Listening and Speaking EDUC4214 Fri. Oct. 26/07 Anna-Marie Aquino “The major motor of intellectual development” (Calkins, 2001) KEY MESSAGES Literacy for Learning 2004 Talk is the foundation for literacy, and for thinking and learning at school and for life. J/I students need frequent, varied, and risk-free opportunities to think and talk about their learning Talk helps J/I students to learn, reflect on what they are learning, and to communicate their knowledge and understanding. Purposeful talk develops higher-order thinking skills. It helps students to make meaning, acquire new perspectives, and deepen their comprehension Higher-level questioning encourages students to think more deeply about ideas and information. J/I students need explicit teaching and modelling of talk that facilitates learning in whole group, small group, and one-on-one situations Student talk provides valuable information to help teachers assess a student’s learning in all subject areas and plan what a student needs next. Listening and Speaking in the J/I Classroom 1. Pairs 2. Small Group 3. Whole Group 1. Pair work: to think aloud, to acquire and reflect on information 2. Small-group discussions: develop critical thinking skills, build positive relationships, work cooperatively, participate actively in learning. Model effective skills and provide opportunity to practice ina safe environment 3. Whole-class discussions: Students experience cooperation and a sense of belonging. Teacher Tips Group size depends on the complexity of task, assessment data, past experience of students Groups with more than 5 are less effective. Begin with pairs & work up. Vary the criteria for forming groups: strengths, skills, ability levels, needs, interests and background In general, heterogeneous groups are best What the Research Says David Booth (2004) argues that, “Talk is probably the main tool in promoting literacy.” Fountas and Pinnell (2001) “Four decades of research has established oral language as the foundation of reading and writing development, especially for intermediate students, who are expanding their use of literacy as a tool for learning (p. 21).” p.21 In a spoken message, 55% of the meaning is translated non-verbally, 38% is indicated by the tone of voice, while only 7% is conveyed by the words used (Mehrabian, 1981). The average person talks at a rate of about 125 – 175 words per minute, while we can listen at a rate of up to 450 words per minute (Carver, Johnson, & Friedman, 1970). Benefits in the Classroom Talking and listening provide students with the opportunity to: make and confirm predictions; consolidate thinking; clarify opinions about text read and viewed; bring voice to ideas, concerns, questions, experiences; provide an opportunity to voice concerns about topics of interest and passionate about; provide a starting point for stories, research and investigations; and rehearse thinking before communicating in different ways. Stances Louise Rosenblatt (1978, 1983) identified two stances for reading: aesthetic and efferent. These stances are being applied here to listening and speaking as they are reciprocal processes that require similar behaviours depending on the learning situation. Nature of the task determines the stance Aesthetic and efferent stances represent two ends of a continuum Students often use a combination of both. For example, teacher read aloud: – students listen aesthetically for enjoyment – students use efferent listening to find important details as directed by the teacher Aesthetic Speaking Reciprocal Used when the speaker is using oral language for pleasure or enjoyment. Examples include: 1. Booktalks 2. Storytelling. 1. Booktalks Oral book reviews. To introduce literature in a way that presents the most interesting, thrilling details of the story without giving away the plot. Students can write and present their own. (connecting writing to listening and speaking). Nancy Keane’s website http://nancykeane.com/booktalks/ 2. Storytelling Gallets, 2005 study comparing the effects of storytelling and story reading. Storytelling develops both aesthetic and efferent speaking and listening skills. Efferent speaking Reciprocal Used when the speaker is using oral language to provide the listener with information Examples include: 1. Oral presentations 2. Speeches 1. Oral Presentations To practice speaking and listening skills. Oral Presentations: Speaking Criteria should be clearly defined and explicitly taught. Teach the required skills and knowledge. Topics should start with personal experiences or interests. Schedule presentations regularly and far in advance. Vary the audience size. Peer assessment Connect to listening, viewing and visually representing Possible topics for oral presentations Sports experiences-a great game, a bad game, a recital or performance A family gathering A special event A collection (stamps, model cars, books) A trip or vacation Hobbies or special interests 2. Speeches Information speeches; Persuasion speeches; and Entertaining speeches Accountable Talk Focus on the topic and purpose of the discussion Attend to the listeners needs and what others are saying Seriously respond to and build on what others have said Give evidence to support their points of view Help each other reach a common understanding, and share responsibility for the learning of the whole group. Aesthetic Listening Listening for pleasure Examples include” 1. Read alouds 2. Playing music while students are working 3. Allowing students to read their writing out loud to the class Efferent Listening Used when listening to locate and remember information. Examples include: 1. Small or large group discussions 2. Working collaboratively to solve a problem 3. Listening to a lesson 4. Podcasting 5. Oral Presentations Podcasting Audio programs using the Internet. Students can download podcasts onto their computers and transfer these recordings to portable music players, Students can then listen to the files anytime and anywhere they choose. Provides English language learners with easy and quick access to a variety of topics that they can hear being spoken. Models English language Students can listen to podcasts about almost any subject that interests them therefore authentic Relatively new medium English Feed Weekly Focuses on grammar and vocabulary while providing great listening practice. Ideal for beginning to intermediate level students to study basic structures like phrasal verbs, past forms, modals, listening comprehension quizzes. Includes the transcript, grammar resources and exercises included in each podcast. English Teacher John Show Podcast Focuses on understandable English speaking in an extremely clear voice (some might find the perfect pronunciation unnatural) Provides useful English lesson - ideal for intermediate level learners. 5. Oral Presentations Need explicit teaching To ensure that students are listening efferently -introduce a generic organizer early to keep track of the information being presented. As the year progresses, presenters might offer alternative organizers or students will use an organizer that best suits their own needs. The Canadian Literature Archive has links to audio excerpts of famous Canadian and other authors reading parts of their writing. Go to the website address: http://www.umanitoba.ca/canlit/ and then click on Live Readings to the left.