PowerPoint for Statisticians (Office 2003 for PC Version) by Anona Thorne, definitely not an expert October 4, 2006 Outline – general principles – setting up posters and slides – inserting tables single and multiple plots mathematical formulae – tips for doing trivial things which can be incredibly time-consuming to figure out General Principles 1. If you are preparing a presentation from scratch, set it up properly at the beginning a) For slides, use a master. b) For a poster, set up the page size and default font. General Principles 2. If you can, avoid combining platforms, e.g. incorporating files from Unix, or moving from PC to Mac. The results are often okay, but not always. General Principles 3. Don’t expect PowerPoint to have the same level of sophistication as Word for handling tables, numbering, and who knows what else, even though they’re both Microsoft products. General Principles 4. If you change a font in a text box or insert a new text box, that item will not be controlled by the slide master, i.e. if you subsequently change the master, that item will not be affected by the change. General Principles 5. Keep in mind the conditions in the venue where the presentation will be seen when you’re deciding on colour schemes. Pay attention to: a) room size b) lighting levels Setting Up Posters 1. Create a new blank presentation. 2. Choose File | Page Setup to set up the page size. Cut each dimension in half to enable the poster to be printed nicely, e.g. if the poster is to be 196cm wide and 120cm high, set it up to be 98cm wide and 60cm high. 3. Set the default font style and size. 4. When you are making up your poster, try not to have too many separate text boxes, in order to avoid spending too much time lining things up later. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 1. Choose File | New from the menu and then choose “Blank presentation” from the column on the right. You will automatically get a title slide with room for a subtitle. 2. Choose View | Master | Slide Master from the menu. 3. If you don’t like the size and location of the “placeholders” in the master, change them. If you like, you can get rid of any placeholders that you don’t want. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 4. Set up the font style, size, and colour in the title and text boxes of the master. Note that “Arial Narrow” is a very useful font, since you can cram more words on a line but it is still easily legible. 5. If you want a logo or special lines or some special shape to appear on all your slides, insert it into the master in the desired location. If the item is a text item, you need to insert a text box. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 6. In the text area, change the bulleting style if you like. 7. Note that the master does not allow you to set up master enumeration styles here, although you could easily set up a second master for that purpose. See “Getting Fancier with Slide Masters” for details. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 8. If you want to change the background colour of the presentation, choose Format | Background and select the colour you want. Similarly, you can also use Format | Slide Design and apply one of the design templates or you can use Format | Slide Layout to change the items included on your slide master. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 9. Note that the master will also affect your title slide, but if you want to, you can choose to insert a title master from the little toolbar that has opened. 10. Once you’re happy with these changes, you can close the master view. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 11. You are now back on your title slide. Type in the title if you want to or leave it for later. 12. Click on “New Slide” in the upper toolbar. 13. A new slide with the standard title and text layout will appear. If you want a different layout, e.g. two columns of text, just click on that layout in the column on the right. 14. Enter the material for all the slides for your presentation. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 15. Note that, in order for the master to be able to control the material on the slide, that material must be in either the standard title or text box. If you make a direct change to the position or size of either the title or text box, the formatting of any text in the presentation, or if you insert a new text box, those items will not be affected by subsequent changes to the master. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 16. You can make changes to the master at any time, and other than as noted above, the changes will appear on all slides in the presentation. This is a very handy feature, since it allows you to change font sizes, colours, etc. in the entire presentation very easily. Setting up Slides by Making Slide Masters 17. Note that at large conferences where the room is dark, it is usual for slide presentations to use dark backgrounds. However, a light background can be perfectly effective, especially in a smaller room, and avoids the need to darken the room so dramatically. Getting Fancier with Slide Masters 1. You may find that some slides would benefit from using a variant of the master. When you are viewing the master, you can create a copy of it in the left-hand column and then make changes on the copy or you can insert a new slide master and edit it. Getting Fancier with Slide Masters 2. In order to use that master on a particular slide only, have that slide in the main window, click on “Design” in the upper toolbar, and then in the master that you want to use, choose “Apply to Selected Slides” from the drop-down menu which will appear when you hover the mouse over that master and click the arrow on the right. Getting Fancier with Slide Masters 3. When you are viewing the master, you will see that it is possible to “preserve” a master. Apparently, the purpose of this is to prevent it from being deleted automatically by PowerPoint if it isn’t being used by any slides, although also apparently, this doesn’t happen all the time. If you have preserved a master, you can still delete it yourself. So – it seems like a good idea always to preserve the masters that you are happy with. Getting Fancier with Slide Masters 4. Together, a set of masters make up a template. You can save the template that you’ve just created by choosing File | Save As | from the menu and then choosing “Design Template” as the file type. You can give the template whatever name you like. 5. It will be saved in the Microsoft Template folder and will then appear in alphabetic order in the design templates tab even after you close and re- open PowerPoint. Getting Fancier with Slide Masters 6. To use a design template when you create a new presentation, choose File | New from the menu and then choose “From design template” from the column on the right and click on the template you want. Getting Fancier with Slide Masters 7. It seems that the only way of deleting a template is to search for the file name (it ends in .pot) and delete the template file. Make sure you search in “hidden” folders. Inserting Tables and Plots from Word, RTF, Excel, PowerPoint, and PDF Files Don’t bother trying to do the usual cut and paste. Instead, there are two options: Option 1 – Open the file that contains the table or plot and copy it into the buffer. – Then, in your PowerPoint presentation, use the menu and choose Edit | Paste Special. – You will be given a choice between an ordinary paste and pasting a link. In the latter case, if the object in the original file is changed later, it will automatically be changed in your PowerPoint file. Inserting Tables and Plots from Word, RTF, Excel, PowerPoint, and PDF Files – When pasting, you will be asked to choose the file type for Word Files and RTF files, choose Microsoft Office Word Document Object for Excel, presumably you will get a sensible option – I haven’t tried this for PowerPoint files, choose MS Office Drawing Object for PDF files, Ctrl-C in the body of the item to be copied, or choose Edit | Copy File to Clipboard (which is probably preferable) and then when pasting it, choose Acrobat Document Object. This seems to work most, but not all, of the time. Inserting Tables and Plots from Word, RTF, Excel, PowerPoint, and PDF Files Option 2 – Have your table or plot in a file all by itself. – Then, in your PowerPoint presentation, use the menu and choose Insert | Object | “Create from file”. – After it is inserted this way, you will be able to double-click on the object and edit it as though it were in the original program which created it, as long as you have that program installed on your computer. NOTE: unfortunately, you need one file per item Inserting Plots directly from S-Plus Graphsheets – If you’re working on a PC with S-Plus installed, just open the graphsheet in S-Plus, and from the S-Plus menu choose Edit | Copy Graph Sheet Page to get the graph into the buffer. Then use Ctrl-V to paste it into the PowerPoint slide. This method gives you the best quality. – If you can’t use that method, then it’s best to produce either a PowerPoint file for the graph (if on a PC) or a PDF file (if on Unix) and then proceed as previously described. Inserting SAS Output – This is not possible directly. The simplest thing is to produce an RTF file and then use the method described earlier. – Alternatively, if you need to do this often and want to spend time fiddling around, look at http://www2.sas.com/proceedings/sugi30/006- 30.pdf#search=%22sas%20to%20powerpoint%22 Inserting from GIF, JPG, or EPS Files – From the PowerPoint menu, choose Insert | Picture | From File. – Once you have the image inserted, you will likely have to re-size it drastically, but that’s easy enough. Inserting Mathematical Formulae – If you’re adept with the equation editor in Word, you can create them there and then paste into PowerPoint. – If you have to live dangerously and cross platforms, you could certainly use Latex to produce a pdf file and insert that as described earlier. – If you just need to do something really simple, you can use the symbol font in PowerPoint and type it in that way. Using Animation in Slides – use sparingly – done from menu item Slide Show | Custom Animation. – Then click on Add Effect | Entrance | Fly in | From Left, etc. to get the effect shown here. – Note that when you have the custom animation panel open, numbers will appear in the left margin to indicate that animation has been added. It will only be used during an actual slide show. Adjusting Indentations As a general rule, it’s easiest to click on the indentation, bulleting, or numbering icons when you are starting to type the material for that area. Sometimes an indentation is larger than you’d like and you’d like to change it. – Consider whether you want this change to be made to all the slides and if so, change the master. – If not, then when you are in the area you want changed, play with the little tabs in the upper ruler until you get the indentation where you want it. This is sometimes not so easy, and you might have to do some fiddling. Helpful Details for Posters 1. Splitting the area into equal partitions Suppose you want to divide the poster into three equal sections horizontally. – click on the line in the bottom toolbar – click in the body of the poster and drag the mouse to where you want the line to end to make a vertical line the height of the poster – copy and paste that line to make another one – shift-click on both lines to select them – from the lower menu, choose Draw | Align or Distribute | Distribute Horizontally. Helpful Details for Posters 2. Using the “paintbrush” for colour and format Once you’ve chosen a colour for the titles, e.g. “Background”, “Methods”, etc., use the “paintbrush” from the toolbar to apply it to all your titles. – highlight the item that you want to copy the colour and formatting from – double-click on the paintbrush symbol – the cursor will display the paintbrush symbol – highlight each item to be formatted and the formatting will be done automatically (including font style, size and colour) – press escape to get out of “paintbrush” mode Helpful Details for Posters 3. Boxes Putting boxes around text can help to make the poster easier to read. There are two ways of doing this: a) If everything you want to put a box around is in a single text box, the nicest way is to click on that box, and go into “format text box”. There you can put a line around the box and also set a fill colour for the box. b) If you want to put a box around a group of items or another object like a table or plot, click on the rectangle on the bottom toolbar (or choose one of the fancier shapes from the autoshapes menu in the toolbar), and then click in the body of the poster to insert that item. It can then be re-sized, formatted (using “format autoshape”), etc.. Helpful Details for Posters 4. Order If you just inserted a coloured shape and found that it is sitting on top of a table or other object, when you really want it to be the background for that object – click on the shape, and then right-click or click on “Draw” in the bottom toolbar and choose “Order” – choose “send to back” to put the shape behind the table – note that how “transparent” the item you’re putting a box around will depend on what kind of item it is; text boxes and tables are fine, but other items, e.g. plots, may have their own background colour rather than being transparent Helpful Details for Posters 5. Grouping If you’ve just put a box around an object, you will want to make sure they stay together when you move them around. To do this, – shift-click on all the items that you want to have grouped together – click on the “draw” menu in the bottom toolbar – choose “group” – now, when you want to move the grouped item, just select any item in the group and the entire group can be moved – to “ungroup”, select an item in the group and choose “ungroup” from the “draw” menu Helpful Details for Posters 6. Lining Things Up Once you have all the material in your poster and you’re happy with the general layout, you will need to make sure that everything is lined up. An easy way to do this is to – click on the line in the bottom toolbar – click in the body of the poster and drag the mouse to where you want the line to end – the line can be moved around, copied and pasted, and used as a guide for all the boxes that need alignment – when you’re finished, just click on it and delete it Helpful Details for Posters 6. Lining Things Up (cont’d) Another method is to shift-click on the items you want to have lined up, and then choose “Align or Distribute” from the “Draw” menu on the bottom toolbar. However, for this to work nicely, the two items must have been set up in a similar way. Also, have a look at View | “Grid and guides” from the upper menu. The default is to “snap objects to grid”, which may explain why you sometimes cannot put objects exactly where you want to by using the mouse. On the other hand, you may sometimes find it useful. Helpful Details for Posters 7. Moving Things Around To select a text box, click on it twice so that you get a shaded box around it rather than a box with diagonal lines. Then move it around by – dragging it or – using the arrow keys or – using Ctrl-arrow to make fine adjustments Helpful Details for Posters 8. Fine sizing adjustments Once you have everything lined up, you may find that some boxes are not quite the size you want them to be, but that you can’t quite get them the right size by using the mouse. – select the item to be re-sized – choose format text box or autoshape or whatever is appropriate – go into the size area of the format box and change the measurements Helpful Details for Posters 9. Keeping the item of interest in focus when you enlarge your view If you’re looking at a poster, quite often you want to enlarge your view so that you can work on one item. To do this, – click on that item first and then enlarge the view. This way, the item will still be in your window and you won’t have to search for it. Helpful Details for Posters 10. Finding an object after you insert it When you insert something into a poster, you may not see it if you do not have the entire poster visible in your window. If you “fit” the poster in the window, you will be able to see if it really appeared somewhere, and amazingly, it probably did. Helpful Details for Posters 11. Titles on plots and tables If you’re making plots and tables for posters, it’s much better to put the titles in using text boxes in PowerPoint so that you can make them all the same size. In order to keep track of the plots, though, – keep the title on the object until you have imported it into PowerPoint, put it into position, and made a text box for the title – then, crop the title off the object you inserted by choosing Format | Object | Picture from the main menu and cropping the object down from the top. Helpful Details for Posters 12. How to find the table menu If you type a table directly in PowerPoint, you can click on the “tables and borders” icon in the toolbar (it has a table with a pencil) to get a pretty good table menu which also contains a number of useful icons. Helpful Details for Posters 13. Make small adjustments to spaces between sections of text If you’re inserting a bunch of text into one text box and you want to have an extra space between two sections that is smaller than an extra line feed, – just highlight the last line of the first section (which presumably ends with a single line feed) – from the menu, choose Format | Line Spacing and add a bit of extra space after the paragraph.