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					          Project Management                                         A Project
                                               A Project -
    • Project Management                        a planned undertaking of related activities
       – Why?                                   to reach an objective
       – Gantt Charts                           that has a beginning and an end.
       – PERT Charts                                                         Hoffer, George and Valacich

                                                Ten problems with projects: (Bienkowski, 89)
             Project Problems                      –   The project is a solution in search of a problem
Some project problems:                             –   Only the project team is interested in the end result
   – imprecise estimation                          –   No one is in charge
      • too early in SDLC,                         –   The project plan lacks structure
      • poor technique,                            –   The project plan lacks detail
      • no historical data,                        –   The project is underbudgeted
      • inexperience,                              –   Insufficient resources are allocated
   – delays - over-runs                            –   The project is not tracked against its plan
   – unrecognised dependence                       –   The project team is not communicating
   – scope creep                                   –   The project strays from its original goals
   – “the mythical man-month”, Brooks (1975)      Solution:
                                                            employ Project Management techniques

          Project Management                                     Project Manager
• Principal roles (WBB p.770):                 Project manager is responsible to:
   – planning & task assignment
   – organisation & scheduling                   – client - for
   – directing & controlling                           • deliverables
                                                       • delivery time

• Plus:                                          – IS manager - for
   – morale maintenance                                • costs
   – inter-personal relationships

What is Project Management?                                              Project Management:
A set of techniques used for                                                    Context
   -    Planning                                                           Project Status
                                                                  IS                                                          PROJECT
   -    Organising and                                         MANAGER                      Deliverables
                                                                                                       Terms of
   -    Controlling                                                           Resource                       Deliverables         Assignments
                                                              Resource       Availability
                                                              Requests                        PROJECT
work activities                                                                              MANAGEMENT

to reach a desired result
                                                                                                               Task List
   -    on-time                                                                                     Organisation
   -    within budget and                                                                   Metrics

                                                                      STANDARDS                 METRICS
   -    according to specification.                                    LIBRARIAN                LIBRARY

Our simplified model of Project                                                          Project
 Management:                                             Terms of reference +
                                                         Resource availability +   Management:Overview
                                                         Task List +                                                  Assignments +
       1. Planning and Organising                        Organisation metrics                                         Project forecast
           •Activity definition                                                                   PLAN

           •Work Breakdown Structure                  requirements
           •Gantt Chart - Schedule of tasks                               Project Plan                         Project Metrics                metrics

           •Sequencing tool (CPM or PERT)           Completed item +
                                                    Proposed Terms of
Control:                                               Ref. Change                                     2                             4
                                                                          3                         MEASURE                       UPDATE
       2. Measure                                                       MANAGE                                                     ORG.
                                                      Deliverable                  Task status +
       3. Manage                                                                   Task metrics +                         Project status
                                                                                   Quality standards

       Project Management:                     1.   Terms of ref. +
                                                                      Project Management: 1. Plan
                 Plan                               Task list +
                                                    Rework Req.

  Establish clear & precise objectives                                     1.1                             Resource
                                                                        IDENTIFY                           availability
  Identify activities (tasks) required                                   TASKS                                                        1.4
  Prepare estimates of resource needs, times & $                                                                                  RESOURCES
  Prepare a management network
               CPM or PERT                               TASK LIST

  Identify critical activities                                                                        1.3                     PROJECT PLAN
                                                                                                                      Schedules            Network
Factors:                                                       1.2                                                                         Estimates
                                                             UPDATE                                                                        Task status
   – current status of tasks                                  TASK
                                                            NETWORK                                                                1.5
   – resources - availability                                                 PROJECT METRICS                                  SCHEDULE
   – task dependencies
                                                                        Org. metrics                       Project

                  Project Management:                                                           Project Management:
                       2. Measure                                            Task statuses +         2. Measure
                                                                             Task metrics

         Determine activity status                                                                    2.1
                                                                                                                                  Project Metrics
         Record activity status                                                                      TASK
                                                                                                                 Actual metrics

                                                                                                                                            Estimated metrics +
         Evaluate project status                                                                                                            Actual metrics

                                                                                               Task statuses
                                                                                        Project Plan                          PROJECT
                                                                                                           Task statuses

                                                                                                                                                    Project status +

             Project Management:                                                               Project Management:
                  2. Measure                                                                        3. Manage
     • Measurement of
         – effort expended on task                                               • Evaluate activity status effect on deliverables:
         – effort to task completion                                                – timing
         – percentage of task completion (earned value)                             – completeness
                                                                                    – quality
     • NOT simply a measure of hours expended
                                                                                 • Derive solutions to issues
             against estimated (ie not % complete)
                                                                                    – resource changes
     • & assessment of impact on project                                                       (but beware the ‘mythical man-month’)
         – costs                                                                    – reschedule tasks
         – schedule                                                              • Monitor scope
         – (scope & quality)                                                        – negotiate scope variations

                   Project Management:                                                 Project Management:
Completed items         3. Manage                                                  4. Update Organisation Metrics
          DELIVERABLES                                                           Organisational metrics

                                                                                     – permanent project records
                              PROPOSE                                                     • work done
       Deliverables issues     ISSUES
                             SOLUTIONS                                                    • times & resources
                                          Proposed Terms of Ref. changes +           – estimation base for future projects
         Project status +                    Resource requests
         Issues                              Rework requirements

    Project Management:                                                                 Project Management
4. Update Organisation Metrics
                                                                            Expectations Matrix (WBB p.781)
                                                                                              Priorities   Maximise/
                Project Metrics                                                                             mininise   Constrain   Accept
                                                                                Measures of Success

                                                                                Cost                                                X

                                  UPDATE                                        Schedule                      X

                                                             Project            Scope &/or Quality

   Project Management Resources                                                   Project Management Tools
 Computing equipment
                                                                            • GANTT CHART
 Software support and tools:
    CASE                                                                                       Schedule of activities
    Project Management (Gantt, CPM/PERT)
 Communications Environment                                                 • CPM              Critical Path Method
                                                                            • PERT Program (or Project)
 Support staff
                                                                              Evaluation & Review Technique

                   Gantt Charts                                                                  Gantt Chart
                                                                            (Henry Gantt)
  Each chart should have a legend explaining the meanings
                                                                            •    A bar chart
         2/10   9/10    16/10      23/10      30/10      6/11       13/11   •    Activities (or tasks - interchangeable term) down left side
                                                                            •    Can include columns for resources, dates etc
Task A
                                           Slack time
                                                                            •    Units of time across top (sometimes bottom)
Task B
Task C
                                                                                     egs days, weeks, months
Task D                                                                      •    Shows milestones (Points in time)
Task E
Task F                                                                      •    Used to Show (& compare) actual performance
Task G                                                                               against planned performance
Task H     Can easily add                               Milestone
            more tasks                                                      •    Simple, easy to read
                …..    Today               Legend:                          •    Does not generally show relationships between tasks
                 \/                                      Task Slack

                      Start & Finish                                                   Start & Finish Terms
                                                                               Start                  Finish
Consider - B is the same activity at different times
     Start                  Finish                                                                                 ES - Early Start
    A                               No Slack                                   B’
                                                                                                                   EF - Early Finish (Compl’n)
   B’                               Starts on time - slack at end                                                  LS - Late Start
  B’’                               Starts later, slack both ends            B’’’
                                                                                                                   LF - Late Finish
 B’’’                               Latest possible start, slack only
                                    at start
 B’’’’                              Resources reduced, duration                                                    Slack is generally LF - EF
                                                                                 ES              EF
                                    stretched to maximum
                                                                                        LS               LF

                    Slack Time (Float)                                              Gantt Chart - Example
                                                                          Student semester timetable.
 Activities with slack time can be delayed
 without impacting project completion date.                               • Assignments:
                                                                             – Each assignment is a task
                                                                                 eg GCO1813/2852 Assignment 1 is a task
 Shown as bars on Gantt, or in circles of                                    – Estimated effort is length of task bar (eg 8 hours long).
                                                                             – Due date x/x/x is a milestone.
                                                                             – etc for other assignments and other subjects
                                                                          • Exams:
                                                                             – Make an allowance for study revision time for each subject
 Activities in a sequence may ALL have slack
                                                                                these are tasks.
 (consider EF and LF for EACH activity)                                      – Each exam date is a milestone.

                Managing Progress
                                                                                      Gantt Chart Extensions
 Gantt Charts - Student schedule - showing Progress
             2/10    9/10   16/10     23/10    30/10   6/11     13/11      Gantt Charts can also show (For each
 Sub A 1
 Sub B 1
                                                                           • Resources (eg personnel allocated)
 Sub C 1
 Sub A 2                                                                   • Dates (any or all of ES, EF, LS & LF)
 Sub A 3
 Sub B 2                                                                   • Slack times
 Sub C 2
 Exams                                                                     • Durations
                            Today         Legend:                          • Dependencies
                                                    Progress Remaining
                                               Float          Milestone
                                                                           • Generally shows Critical Path

       Gantt Chart vs PERT Charts                                                               PERT Charts
                                                                     Two conventions:
  Gantt:                                                             • Task nodes - nodes represent tasks,
  • Visually shows durations                                                         arrows are relationships
  • Shows time scales and task overlaps                                   Most CASE tools show these as rectangles
                                                                          Learn this method, unless you are familiar
  PERT:                                                                   with the other convention
  • Shows sequence dependence                                        • Task arrows - arrows represent tasks,
  • Shows which tasks can be done in parallel                                        circles are events
  • Shows CP                                                         Define your ‘Legend’

      PERT Chart - node dependencies                                         PERT Chart - node dependencies

  Nodes are activities, arrows are relationships (dependencies)      Nodes are activities, arrows are relationships (dependencies)

                                                         15                                                                                                            15
                                                                                                             Critical Path
                                                     E                                                                                                            E
                                                          19                                                                                                               19
                                      13                             Task                                                          13
                         7                                                                              7
                     B            D                                                             B                          D
                         7            13                                                                7                          13
          4                                              19                      4                                                                                    19
      A                                              G                       A                                                                                    G
          4                                              19                      4                                                                                     19
                                                                                                                  Earliest completion time
                             6                  8                                                            6                                       8
                                                                                                                                                          Difference is Slack Time
                         C                  F                                                           C                                        F
                             17                 19                                                           17                                      19           (or Float)

                                                                                                                 Latest completion time

                                                                                     Critical Path is Tasks A, B, D and G

     PERT Charts -Task Nodes                                                 PERT Chart - task dependencies
• Circles      are project tasks (or activities)                                     Tasks are arrows, Nodes are called events
                       which require time and resources.
• Arrows       are relationships (dependencies) between tasks.                                                    7    D                    13
                                                                                                            3          6                                                            H
                                                                                                                  7                         13                G
                                                                                                B                                                                               0
                                                                                                    3                                                     6
• The Critical Path    identifies tasks on the path                      0       A          4
                                                                     1                  2
              requiring the longest time to complete.                    0                  4            C                     6                     F
                                                                                                        2              4                             2

  This path is critical as no activities on it have any reserve of
  slack or float time. A delay in one of these activities will
  impact the project completion date.

   PERT Charts - Task Arrows
• Circles      are milestone points or Events
                                                                     PERT Charts - task dependencies
               where tasks are initiated or finished.
                                                                                                                    Critical Path                                Dummy task
                                                                                   Event                                                            15
• Arrows       are project tasks (or activities)                                                                                                6
                                                                          Task                                                         E
                       which require time and resources.                                                     7      D
                                                                                                        3           6                                        H
               Relationships are shown.                                                        B             7                                  G        0
                                                                                                   3                                        6
                                                                         0                 4                                                                         19
                                                                               A                                                                                 7
                                                                     1                2
                                                                               4                        C                                                            19
• The Critical Path       identifies tasks on the path                   0                 4
                                                                                                                        6              F
                                                                                                                    4                  2
               requiring the longest time to complete.                                                                  17

  This path is critical as no activities on it have any reserve of                                                                Earliest completion time
                                                                             Expected duration
  slack or float time. A delay in one of these activities will
                                                                                                                             Latest completion time
  impact the project completion date.
                                                                                                                 Event number

       Project Management Tools                                                    Project Management
   • Project management tools incorporate:
                                                                     Quality - what is it?
      – task lists
      – PERT & Gantt charts                                              transcendent - innate excellence
      – resource availability                                            product-based - content, attributes, worth
      – personal & project calendars                                     user-based - fitness for purpose
      – task allocation
                                                                         manufacturing-based - conformance to specification
      – scheduling
      – actual-time recording
                                                                         value based = user + manufacturing base
                                                                         - what the user wants (at acceptable price),
      – reporting
   • eg. Microsoft Project, Project Manager Workbench, .....                 while conforming to specification (at acceptable cost)
                                                                                                    (Moses 1993)

            Project Management                                                                              Quality
   • Quality ‘methods’
       –   quality control                                           • Quality starts on day one of the project
       –   quality assurance
                                                                       and finishes on the last day of the project
       –   quality management
       –   total quality management
                                                                     • Is best achieved before the event
   • IS Quality Management Systems                                     not after (eg testing the product is too late)
       – inspection/certification based
       – identify quality - DO NOT provide it                        • Requires a commitment from the entire
       – can degenerate into form-filling exercise                     development team.