The Cold War – Part I

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					The Cold War – Korean
         War

         By Mr. Baker
    Korean War (June 1950)
    Japan had invaded Korea during WWII
    At Potsdam, the Allies agreed to divide the
     nation temporarily into a Soviet-occupied
     northern zone and an American-occupied
     southern zone
    Once the troops withdrew, in 1949, a
     Communist government was set up in the
     north, while a pro-American government
     was set up in the south
    Korean War (June 1950)
   In June 1950, North Korean troops crossed
    the 38th parallel in an attempt to reunite
    Korea
   Kim Il Sun didn’t expect the U.S. to support
    the South
   Russian troops had left, but Stalin still
    provided Kim with arms
   10% of the population in the South was
    communist and Kim thought they would
    support the forces from the North
Why Did the U.S. Intervene?

   It became an ideological dispute – containment of
    communism
   The fears of communism (McCarthyism) leads to
    the U.S. to intervene
   Sino-Soviet Pact signed in 1950 increased fears of
    USSR’s dominance in Asia
   Republicans blamed the Democrats and the
    Truman administration for “losing” China to
    communism in 1949
   The administration believed that firm action was
    believed to prevent the spread of communism
Why Did the Soviets and China Support
the North Koreans?
   Soviets:
     Wanted Kim and Mao to be dependent on the
      USSR
     Strengthen communism in Asia

     Kim might have turned to Mao

   China:
     It was a way of paying Kim back for support in
      the Chinese Civil War
     Mao wanted to be the international communist
      leader
    Korean War

   Douglas MacArthur was called upon to
    lead UN troops in Korea. He was in charge
    of the occupation of South Korea and
    Japan
   Before UN troops arrived, the North
    Koreans, supplied with Soviet tanks and
    air power, had swept through South Korea
    in just weeks. Only a small part of the
    country, near the port city of Pusan,
    remained
    Korean War

   NSC-68
     At first a buried document, Truman
      recommended in NSC-68 that the
      U.S. should increase its defense
      spending 4x
     The results were:
         3.5  million in the military and $50
          billion a year on defense
         A sense of almost limitless money
          for arms
         The U.S. could bear the strain of a
          huge rearmament program
                 Korean War
       United Nation’s Reaction
        To Korea
        The Soviets temporarily left
         the UN Security Council
        In June 1950, they
         unanimously condemned
         North Korea as the aggressor.
         The Soviets weren’t there to
         veto the vote (Taiwan)
        The Council called upon all
         UN members to help restore
         peace. Two days later,
         without consulting Congress,
         Truman ordered American air
         and naval units to support
         South Korea
Korean War

    He also ordered General Douglas
     MacArthur’s Japanese based
     occupation troops into action
     against the North Koreans
    Officially, the U.S. was participating
     in a UN “police action.” But in fact,
     the U.S. made up the overwhelming
     bulk of the UN contingents, and
     General MacArthur, appointed UN
     commander of the entire operation,
     took his orders from Washington,
     not from the Security Council
Korean War (September 1950)

   MacArthur suspected that the North
    Korean’s supply line was stretched
    thin. Therefore, he decided to land
    troops at Inchon, near the 38th
    parallel and attack enemy supply
    lines from behind
   The strategy worked, causing the
    North Koreans to withdraw to near the
    Yalu River
   MacArthur didn’t want the North
    Koreans regrouping and coming
    again
    Korean War (November 1950)
   At this point, the Chinese, who
    were Communist, told the UN
    to not advance any farther.
    However, MacArthur didn’t
    listen
   He didn’t believe that Chinese
    intervention would be effective
   Thousands of Chinese
    “volunteers” fell upon his
    overextended lines and
    pushed the U.N. forces
    southward
Korean War

       Humiliated, MacArthur wanted:
        The old Chinese government,
         which had taken refuge in
         Taiwan, go back to China and
         create a second front
        He also wanted to use nuclear
         bombs on China if they got
         involved
        A blockade of the Chinese
         coast
        Bombardment of Chinese
         bases in Manchuria
Korean War

   Washington’s Reaction
     Didn’t want to enlarge the war.
      Europe and USSR are priority #1
     MacArthur wrote Congress, criticizing
      the President
     Truman fired him. He feared that the
      war would escalate and possibly
      draw in the Soviets
     MacArthur was deemed a hero by
      many, while Truman was considered
      an idiot
     Ridgeway replaced MacArthur
Korean War

       After two more years, a truce
        was signed in 1953
       It left Korea in about the
        same state it was in before
        the war
       Deaths/Wounded:
         Americans – 55,000; 113,000
         South Korea – 415,004;
          428,568
         North Korea/Communist China
          – 2,000,000 casualties
    Effects of the Korean War
   First instance of fighting in the Cold War
   Nuclear war nearly occurred
   Koreans were forcibly conscripted
   The U.S. troops were told that any
    Koreans on the battlefield approaching
    their position were to be shot, so many
    thousands of innocent South Koreans
    were killed
   Crimes against POWs were committed
   The war strengthened alliances in the
    West, but alienated the Chinese and
    Soviets
   China held their own against UN/US
    forces, so they gained prestige
    Effects of the Korean War
   Showed the need to intervene in the Far East
    (increased aid to French in Indochina)
   Created three pacts with nations in the
    region:
      U.S.-Philippines
      U.S.-Japan
      ANZUS – Australia, New Zealand, U.S.
   Strengthening of NATO
   Proposal to rearm Germany
   Increased U.S. military expenditures
   Increased militarization of U.S. policy; before
    Korea the U.S. avoided sending troops to war
    in Asia; after Korea the U.S. was ready to
    send troops anywhere in the world
    Effects of the Korean War
   As a result of the Korean War, Truman
    recognized only Taiwan as the real
    China
   China obtained loans and technical
    assistance from the Soviets (engaged in
    the first 5-Year Plan)
   Caused the U.S. to be more sympathetic
    to the French in retaining Indochina
   Korea was left in about the same state
    as it was in before the war
   American deaths – 55,000; South
    Korean – 415,000; North
    Korean/Chinese – 2 mil casualties
    The Successes and Failures of
    Containment
   How successful was the policy of
    containment?
       The period resulted in a series of multi-party,
        capitalist western European states friendly to
        the U.S.
       Marshall Aid resulted in economic growth
       Territorially, communism made no gains
       Communist parties were doing less well in
        elections in Western Europe
       Korea was partly a success
       China was a big failure. $3 billion in U.S. aid
        had resulted in a communist victory
Massive Retaliation

    Eisenhower entered office in
     1953:
      Brinksmanship
      “Roll back” communism

      Massive retaliation

      No limited wars

      Strategic Air Command (SAC)
        Massive Retaliation
       It was developed by Secretary of
        State John Foster Dulles
         He condemned just containment; he
          wanted to “roll back” communism’s
          gains and liberate captive people
         Massive retaliation – no limited war;
          emphasized development of nuclear
          weapons
         One of Eisenhower’s military priorities
          was an airfleet of superbombers (called
          the Strategic Air Command, or SAC).
          They could carry nuclear bombs
         Brinksmanship – going to the verge of
          war without getting into it

				
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