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The body

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The Human Body
   By Dr Emily
Contents
 1. Heart
 2. Lungs
 3. Skeleton
 4. Skin
 5. Muscles
 6. Kidneys
 7. Joints
 8. Teeth
 9. Blood
 10. Tissue fluid
 11. Digestive system
 12. Eyes
 13. Ears
   The heart is a muscular organ
   which pumps blood around the
     blood vessels (the heart and
    blood vessels together are the
                                      Heart
        cardiovascular system).
  The heart is surrounded by the              Fact…..
   pericardial sac. This consists of        Did you know
        an outer membrane (the              your heart is
                                            the size of a
      pericardium) and the cavity           clenched fist
 (pericardial cavity) between it and
  the heart. This cavity is filled with
    a cushioning fluid (pericardial
                 fluid).
                                        •Below an x-ray of the heart
The heart has four chambers – two
   atria and two ventricles, all lined
   by a thin tissue layer called the
             endocardium
                            These are the two main
Lungs                       breathing organs, inside
                         which gases are exchanged.
                           They contain many tubes
                           (bronchi and bronchioles)
                             and air sacs (alveoli).
                         The names of the lung parts
Try this…get a mirror,
and breath on it what
                          are larynx, trachea, pleura,
      can you see?           pleural cavity, primary
 A fine mist of water
droplets have formed         bronchus, secondary
 on the on the mirror.
   The inside of our
                         bronchus, tertiary bronchus,
    lungs are moist.     terminal bronchioles, alveoli,
When you breath out,
  the moist air forms    capillaries, pulmonary artery,
 the tiny droplets on
        the mirror            alveolus, bronchiole,
                                   diaphragm.
                                            Hi I am skull the skeleton I
The human skeleton is a                     am you (inside) without me
frame of over 200 bones                     you would be flopped over
which supports the body                             all the time
organs (the viscera) and
provides a solid base for
   the muscles to work
           against.       Skeleton
Names of bones are the
    cranium, mandible,
    cervical vertebrae,             Fact
      clavicle, scapula,      Did you know….
 sternum, humerus, ribs,        Your nose is
    thoracic vertebrae,       also called your
    radius, ulna, sacral           DENS
     vertebrae, coccyx,
 pelvis or pelvic girdle or
     hip girdle, carpals,
   Metacarpals, femur,
    patella, tibia, fibula,
    tarsal, metatarsals,
         phalanges.
                            The skin or cutis is the
                             outer body covering,
Skin                          made up of several
                                tissue layers.
         Things to do..
       Write your name         It registers external
          on a piece of       stimulation, protects
       paper. Now get a        against damage or
          rubber band ,         infection, prevents
       wrap it round your        drying out, helps
         fingers so that
                                   regulate body
           they can not
        move. Try write
                             temperature, excretes
        your name now.
                            waste (sweat), stores fat
        You can’t move!      and makes vitamin D.
        Fingers must be
           free to get a       It contains many tiny
        special grip that     structures, each type
        we use to write
                             with a different function.
                              The entire skin (tissue
                            layers and structures), is
                            called the integumentary
                                      system.
            Muscles
Muscles are areas of
special elastic tissue          Fact ….
                             did
found all over the body. whenyou knowis
                                   the arm
   They may be either      bent , the biceps
  voluntary muscles (able is the agonist and
                           the triceps is the
     to be controlled by      antagonist.
    conscious action) or
 involuntary muscles (not
under conscious control).
     The main types of
   muscles are scapula,
 biceps, triceps, tendons,
   muscles, visceral and
           cardiac.
                         The kidneys are
  Kidneys                  two organs at
                          the back of the
        Fact ….               body, just
Did you know a quarter
 of your blood supply
                           below the ribs
 passes through your        they are the
     kidneys every
         minute            main organ of
                              excretion,
                             filtering out
                              unwanted
                            substances
                          from the blood.
 The bones of the
  skeleton meet at      Joints
   many joints, or
articulations. Some
  are fixed joints,
     allowing no
 movement, e.g. the
sutures of the skull.
 However, most are
  movable and they
 give the body great
      flexibility.
        The teeth or dentes help
             to prepare food for
          digestion by cutting and
                grinding it up.
        Each tooth is set into the
            jaw, which has a soft
Teeth      tissue covering called
                    gum.
        During their lives, humans
         have two sets of teeth –
          a temporary set made
         up of 20 teeth, and later
          a permanent set made
                up of 32 teeth
Blood is a vital body fluid
    consisting of plasma,
   platelets and red and       Blood
      white blood cells.
 An adult human has 5.5
   litres (9.5 pints), which
      travel around in the
   circulatory system –a
   system of tubes called
        blood vessels.
The blood distributes heat
  and cells are constantly
    being replace by new
  ones in a process called
         haemopiesis.
         Tissue fluid
  The smallest blood vessels, called
capillaries, are those in the most direct
 contact with the individual cells of the
  body, but even they do not touch the
 cells. The food and oxygen they carry
 finally reach the cells in tissue fluid, a
substance which forms the link between
 the circulatory system and the body’s
     drainage system, known as the
            lymphatic system.
      The digestive system
After food is taken in, or ingested, it passes
   through the digestion system, gradually
     being broken down into simple soluble
        substances by a process called
                   digestion.
 The simple substances are absorbed into
  the blood vessels around the system and
    transported to the body cells. Here they
  are used to provide energy and build new
                     tissue.
       The eyes are the organs of

eyes        sight sending nervous
             impulses to the brain.
          When stimulated by light
               rays from external
               objects. The brain
            interprets the impulses
          to produce images. Each
           eye consists of a hollow,
           spherical capsule, made
           up of several layers and
                   structures.
       It is set into a socket in the
          skull, and is protected by
            eyelids and eyelashes.
                                                      ear
   The two ears are the organ of
hearing and balance. Each one is
divided into three areas –the outer
   ear, middle ear and inner ear.
Outer ear           An outer shell of skin and
cartilage, together with a short tube. The tube
lining contains special sebaceous gland which
         secrete cerumen (ear wax).
Middle ear          an air-filled cavity which
 contains a chain of three tiny bones called
         malleus incus and stapes.


Inner ear         a connected series of cavities in the skull, with
  tubes and sacs inside them. The cavities are called the bony
  labyrinth and are filled with one fluid. The tubes and sacs are
  called the membranous labyrinth. They are the cochlear duct,
              saccule, utricle and semicircular ducts
  Goodbye
Frankenstein!
 Good luck
with creating
your human!

				
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posted:4/9/2010
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