may see on loan documents.
Application fee or Loan processing fee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Origination fee or Underwriting fee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lender fee or Funding fee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appraisal fee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attorney fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Document preparation and recording fees . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Broker fees (may be quoted as points, origination fees,
   or interest rate add-on) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Credit report fee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Costs at Closing/Settlement
Title search/Title insurance
    For lender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    For you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimated prepaid amounts for interest, taxes,
   hazard insurance, payments to escrow . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local taxes, stamp taxes, transfer taxes . . . . . . .
Flood determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prepaid Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surveys and home inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total Fees and Other Closing/Settlement Cost
   Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mortgage Shopping Worksheet—continued
                                                                                                Lender 1                   Lender 2

Name of Lender: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


                                                                                        mortgage 1    mortgage 2   mortgage 1    mortgage 2
Other Questions and Considerations
about the Loan
Are any of the fees or costs waivable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prepayment penalties
Is there a prepayment penalty? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If so, how much is it? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How long does the penalty period last? (for example,
  3 years? 5 years?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Are extra principal payments allowed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lock-ins
Is the lock-in agreement in writing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Is there a fee to lock-in? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When does the lock-in occur—at application,
  approval, or another time? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How long will the lock-in last? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the rate drops before closing, can you lock-in at a
    lower rate? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the loan is an adjustable rate mortgage:
What is the initial rate? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is the maximum the rate could be next year? . . . . . .
What are the rate and payment caps each year and
  over the life of the loan? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is the frequency of rate change and of any
  changes to the monthly payment? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is the index that the lender will use? . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What margin will the lender add to the index? . . . . . . . . . .
Credit life insurance
Does the monthly amount quoted to you include
  a charge for credit life insurance? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If so, does the lender require credit life insurance
    as a condition of the loan? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How much does the credit life insurance cost? . . . . . . . . . .
How much lower would your monthly payment be
  without the credit life insurance? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the lender does not require credit life insurance, and
    you still want to buy it, what rates can you get
    from other insurance providers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 Shop,
Compare,
Negotiate     Looking for the Best Mortgage?

This brochure was prepared by the following agencies:          For more information on home lending issues, visit
                                                               (http://www.consumer.gov), write to the Consumer Informa-
     Department of Housing and Urban Development
                                                               tion Center, Pueblo, CO 81009 or visit the Center’s Web
     Department of Justice
                                                               site at (http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov). The following brochures
     Department of the Treasury
                                                               are available from the Center:
     Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
     Federal Housing Finance Board                                  A Consumer’s Guide to Mortgage Lock-Ins
     Federal Reserve Board                                          A Consumer’s Guide to Mortgage Refinancing
     Federal Trade Commission                                       Buying Your Home: Settlement Costs and Helpful
     National Credit Union Administration                             Information
     Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight                 Consumer Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages
     Office of the Comptroller of the Currency                      Guide to Single Family Home Mortgage Insurance
     Office of Thrift Supervision                                   Home Buyer’s Vocabulary
                                                                    Home Mortgages: Understanding the Process and Your
These agencies (except the Department of the Treasury)                Rights to Fair Lending
enforce compliance with laws that prohibit discrimination in        How to Buy a Home with a Low Down Payment
lending. If you feel that you have been discriminated               How to Dispute Credit Report Errors
against in the home financing process, you may want to              The HUD Home Buying Guide
contact one of the agencies listed above about your rights          When Your Home Is on the Line
under these laws.                                                                                             FRB1-750000,0199C

				
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