SPIRIT HEGEL’S DEFINiTION IN § 177 ‘A self-consciousness, in being an object, is just as much ‘I’ as ‘object’. With this, we already have before us the Notion [concept] of Spirit. What still lies ahead for consciousness is the experience of what Spirit – this absolute substance which is the unity of the different independent self- consciousnesses which, in their opposition, enjoy perfect freedom and independence: ‘I’ that is ‘We’ and ‘We’ that is ‘I’. ‘Reason is Spirit when its certainty of being all reality has been raised to truth, and it is conscious of itself as its own world, and of the world as itself.’ (§ 438) ‘Spirit is thus self-supporting, absolute, real being. All previous shapes of consciousness are abstract forms of it…*The+ isolating of those moments presupposes Spirit itself…’ THE TRUE SPIRIT. THE ETHICAL ORDER • HEGEL USES THE TERM ‘SITTLICHKEIT’, WHICH COMES FROM THE WORD ‘SITTE’ MEANING CUSTOM • TRUE SPIRIT IS THE SET OF PRACTICES WHICH DEFINES THE INDIVIDUALITY OF A CULTURAL/POLITICAL COMMUNITY • BUT THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF TRUE SPIRIT AGAIN BREAKS APART INTO SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE POLES (CONSCIOUSNESS IS AWAYS DIREMPT) THESE POLES ARE: HUMAN LAW (S) DIVINE LAW (0) MAN (THE AGENT WITHIN THE POLIS) WOMAN (CUSTODIAN OF FAMILY AND CUSTOM) CONSCIOUS UNCONSCIOUS CLASH BETWEEN ANTIGONE AND CREON (SOPHOCLES’ ANTIGONE) • THE FAMILY IS THE IMMEDIATE BEING OF THE ETHICAL ORDER • ‘GOVERNMENT IS THE REALITY OF SPIRIT THAT IS REFLECTED INTO ITSELF, THE SIMPLE SELF OF THE ENTIRE ETHICAL SUBSTANCE’ (§ 455) – SO THE GOVERNMENT IS SUBSTANCE BECOMING SUBJECT. BUT NEITHER CAN TAKE PRIORITY (IN NO SOCIETY COULD ALL PRACTICES AND CUSTOMS BE THE OUTCOME OF DELIBERATION – WE REALITY ON AN INEXHAUSTIBLE BACKGROUND OF SHARED UNDERSTANDINGS). – • ‘Neither of the two is by itself absolutely valid; human law proceeds in its living process from the divine, the law valid on earth from that of the nether world, the conscious from the unconscious, mediation from immediacy – and equally returns whence it came.’ (§ 460) • SINCE IN TRUE SPIRIT, INDIVIDUALS (NOT YET BEING FULLY SELF-CONSCIOUS INDIVIDUALS) INDENTIFY IMMEDIATELY WITH ONE OF THE ETHICAL POWERS, THE STAGE IS SET FOR TRAGIC CONFLICT (IN WHICH BOTH PARTIES HAVE RIGHT ON THEIR SIDE – OR CONVERSELY) WHY IS BURIAL SO IMPORTANT TO HUMAN BEINGS? HUMAN BEINGS ARE NOT MERELY NATURAL ENTITIES WHICH CAN BE LEFT TO DECAY AND RETURN TO THE EARTH (WE HAVE PROVED OUR SELF-CONSCIOUS AS SUPERIOR TO NATURE IN THE LIFE AND DEATH STRUGGLE, REPEATED BY POLYNEICES AND HIS BROTHER) • HUMAN BEINGS ARE NOT MERELY NATURAL ENTITIES WHICH CAN BE LEFT TO DECAY AND RETURN TO THE EARTH (WE HAVE PROVED OUR SELF- CONSCIOUS AS SUPERIOR TO NATURE IN THE LIFE AND DEATH STRUGGLE, REPEATED BY POLYNEICES AND HIS BROTHER ETEOCLES) • THE RELATION TO THE BROTHER IS THE PUREST EXAMPLE OF AN IMMEDIATE ETHICAL RELATIONSHIP • ETHICAL SUBSTANCE BECOMES THE ‘NEGATIVE POWER WHICH ENGULFS BOTH SIDES, THAT IS OMNIPOTENT AND RIGHTEOUS DESTINY STEPS ON THE SCENE.’ (§ 472) THE DOWNFALL OF THE POLIS NEITHER THE OLD MAN (CREON) NOR THE WOMAN (‘the everlasting irony in *the life of+ the community’ – §475) CAN TAKE CHARGE OF THE POLIS. INDIVIDUALISM KEEPS RESURGING IN THE FORM OF THE ‘YOUTH’ – THE YOUNG MAN (HALFWAY BETWEEN FAMILY AND POLIS) IS (AS SON) ‘LORD AND MASTER’ OF THE MOTHER WHO BORE HIM, (AS BROTHER) THE EQUAL OF THE SISTER, AND (AS HUSBAND) THE LIBERATOR OF THE YOUNG WOMAN FROM THE BONDS OF THE FAMILY. BUT THIS INDIVIDUALISM IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH IMMEDIATE SITTLICHKEIT - THE YOUNG MAN, ALEXANDER THE GREAT, ABOLISHES THE INDIVIDUALITY OF THE MULTIPLE CITY STATES, AND INTRODUCES AN ERA OF UNIVERSAL EMPIRE.