The Relationship Between Science and Technology _ How the ...201046144650

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					     A 2009 Report on
Technology Education in the
       United States
International Conference on Technology
   Education in the Asia Pacific Region

      Taipei Taiwan - November 11, 2009
Overview of Presentation
   Nationally-developed educational standards in
    the U.S.
   Standards for Technological Literacy: Content
    for the Study of Technology (ITEA, 2000, 2002,
   ITEA: Research and Curriculum Efforts
   Technology and Engineering Education
    National Assessment of Educational Progress
    for Technological Literacy (The Nation’s Report
   Positioning of Technology Education
ADecade of Standards for
Technological Literacy
Standards for
Technological Literacy
presents the content
for what every student
should know and be
able to do in order to
be technologically
So what is
“Technological Literacy?”
  Technological literacy is the
  ability to:
  use, manage, evaluate,
  and understand technology.
  Technology Literacy for All:
  A Rationale and Study for the Study of Technology (ITEA,2006)
Who is a technologically
literate person?
One that understands:
   What technology is
   How technology is created
   How the use of technology shapes society and
    in turn,
   How society shapes the development of
   A person who is comfortable with and objective
    about the use of technology – neither scared of
    it nor infatuated with it.
Technological literacy involves:

   Much more than a knowledge
  about computers and digital
   Gaining a degree of knowledge
  about the nature, behavior, power,
  and consequences of technology
  from a real world perspective.

    STL Standards are 20 written statements about
     what is valued that can be used for making a
     judgment of quality.
    Standards represent fundamental concepts.
    The goal is to meet all of the standards from
     Grades K-12.
    STL Standards were written around five major
     organizers or categories.
    The Five Major Organizers
       (Categories) in STL
 The Nature of Technology (3 Standards)
 Technology and Society (4 Standards)
 Design (3 Standards)
 Abilities for a Technological World (3
 The Designed World (7 Standards)
  Nature of Technology (3 Stds.)

 Students will develop an
  understanding of the:
   characteristics and scope of technology.
   core concepts of technology.
   relationships among technologies and the
    connection between technology and other
    fields of study.
Technology and Society: (4 Stds.)

 Students will develop an understanding of
     cultural, social, economic, and political effects of
     effects of technology on the environment.
     role of society in the development and use of
     influence of technology on history.
Design (3 Stds.)

   Students will develop an understanding
    of the:
      attributes of design.
     engineering design.

     role of troubleshooting, research and
      development, invention and innovation,
      and experimentation in problem solving.
Abilities for a Technological World: 3 Stds.)

   Students will develop the abilities to:
      apply the design process.
     use and maintain technological products and
     assess the impact of products and systems.
The Designed World (7 Stds.)
   Students will develop an understanding of and
    be able to select and use:
      medical technologies.
      agricultural and related biotechnologies.
      energy and power technologies.
      information and communication technologies.
      transportation technologies.
      manufacturing technologies.
      construction technologies.
Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy:
Student Assessment, Professional Development, and
Program Standards (AETL)(ITEA,2003)

   AETL provides the means for
     implementing STL in K-12
   AETL is based on STL.
   AETL contains three separate but interrelated
    sets of standards.
       Student Assessment
       Professional Development
       Program
ITEA Research and Curriculum Efforts:

In 2001 and 2004, The International
Technology Education Association (ITEA)
conducted polls which were done by the
Gallup Organization on how Americans think
about technology.
Most Americans (68% in 2004 &
 67% in 2001) view technology
        very narrowly as being
computers, electronics, and the
There was near total
consensus (98% in 2004 & 97%
in 2001) in the public sampled
that schools should include the
study of technology in the
When asked how important
it is for high school students to
understand the relationship
between science and technology,
98% of the Americans stated that
they thought that this was “very or
somewhat important”.
In both polls, a majority of
Americans (62% in 2004 and
59% in 2001) responded that
science and technology are
basically one and the same
What is Science?
    What is Technology?
Science seeks to understand
           the natural world.
  National Science
  Education Standards,
  National Research
  Council, 1996.
What is Technology?

   It is the innovation, change, or modification
    of the natural environment in order to satisfy
    perceived human wants and needs.
    (Standards for Technological Literacy, ITEA,
   The goal of technology is to make
    modifications in the world to meet human
    needs. (National Science Education
    Standards, NRC, 1996)
What is Technology ?

   In the broadest sense, technology extends
    our abilities to change the world: to cut,
    shape, or put together materials; to move
    things from one place to another; to reach
    farther with our hands, voices, and senses.
    (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, AAAS,
   Technology is the process by which humans
    modify nature to meet their needs and wants.
    (Technically Speaking: Why All Americans
    Need to Know More About Technology,
    NAE/NRC, 2002)
Science                vs.        Technology
   Deals with the natural       Deals with how humans
    world.                        modify, change, alter, or
                                  control the natural world.
   Is very concerned with       Is very concerned with what
    what is (exists) in the       can or should be designed,
    natural world. (i.e.:         made, or developed from
    Biology, Chemistry,           natural world materials and
    Physics, Astronomy,           substances to satisfy human
                                  needs and wants
    Geology, etc.)
Science vs.                Technology
   Is concerned with          Is concerned with such
    inquiries that seek         processes that we use to
    out the meaning of          alter/change the natural
    the natural world by        world such as
    “inquiry”,                  “Invention”,
    “discovering what           Innovation”, Practical
    is”, “exploring”,           Problem Solving, and
    and using “the              Design.
    Scientific Method”.
  While technology and science have a
common denominator being the natural
world, they are similar yet very different.

       Technology is not any more
       “applied science” than science
       is “applied technology”.

Technology Education
This  is the school subject specifically
designed to teach children about the
broad field of technology.
To eliminate confusion … technology is
the subject matter content while the study
of technology formally in schools today is
called technology education.
In the U.S. today, there is much
misunderstanding about …

  Technology Education, which is the study of
   technology, should NOT be confused with
    Information Technology, Educational (or
 instructional) Technology, or Information and
          Computer Technology (ICT)!
There is a growing movement in the
        U. S. to teach the integrative
  subjects of Science, Technology,
     Engineering, and Mathematics
A New Movement in The U.S.
on Technology and Engineering
Shocking data:
Only four percent of American
 college graduates in 2003
 majored in engineering compared
 to 13 percent of European
 students and 20 percent of those
 in Asia.
Some U. S. Efforts Now:
   International Technology Education Association
   National Academy of Engineering (NAE)
   American Society for Engineering Education
   Federal and State Efforts
    •   No Child Left Behind
    •   Engineering Education for the Innovation Economy
        Act (Pending)
    •   States with engineering education:
   What Is
ITEA’s Curriculum Efforts:
Engineering by Design (EbD)
 Provide a standards-based K-12 program (curriculum) that
  ensures that all students are technologically literate.
 Provide opportunities for all students without regard to gender or
  ethnic origin.
 Provide clear standards and expectations for increasing student
  achievement in science, technology, engineering, and
  mathematics (STEM).
 Provide leadership and support that will produce continuous
  improvement and innovation in the program.
 Restore America's status as the leader in innovation. Provide a
  program that constructs learning from a very early age and
  culminates in a capstone experience that leads students to
  become the next generation of technologists, innovators,
  designers, and engineers.
 Do We Teach engineering or Engineering?

engineering – little “e” – used as a verb
   to teach all students to think or learn to
   engineer or use engineering concepts

Engineering – big “E” – used as a noun
   prepare students to be Engineers –
   career oriented
                     Standards-Based Model – Grades K-16
   K-2           1       Integrated concepts & lessons
   3-5           2       Integrated concepts & lessons *
     6        MS-1       Exploring Technology                             18 weeks
     7        MS-2       Invention and Innovation                         18 weeks
     8        MS-3       Technological Systems                            18 weeks
     9         HS-1      Foundations of Technology                        36 weeks
  10-12       HS-2/3     Technological Issues and Impacts                 36 weeks
  10-12        HS-4      Technological Design                             36 weeks
  11-12        HS-5      Advanced Design Applications *                   36 weeks
  11-12        HS-6      Advanced Technological Applications *            36 weeks
  11-12        HS-7      Engineering Design (Capstone)                    36 weeks
  13-16         CL       Engineering Design                               Semester
                                                            Endorsed by
* ProBase and I3 – NSF funded projects
   National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
(“The Nation’s Report Card”)
   2012 Technological Literacy
       Framework Project
            Overall Purposes
1.   Develop the recommended framework and
     specifications for NAEP Technological Literacy
     2012 in grades 4, 8, and 12.
        The assessment will be entirely computer-based.

2.   WestEd Project funded by the U.S. Department
     of Education (2009-2012)
Technological Literacy
         Reporting NAEP Scores

• The NAEP Technological Literacy Assessment is an assessment
  of overall achievement, not a tool for diagnosing the needs of
  individual students.
• Results will be reported in terms of average scores for groups of
  students on the NAEP scale and as percentages of students who
  attain each of the three achievement levels: Basic, Proficient, and
• The probe for 2012 NAEP Technological Literacy Assessment
        • At one, perhaps two grades
        • Reports only at the national level
        • Recommend reporting separate subscales for the three
          areas first, followed by the overall composite score.
    For More Information:

NAEP Technological Literacy
National Assessment Governing Board

Positioning Technology
   Change is hard to do in education
   Much of what we do in education is political
   We need to market or sell the study of
    technology as an basic component of education
    that everyone needs
   Key decision makers in our countries need to
    be informed and influenced about the
    importance of the study of technology
   Standards for Technological Literacy in the U.S.
   Technological Literacy Defined
   What Americans think about technology
   Technology and Science
   Science, Technology, Engineering, and
    Mathematics (STEM)
   Technology and Engineering Education
   National Assessment of Educational Progress
   Positioning Technology Education
                   In conclusion…

The power and promise of
technology can be further
enhanced through the study of
technology to assure that all
people are technologically literate
in the future.
         Thank You!
            William E. Dugger, Jr.
      Senior Fellow and Former Director
     Technology for All Americans Project
International Technology Education Association

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