The Importance of Support for Faculty and Instructional

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					Positioning Your Teaching
 and Learning Center to
 Support Faculty Work in
    the New Academy
  Faculty Work and the New
     Academy: Emerging
Challenges and Evolving Roles
James Groccia
James Groccia

   Director, Biggio Center for
    Enhancement of Teaching and
    Learning & Associate Professor,
    Educational Leadership
    – Auburn University, Auburn, AL
   President, POD Network in Higher
Session Assumptions

   Teaching / learning centers are
    context sensitive, campus
    specific, and have unique goals
   A teaching / learning center is a
    valuable resource for
    – Enhanced teaching
    – Improved student learning
Guiding Questions

   What is faculty development?
   What is instructional development?
   What are teaching / learning centers?
   Why are teaching / learning centers
   What are the goals and work of these
Guiding Questions

   What are the activities that a
    teaching / learning center might
   How can a center help an
    institution create better
    educational programs and
    enhance retention & student
Guiding Questions

   How Can We Position the
    Teaching and Learning Center to
    Support Faculty Work in the New

   Turn to one person seated
    – Introduce yourself and share why
      you are here today—why did you
      choose this session to attend?
    – Describe your institution and the
      status of a teaching / learning
      center at your campus
What is Faculty
Faculty development is both a
  comprehensive term that covers a
  range of activities ultimately designed
  to improve student learning and a less
  broad term that describes a purposeful
  attempt to help faculty improve their
  competence as teachers and scholars.
      - Eble & McKeachie (1985)
        Faculty Development Continuum
Intentional           •Positive Deviants serve as catalysts     Serendipity
Structures in place   to perform innovation and
                                                                 Low formality
High investment                                                 Low investment
Lot’s of little
                       •Challenges to movement in creating
                       the culture are overcome                  Low
things                                                           encouragement
Culture is            •Levers are pulled (admin. cares)
                                                                 Lack of clarity
supportive of T&L                                                (importance)
                       •Increasing extrinsic rewards in place
Highly used TC                                                  No or underused
                       •Programs & individuals recognized
Robust web of                                                   TC
opportunities          •Scholarship of Teaching and learning     FD due to
Valid assessments
                       grows and embeds in the culture           intrinsic motivation
of Learning            •Institution becomes a learning           Low allowance of
High allowance of     organization                              faculty time
time adjustments
for T innovations
                                                               (Mulvaney, 2006)
What is Instructional
   The systematic development of instructional
    experiences using learning and instructional theory
    to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire
    process of analysis of learning needs and goals and
    the development of a delivery system to meet those
    needs. It includes development of instructional
    materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation
    of all instruction and learner activities.
    – Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design",
      Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University
What are Teaching/Learning
Centers? (Structure)

   Options:
    – A centralized unit with dedicated
    – An individual faculty member or
    – A committee
    – A “clearinghouse”
    – Currently no faculty development
What are Teaching/Learning
Centers? (Structure)

   A centralized unit with dedicated
    staff- 54%
   An individual faculty member or
    administrator- 19%
   A committee- 12%
   A “clearinghouse”- 4%
   Other- 11%
       - Sorcinelli & Austin (2005)
What are Teaching/Learning
Centers? (Goals)

   Creating a culture of teaching- 72%
   Responding to individual faculty needs for
    professional development- 56%
   Advancing new initiatives in teaching/
    learning- 49%
   Fostering collegiality with and among faculty,
    departments, career stages- 26%
   Acting as an institutional change agent- 26%
              - Sorcinelli & Austin (2005)
What are Teaching/Learning
Centers? (Activities)

   Consultations for individual instructors
   Campus-wide orientations/workshops
   Intensive, year-long programs
   Grants for individuals
   University and college teaching awards
   Resource referral
   Publications
   Customized services for
              - Sorcinelli & Austin (2005)
What are Teaching/Learning
Centers? (One Example)

• Biggio Center for the
  Enhancement of Teaching and
  Learning, Auburn University
                 Programs & Services

Biggio            New Faculty Scholars
Center                     PFF
                 Academic Port. Retreats
  Teaching:         Monthly Seminars
  •Seminar in                              Serves:
                       Consultation        •Faculty
  College        Book Discussion Group
  Teaching                                 •GTAs
                           PICS            •Admin.
  •PFF          Auburn Forum/Symposium
  Seminar                                  •Staff
                  Library/Resource Rm.
  •TES                     SGIF
  Seminar              Committees
                  Programs & Services

Center            Certificate in College

  •Seminar in                              Serves:
                      Certificate in       •Faculty
  Teaching         Faculty/Instructional   •GTAs
  •The                Development          •Admin.
  •FD / ID
 Why are Teaching and
 Learning Centers
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   They help improve teaching and
    – The relationship between teaching /
      learning centers and student learning in
      most cases is an indirect, two step process
    – One body of research supports a positive
      relationship between teaching and
    – Another supports a positive relationship
      between faculty development activities
      and the performance of teachers
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   Few Faculty Have Training in the
    Basics of College-Level Teaching
   Pressure from Public & Legislatures to
    Demonstrate Impact on Students
   Rising Costs and Demands for
    – On Becoming a Productive University,
      Groccia & Miller, 2005
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   Criticism from Within the Academy
    – Derek Bok, Our Underachieving Colleges: A
      Candid Look at How Much Students Learn and
      why They Should be Learning More
    – Richard Hersh & John Merrow, Declining by
      Degrees: Higher Education at Risk
    – Massy, Wilger, Colbeck, Departmental Cultures
      and Teaching Quality: Overcoming ―Hollowed‖
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   Need to Improve Retention and Show
    Student Learning Outcomes
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   They Can Assist with Accreditation
SACS: Core Requirement 2.8
   “…The institution has adequate faculty resources to ensure
    the quality and integrity of its academic programs.”

SACS: Core Requirement 2.9
   “The institution…provides and supports student and faculty
    access to adequate library collections as well as to other
    learning/information resources consistent with the degrees
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers

   They Can Assist with Accreditation
SACS: Comprehensive Standard 3.4
 “…(b) establishes and evaluates program and learning

SACS: Comprehensive Standard 3.4.14
 “The institution’s use of technology enhances student
  learning, is appropriate for meeting the objectives of
  its programs...”
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers

   They Can Assist with Accreditation
SACS: Comprehensive Standard 3.5.1

   “The institution identifies college-level competencies
    within the general education core and provides
    evidence that graduates have attained those
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers

   They Can Assist with Accreditation
SACS: Comprehensive Standard
 3.7.1: “The institution also considers competence,
  effectiveness, and capacity, including as
  appropriate…continuous documented excellence in
  teaching, or other demonstrated competencies and
  achievements that contribute to effective teaching and
  student learning outcomes.”
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers

   They Can Assist with Accreditation
SACS: Comprehensive Standard
3.7.3: “The institution provides evidence of ONGOING
   TEACHERS, scholars, and practitioners.” (emphasis
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   Increasing Use of NSSE as Quality
   Increasing Attention to Teaching and
    Learning in Grant RFPs (e.g., NSF)
   Need to Prepare Next Generation of
    Faculty due to Retirements
   Changing Faculty Characteristics &
    Work-Life Realities
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   Changing Student Demographics
   Knowledge about How People Learn
    More Readily Available and Accessible
    – 7 Principles of Good Practice (Chickering
      and Gamson)
    – How People Learn (Bransford, Et. Al.)
    – Art of Changing the Brain (Zull)
Why are Teaching and
Learning Centers
   Changing Faculty Demographics and
    Work Life Realities
    – Universities must create more flexible
      career paths for tenure-track faculty to
      enter, thrive in and retire from academe.
    – Teaching/Learning Centers can help
      develop new strategies that will help
      facilitate success for this new
What Can Institutions Do to
Position Teaching and
Learning Centers to Support
Faculty Work?

   Take 2 Minutes and Write Down a few
    Ways you can Support Faculty and
    Instructional Development, Then
   Share Your Responses with a Neighbor
    for 3 Minutes
Possible Strategies

   Establish a Culture Within your
    University, College and Department
    that Supports Teaching and Learning
    – What you say Matters
    – What you do Matters Even More
Changing Faculty Culture


  Provide                  Assess &
  Support                  Reward
Possible Strategies

   Create Opportunities for Frequent
    Faculty Face-to-Face Interaction About
    Teaching and Learning
    – Attend Department Meetings on Teaching
      & Learning
    – Participate in Curriculum Review
    – Sponsor Departmental Teaching Colloquia
      and Seminars
Possible Strategies

   Help Identify and Work to Overcome
    Obstacles to Change
    – Time
    – Resources
    – Faculty Resistance
         Status Quo/Inertia
    – Lack of Motivation
    – Incentives
Possible Strategies

   Support the Scholarship of Teaching and
    Learning (
    – Provide Money and Time for Research on
      Teaching and Learning
    – Participate in Grant Writing , Grants
   Encourage Curriculum Development and
    Teaching Innovation Grant Writing (NSF,
    DED, NIH, USDA, etc.)
Possible Strategies

   Participate in National Initiatives
    (Carnegie, Pew, Peer Review, ISOTL,
    Campus Compact, IGERT, etc.)
   Work to bridge the Gap Between
    Junior and Senior Faculty
    – Establish and Support Mentoring
      Programs (e.g., Colleague Circles/AU New
      Faculty Scholars Program)
Possible Strategies

   Partner with Graduate School to
    develop Professional Development
    Opportunities for Graduate Students
    and Post Docs
   Develop Leadership Programs for
    Departmental Graduate Program
    Officers and Department Chairs
Possible Strategies

   Partner with Multicultural Affairs
    Offices to Develop Programs on
    Diversity, Inclusion, Teaching,
    Mentoring, and Faculty Development
   Partner with Instructional Technology
    Office on Programs, Activities, Grants
Possible Strategies

   Encourage Department Chairs to
    Support Equity in Teaching Loads and
    – Discourage By-outs of Teaching
    – Have Faculty Teach at all Levels
    – Rotate Teaching Assignments
   Give Presentations to Administration
Possible Strategies

   Establish Relationship with Development
   Assist Departments to Develop Valid and
    Reliable Peer Review Process
    – Make this Regular Part of Annual Review for All
    – Use Primarily for Formative Evaluation
    – Encourage Peer Observation
          Make Teaching Public Property (Shulman)
Possible Strategies

   Support Taking Student Evaluations of
    Teaching Seriously
    – Sponsor Workshops on Evaluation of Teaching
    – Discuss Results with Faculty
    – Use for Formative and Summative Purposes
    – Make Valid Comparisons (McKeachie)
    – Encourage Mid-Semester Feedback / SGIF
    – Support Use of CATs (Cross & Angelo)
Possible Strategies

   Work Toward Balanced Incentives
    – Make Teaching Quality a Necessary but
      Not Sufficient Condition for P & T
    – Establish Departmental / College Honors
      and Awards for Teaching
Possible Strategies

   Provide Opportunities and Support for
    Professional Development
    – Internal as Well as External
    – Encourage Participation in Disciplinary
      Association Workshops / Conferences on
Possible Strategies

   Support Creation of Departmental /
    College Resource Library on Teaching
    and Learning
   Help Establish Department / College
    Teaching Effectiveness Committee
   Support Interdisciplinary and Team
    Teaching and Research
Possible Strategies

   Encourage Flexibility for Work and Life
    Issues Throughout the Academic Career
    – Establish Collegial Environment
    – Help Shape P & T Requirements and Make them
    – Encourage Flexible Appointments and
      Probationary Periods
    – Encourage Family Friendly Policies and
Possible Strategies

   Work to Establish Expectations for
    Continuous Professional Development
    – Changing Faculty and Institutional Culture
Four Dimensions of Faculty
Work In The New Academy
   1. Teaching                      _____
   2. Research                      _____
   3. Service                       _____

   4. Professional Development      _____
     – Teaching
     – Research
     – Service
     – Outreach

                            TOTAL:   100%
Valuable Resource

   The Professional and
    Organizational Network in Higher
    Education—The POD Network

Wrap Up
I Hope I Have Provided

   Sound Reasons Supporting Faculty and
    Instructional Development and
    Teaching / Learning Centers
   Examples of What you can do to
    Support Faculty Work in the New
Or Maybe There is
Another Solution
   C:\Documents and

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