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					Listening and Speaking
                      EDUC4214
                 Fri. Oct. 26/07
              Anna-Marie Aquino
“The major motor of intellectual
         development”

        (Calkins, 2001)
               KEY MESSAGES
                Literacy for Learning 2004

   Talk is the foundation for literacy, and for thinking
    and learning at school and for life.

   J/I students need frequent, varied, and risk-free
    opportunities to think and talk about their learning

   Talk helps J/I students to learn, reflect on what they
    are learning, and to communicate their knowledge
    and understanding.

   Purposeful talk develops higher-order thinking skills.
    It helps students to make meaning, acquire new
    perspectives, and deepen their comprehension
   Higher-level questioning encourages students
    to think more deeply about ideas and
    information.

   J/I students need explicit teaching and
    modelling of talk that facilitates learning in
    whole group, small group, and one-on-one
    situations

   Student talk provides valuable information to
    help teachers assess a student’s learning in all
    subject areas and plan what a student needs
    next.
Listening and Speaking in
the J/I Classroom
1.   Pairs
2.   Small Group
3.   Whole Group
1.   Pair work: to think aloud, to acquire
     and reflect on information
2.   Small-group discussions: develop
     critical thinking skills, build positive
     relationships, work cooperatively,
     participate actively in learning. Model
     effective skills and provide opportunity
     to practice ina safe environment
3. Whole-class discussions:
  Students experience cooperation and a
  sense of belonging.
Teacher Tips

   Group size depends on the complexity
    of task, assessment data, past
    experience of students
   Groups with more than 5 are less
    effective. Begin with pairs & work up.
   Vary the criteria for forming groups:
    strengths, skills, ability levels, needs,
    interests and background
   In general, heterogeneous groups are
    best
What the Research Says

   David Booth (2004) argues that, “Talk is
    probably the main tool in promoting
    literacy.”
    Fountas and Pinnell (2001) “Four decades
    of research has established oral language as
    the foundation of reading and writing
    development, especially for intermediate
    students, who are expanding their use of
    literacy as a tool for learning (p. 21).” p.21
   In a spoken message, 55% of the meaning
    is translated non-verbally, 38% is indicated
    by the tone of voice, while only 7% is
    conveyed by the words used (Mehrabian,
    1981).
   The average person talks at a rate of about
    125 – 175 words per minute, while we can
    listen at a rate of up to 450 words per
    minute (Carver, Johnson, & Friedman,
    1970).
Benefits in the Classroom
Talking and listening provide students with the opportunity to:
 make and confirm predictions;
 consolidate thinking;
 clarify opinions about text read and viewed;
 bring voice to ideas, concerns, questions, experiences;
 provide an opportunity to voice concerns about topics of
   interest and passionate about;
 provide a starting point for stories, research and
   investigations; and
 rehearse thinking before communicating in different ways.
Stances

   Louise Rosenblatt (1978, 1983)
    identified two stances for reading:
    aesthetic and efferent. These stances
    are being applied here to listening and
    speaking as they are reciprocal
    processes that require similar
    behaviours depending on the learning
    situation.
   Nature of the task determines the stance
   Aesthetic and efferent stances represent
    two ends of a continuum
   Students often use a combination of both.
   For example, teacher read aloud:
    – students listen aesthetically for enjoyment
    – students use efferent listening to find important
      details as directed by the teacher
Aesthetic Speaking

    Reciprocal
    Used when the speaker is using oral
     language for pleasure or enjoyment.
    Examples include:
1.   Booktalks
2.   Storytelling.
1. Booktalks
   Oral book reviews.
   To introduce literature in a way that
    presents the most interesting, thrilling
    details of the story without giving away the
    plot.
   Students can write and present their own.
    (connecting writing to listening and
    speaking).
   Nancy Keane’s website
    http://nancykeane.com/booktalks/
2. Storytelling

   Gallets, 2005 study comparing the
    effects of storytelling and story
    reading.
   Storytelling develops both aesthetic
    and efferent speaking and listening
    skills.
Efferent speaking

    Reciprocal
    Used when the speaker is using oral
     language to provide the listener with
     information
    Examples include:
1.   Oral presentations
2.   Speeches
1. Oral Presentations

   To practice speaking and listening
    skills.
Oral Presentations:
Speaking

   Criteria should be clearly defined and explicitly
    taught.
   Teach the required skills and knowledge.
   Topics should start with personal experiences or
    interests.
   Schedule presentations regularly and far in
    advance.
   Vary the audience size.
   Peer assessment
   Connect to listening, viewing and visually
    representing
Possible topics for oral
presentations

   Sports experiences-a great game, a
    bad game, a recital or performance
   A family gathering
    A special event
   A collection (stamps, model cars,
    books)
   A trip or vacation
   Hobbies or special interests
2. Speeches


   Information speeches;
   Persuasion speeches; and
   Entertaining speeches
Accountable Talk
   Focus on the topic and purpose of the discussion
   Attend to the listeners needs and what others are
    saying
   Seriously respond to and build on what others have
    said
   Give evidence to support their points of view
   Help each other reach a common understanding,
    and share responsibility for the learning of the
    whole group.
Aesthetic Listening

    Listening for pleasure
    Examples include”
1.   Read alouds
2.   Playing music while students are
     working
3.   Allowing students to read their
     writing out loud to the class
Efferent Listening

    Used when listening to locate and
     remember information.
    Examples include:
1.   Small or large group discussions
2.   Working collaboratively to solve a problem
3.   Listening to a lesson
4.   Podcasting
5.   Oral Presentations
Podcasting

   Audio programs using the Internet.
   Students can download podcasts onto their computers and
    transfer these recordings to portable music players,
   Students can then listen to the files anytime and anywhere
    they choose.
   Provides English language learners with easy and quick access
    to a variety of topics that they can hear being spoken.
   Models English language
   Students can listen to podcasts about almost any subject that
    interests them therefore authentic
   Relatively new medium
English Feed

   Weekly
   Focuses on grammar and vocabulary while
    providing great listening practice.
   Ideal for beginning to intermediate level
    students to study basic structures like
    phrasal verbs, past forms, modals, listening
    comprehension quizzes.
   Includes the transcript, grammar resources
    and exercises included in each podcast.
English Teacher John Show
Podcast

   Focuses on understandable English
    speaking in an extremely clear voice
    (some might find the perfect
    pronunciation unnatural)
   Provides useful English lesson - ideal
    for intermediate level learners.
5. Oral Presentations

   Need explicit teaching
   To ensure that students are listening
    efferently -introduce a generic organizer
    early to keep track of the information being
    presented.
   As the year progresses, presenters might
    offer alternative organizers or students will
    use an organizer that best suits their own
    needs.
   The Canadian Literature Archive has
    links to audio excerpts of famous
    Canadian and other authors reading
    parts of their writing. Go to the
    website address:
    http://www.umanitoba.ca/canlit/ and
    then click on Live Readings to the left.

				
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