The Effect of Atmospheric Drag on Satellite Orbits

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					      The Effect of
Atmospheric Drag on
     Satellite Orbits

             2 Sep. 2004
           Jinyoung Park
Overview
1. Importance of satellite drag research

2. The effect of satellite drag during the
  Bastille Day event

3. Analysis of the KOMPSAT-1 drag
  during the Oct. & Nov. 2003 event

4. Summary & Further work
1. Importance of satellite
   drag research
 Re-entry operations
 Maneuver planning,
   ground track maintenance
 Precise orbit determination
 Collision avoidance prediction
 Space object catalogue
  maintenance
Re-entry operations
Many objects decay
during each maximum
in the 11-year solar
cycle. Fragments of
large objects can
cause risks on the
ground.

(ex) July 11,1979:
Skylab-1 re-enters
over the Indian Ocean
and Australia
Ground-track maintenance,
maneuver planning
   For most radar altimetry missions, a repeating
    ground-track should be maintained to within
    +/- 1 km to allow a proper interpretation of the
    sea-level measurements


   The planning of the required maneuver depends on
    the orbital decay of the satellite.
Precise Orbit Determination

   Applications:
       Radar altimetry
       Gravity recovery
       Ground station positioning, ...
   Tracking systems:
       Satellite Laser Ranging
       GPS (Global Position System)
       DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and
        Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite)
 Scale factors and empirical
 accelerations




1. Computed orbit, integrated from initial
   state based only on force models
Scale factors and empirical
accelerations




2. Tracking observations (SLR, GPS, DORIS)
   do not match the computed orbit
Scale factors and empirical
accelerations




3. The modeled aerodynamic force is
   multiplied with a scale factor, estimated
   from the data, so that the computed
   orbit better matches the observations
2. The effect of satellite drag
during the Bastille Day event

1) Introduction
2) Scientific Motivation
3) data & Methodology
4) Analysis of Observations
5) Conclusion
1) Introduction
   atmospheric drag contributes the largest
    single uncertainty to RSOs position
    determination and prediction.
   The density fluctuations under extreme
    conditions is significant.
   We derive a technique for extracting
    density measurements from orbit
    determination.
2) Scientific Motivation
   drag retardation => major influence on the
    dynamics of RSOs in LEO

   RSO drag measurements => information
    about atmospheric density

   Drag measurements are sensitive to the
    total density over the path traveled by RSO.
The bastille event time
sequence :
a) On 7 July there was an Earth directed coronal mass
   ejection :
    The disturbance from this event arrived on 10 July.
    (not vigorous)
b) On 11 July there was a high speed CME.
  => the disturbance arrived at 9:40 UT on 13 July.
c) On 14 July there was an X5 flare accompanied by
   another CME.
  => the disturbance arrived at 19:00 UT on 15 July.
- The F10.7 index continued to be elevated for a period
   of about ten days as a result of enhanced emission
   from bright active regions.
3) data & Methodology
   Data :
    1. for a limited number of RSOs sensor
    observations -> Naval Space Command
    2. Element sets -> entire catalog of
    approximately 8000 objects
    * For this set, the orbital fit span used
    was in most cases three days.
    but, we used as short a fit span as
    possible in order to maximize sensitivity.
   Model (to estimate the thermospheric density) :
1. Jacchia 70 : most widely used in the
                drag community.
2. MSISE-90 :empirical model
             extensive, forty-year database
3. NRLMSISE-00 model :
   an extensive database o total mass
 density
Methodology :
the drag acceleration equation
 drag coefficient   total density   direction unit vector

    aD = CD A/M ½ r Vr2 u
        area/mass ratio      relative velocity
   Total density is the most direct space weather
    parameter
   Composition and temperature determine
    aerodynamic interaction with the satellite
   Thermospheric winds influence relative velocity
    and direction of acceleration
4) Analysis of Observations
5) Conclusion
   Use of orbital for RSOs can provide significant
    information about thermospheric density

   the strong flare-associated enhancement of the F10.7
    index on 12 July was not reflected in satellite drag

   The increase in RSOs drag on the 17th correlate well
    with the Ap and Dst indices, while both F10.7 and solc
    indices showed little change at this time

   We anticipate further progress using more physically-
    related quantities, such as UV airglow measurements of
    total mass density and solar EUV emission measures.
3. Analysis of the KOMPSAT-1 drag
  during the Oct. & Nov. 2003 event
   The operational orbit
    evolution of the KOMSAT-1
    over 3 years was analyzed.

   The effects of unpredictable
    occurrence of the safe-hold
    mode and the highest solar
    activity on the orbit evolution
    during the mission life
Solar Flux & Satellite Drag
Dst index & Satellite Drag
Ap Index & Satellite Drag
4. Summary & Further work
   Importance of satellite drag research in space
    environment
   To use satellite drag measurements to provide
    information about atmospheric density
   The satellite drag correlates well with the Ap and
    Dst indices.
   Further work :
    To analysis wide data of satellite drag and adroit
    IDLprogram (ex) interpolation
                                                                                                                                                                                 1 . Co mm un ic a ti o ns S ate l li tes
   Na tura l a nd                                                                                                                        Ph ysi ca l Da mag e        1 ,2 ,
   Ma n -Mad e                                                                                                                             to S pa ce cra ft
                                                                                                                                                                     3 ,4 ,
                                                                                                                                                                     5 ,1 3
                                                                                                                                                                                          An i k                                 Inte ls at
     De b ri s                                                                                                                                                                            DS CS                                  L ea sa t
                                                                                                  He a t a nd E xpa nd                                                                    FLT SAT COM                            Mi l s ta r
                                                                                                      the Up pe r                                                                         AFSA TC OM                             UFO
                            X-R ay Even t            Su d de n                                      Atm os ph ere
                                                  Ion os ph e ri c                                                                       Inc rea se d N eu tra l     4 ,6 ,      2 . Na vstar Gl o ba l P os i ti o ni n g Sys te m (GP S)
                                                  Di s turba nc e                                                                        De n si ty a nd D rag       7 ,8 ,
                                                                                                                                                                     9 ,1 8
                                                                                                   Ra n ge E rro rs o n                   (LE O) Sa te l l ite s                 3 . De fen se Su pp ort Prog ram (DS P)
                                                                                                     L F an d V LF             11
 En e rg eti c S ol a r                                                                               Na vig ati o n                                                             4 . De fen se Me te o ro l og ic a l S atel l i te Pro gram (D MS P) a n d Oth er Lo w
  Fla re Eve nt             Op ti ca l Fla re    Hi g h En e rg y                                                                                                                    Ea rth Orb it (LE O) Sa te l li te s
                                                                           Po l ar Ca p                Sys te ms                             Sp a ce craft
                                                So l ar Pa rti c le s   Ab s orpti on Even t
                                                     (CME)                                                                                  Co mm an di n g             2
                                                                                                                                                                                 5 . Ge o stati on a ry Op era ti o na l E nvi ro n men tal Sa tel l ite (GOE S) an d
                                                                                                                                             Pro bl e ms                             Oth er Ge os tati on ary Me te oro lo g ic al Sa tel l i te s
                                                                                                 Sp a ce craft Su rfa ce 1 ,2 ,
                                                                                                    Ch a rg i ng a n d 3 ,,4 ,3                                                  6 . Ta c ti c al Warn i ng a nd Attac k A ss es sm en t (T W/AA) an d S pa ce
                            Ra d io Bu rs t                                                           Di s ch arg e      5 1
                                                                                                                                                                                     Su rve i ll a nc e N etwo rk (SS N) Me ch an i ca l T ra c ki n g Ra da rs
                                                                                                                                             Sh o rt Wa ve             10
                                                                                                                                              Fad eo ut                                   AL COR (Kw aj a le i n)                Ka e na P oi n t
   Au rora l Zon e                                                                                                                                                                        AL TA IR (Kwa j al e in )              Mi l l sto ne H i ll
                                                                                                 Se verel y De gra de d                                                                   An ti gu a                             MMW (Kwa j al e in )
                                                                                                 HF Prop a ga ti o n a t       10
                                                                                                                                                                                          As c en si on                          NA VS PA SUR
                                                                                                   Hi g h L ati tu d es                                              1 ,2 ,               Cl e ar                                Pi ri nc l ik
                                                                                                                                          Ra d io Freq u en cy 3 ,4 ,                     Ha ystac k                             TR AD EX (K wa ja l ei n)
   Co ron al Ma ss                                                                                                                       Inte rfe re n ce (S ol ar 5 ,,6 ,,
                                                                                                                                                                   7 8                    Ha ystac k A uxi l ia ry (HA X)
  Ej e cti on (C ME )                                                                               Ra d ar Au ro ral                       Ra d io No is e) 1 7,0, 8
                                                                                                                                                                   1
                                                                                                                                                                       1
 (Eru pti ng P rom i-                           Me d iu m En erg y                                                          6 7,
                                                                                                 Cl u tte r, N oi se , an d 8 ,,1 0 ,                                            7 . TW /A A a nd S SN P ha s ed A rra y R ad ars
  n en ce o r Di sa p-                             Pa rtic l es                                      Inte rfe re n ce         17
p ea ri n g Fil a me nt)                                                                           (Au roral Pa ths )                                                                     Co b ra Da ne                          PA RC S
                                                                                                                                         L oc ati on Errors o n                           Eg l i n                               Pa ve Pa ws
                                                                                                                                                                        2
                                                                                                                                            Na vstar GP S                                 Fyl i ng da l es                       Th u le

                                                 Ge o mag ne ti c       Flu ctu ati ng To ta l     Sc i nti l la tio n o n                                                       8 . Pa s si ve Ra di o Freq ue nc y (R F) Trac kin g R ec ei vers
  Co ron al Ho l e                               Di s turba nc e        El e ctron Co nte nt      Tra ns i on os ph eri c
                                                                               (TE C)                    Pa ths                                                                  9 . Gro un d-B as ed El ec tro -Op ti c al De ep Sp ac e Su rve i ll a nc e
                                                                                                                                           Si g na l Fad e ,      1 ,2 ,
                                                                                                                                         Ch a ng e i n Ph a se , 3 ,,4 ,,            (GE ODS S) Sys te m an d Othe r Opti ca l T ra c ki n g Syste ms
                                                                                                                                                                  5 6
                                                                                                                                         Po l ari za ti on , a nd 7 ,8 ,
Ch a ng e i n So l ar                                                                                                                     An g le of Arriva l 1 8                         GE OD SS - So co rro , Ma ui , a nd Di e go Garc ia
 Wi n d Ve l oc ity,                                                                              Ge o mag ne ti ca ll y                                                                  Ai r Fo rce Mau i Opti c al Stati on (AMOS)
                                                                                                                              1 4, 1 5
 De n si ty, an d/o r                                                                             Ind uc ed Cu rre nts                                                                    Ma u i Op ti ca l T ra cki ng an d Ide n ti fi ca tio n Fac i li ty (MOTIF)
    Di re cti on
                                                                                                                                         Ha zard to E xp o se d                 1 0. Hi g h Fre qu e nc y (HF) C om mun i ca tio n s Syste ms
                                                                                                                                                                       12            HF Di rec tio n Fi nd in g
                                                                                                                                          Hu ma ns in Sp ac e
                                                                                                                                                                                     Fixe d an d R el o ca ta bl e OTH -B Ra da r S ys tem s
  Hi g h En e rg y                                                                               Si n gl e E ve n t U ps et 1 ,,2 ,,
                                                                                                                            3 4
Ga l ac tic Pa rti c le s                                                                          (SE U), S ate ll i te 511 2 ,
                                                                                                                             ,
                                                                                                                                3,                                              1 1. L ow Freq ue nc y (L F) Lo ng Ra ng e Na vig ati o n (Lo ran ) a nd
                                                                                                    Di s ori en tati on      21
                                                                                                                                            De p re ss ed                            Ve ry L ow Freq ue nc y (V LF) Ome ga N avi ga tio n S ys tem s
                                                                                                                                         Ma xim um U sa bl e           10
                                                                                                                                           Fre qu en c ie s                     1 2. As tron au ts On Boa rd the Sp ac e S hu ttl e a nd Pa ss en ge rs On
                                                                                                   Inte rn al Sa tel l i te                   (MU Fs )                               Bo a rd Hi gh Al titu de Ai rcraft (S ST , U -2)
    Eq u atori al                                                                                Ch a rg i ng /D am ag e 1 ,,2 ,,
                                                                                                                            3 4
    An o mal y                                                                                      to Inte rn a l E le c- 5 ,1 3                                               1 3. L au nc h Ve h ic l es
                                                                                                 tron ic Co mp on en ts
                                                                                                                                         Di ffi cu lty Un lo ad i ng            1 4. El e ctri c Po we r T ran sm is si o n L in es , Petro le um Pi pe l in es , an d
                                                                                                                                                                        4            Te l ec om mu ni ca tio n s Ca bl e s
                                                                                                                                         “Du mp in g” To rqu e
   Re p ea te d                                                                                    De teri ora ti o n o f
Pa s sa ge th rou gh                                                                             Sp a ce craft Su rfa ce 1 ,,2 ,,                                               1 5. Pre ci s io n In strume n ts , Man ufa ctu ri n g Eq u ip me nt, an d Co mp ute rs
                                                                                                                           3 4
Tra pp ed Pa rti c le                                                                            Ma teri al s , S en so rs 5 ,1 3
 Ra d ia tio n B el ts                                                                            a nd S ol a r P an el s                                                       1 6. Ma g ne ti c C om pa ss es , Na vi ga ti on , a nd Su rve y Ins tru me nts
                                                                                                                                           Ra d ar Ra ng e,                          (Ho mi ng Pi ge o ns )
                                                                                                                                          Ra n ge R ate , a nd         6 ,7
                                                                                                                                           Di re cti on E rro rs                1 7. Ve ry H ig h Freq ue nc y (VH F) Co mm un ic ati o ns S ystem s
  Exp os ure to                                                                                     Ge o stati on a ry
Ato ms (O) i n th e                                                                                 Ma g ne to pa u se          19                                              1 8. Ai r Fo rce S ate l li te C on tro l N etwo rk (AFSC N) an d Oth er
 Th e rm os ph ere                                                                                 Cro ss i ng (GMC )                      Di re ct Th erma l                        Sp a ce craft Gro un d Tra cki ng S tati on s
                                                                                                                                            Inp ut to L ow
                                                                                                                                          Te mp era tu re (IR)
                                                                                                                                                                       20       1 9. Sa tel l i te s th at De pe nd Up on th e Ea rth’ s Mag ne tic Fi el d fo r
                                                                                                                                               Sys te ms                             Re fere nc e i n S pi n A xi s A l ig nm en t
                                                                                                 Fal se Star Se n so r
                                                                                                 Re a di ng s, Atti tud e1 3, 2 1                                               2 0. Sp a ce craft wi th Pa s si ve Ra di a to rs D es ig ne d to Ope rate a t
                                                                                                  Co n tro l P ro bl e ms                                                            Te mp era tu res Be lo w 1 00 K
                                                                                                                                             Flu ctu ati ng
                                                                                                                                                                    1 5, 1 6,
                                                                                                                                            Ge o mag ne ti c           19       2 1. Sp a ce craft tha t D ep en d U po n Sta r P attern s for Attitu de Co ntrol
                                                                                                                                                 Fie l d
                                                                                                  No n -Gre a t C irc le       10
                                                                                                  HF Prop a ga ti o n
                                                                                                                                         Se verel y De gra de d                           Da s he d l in e i n di ca tes th e oreti ca l l y p os si bl e , b ut un l i ke l y, i mpa ct
                                                                                                                                         HF Prop a ga ti o n o n       10
                                                                                                                                          Tra ns eq ua tori al
                                                                                                                                                Pa ths

				
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