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Rendered animal products in fish feeds

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Rendered animal products in fish feeds Powered By Docstoc
					The use of rendered animal
    meals in aquafeeds
              Dr David Stone
         Subprogram Leader - Aquaculture
           Nutrition & Feed Technology
     South Australian Research & Development
        Institute (SARDI) Aquatic Sciences

       Manager - Australasian Experimental
       Stockfeed Extrusion Centre (AESEC)
             SARDI Aquatic Sciences

        Presented at the Annual General Meeting of the
     Australian Renderers Association, Carlton, Melbourne,
                Victoria, Friday 20th March 2009
      Overview of presentation
• Animal feed production, aquaculture
  production & aquafeed requirements
  – Global, Australian & Chinese
• Fish meal use in aquafeeds
• Do rendered animal meals stack up against
  fish meal on a nutritional basis?
• Issues with rendered animal meal use in
  aquafeeds
• The importance of the fish feed equivalency
  ratio or the “fish in : fish out” ratio
• Conclusions & Recommendations
  Estimated world industrial animal feed
production for major farmed species (2004)
    • Total
 ultry animal feed production was 620 million metric tons (mmt)
                    0.38
  tle World aquaculture feed production was 18.6 mmt
    •
      & ot          0.27
    • China now uses ~ 17 mmt aquafeed in 2006
                                                 Aquaculture
                          38%

                                                 Pigs

   32%
                                                 Poultry

                                                 Cattle & others
           3%            27%


                                                           Tacon et al. 2006
  Australian aquaculture production &
   aquafeed requirements in 2006/07

• 2006/07 aquaculture production = 62, 108 mt

• Required 55, 000 mt of fish feed

• Required 16, 500 mt of fish meal
  (assuming 30% dietary fish meal inclusion)



• Industry expansion positive

• Rather small market compared to ………
Chinese seafood & aquaculture production
    & aquafeed requirements in 2006

• 51 mmt of seafood produced
 (Howard Johnson 2008)


  – half of the global seafood production

• Aquaculture produced 34 mmt

  – Required the production of ~17 mmt of aquafeed

• Used ~3 mmt of fish meal
 (assuming 20% dietary fish meal inclusion)


  – or nearly ½ of all of the annual world fish meal
    production
   Predicted future expansion of Chinese
    aquaculture & aquafeed production
• Seafood demand predicted to be 65 mmt by 2025

  – Wild fisheries static or in decline,

  – Difference in demand (>14 mmt) met by aquaculture

• Require 40% increase in the current aquafeed
  production & current fish meal use

  – Close to all of the world fish meal supply

• Need more alternative protein sources
    Why is fish meal the protein source of
            choice for aquafeeds?
•   Fish grow well when fed fish meal as the main source of protein


•   Positives
    – Excellent palatability
    – High protein content
    – Excellent amino acid profile
    – Excellent lipid fatty acid profile (omega 3 fatty acids)
    – High nutrient digestibility
    – General lack of anti-nutrients


•   Negatives
    – Fish meal has been relatively inexpensive on a protein unit basis (until
      recently)
    – Production static at ~6 to 7 million metric tonnes (mmt)
    – Fish meal was in constant supply
    – Fish meal was widely available
   World fish meal use by various feed
            industries in 2002
ultry              0.22
  • Aquafeed industry used 46% or 3 mmt of world fish meal supply
 erAquafeed industry now uses the majority of the world fish meal
  •                0.08
   supply now in 2009

                                24%
                                                  Aquaculture
   46%                                            Pigs
                                                  Poultry
                                                  Other
                                22%
                  8%

                                                          Pike & Barlow 2005
Do rendered animal meals stack up to fish
meal on a nutritional basis for aquafeeds?
•   Various grades of rendered animal meals exist:
     –   feed grade
     –   pet food grade
     –   low ash
     –   flash dry
     –   defatted
     –   refined

•   Nutritional composition vary within & between types & grades

•   Comparison of rendered animal meals vs. fish meals for aquaculture
    feeds:
     –   Proximate composition
     –   Amino acid profile
     –   Apparent digestibility
     –   Maximum dietary inclusion level
     –   Cost per unit protein
            Proximate composition (% as-fed)
Meal description                  Dry Matter           Protein            Fat          Ash           Phosphorus


Herring                           93.0                 68.1               9.2          10.4          1.8

Menhaden                          92.0                 62.3               9.4          19.0          3.0

Meat & bone                       93.0                 50.0               8.5          33.0          4.7

Meat                              93.0                 55.0               7.2          25.0          4.0

Blood meal                        89.0                 80.0               1.0          4.4           0.2

Poultry by-product                92.0                 58-65              12.0         10 - 18       2.0

Hydrolyzed feather                92.0                 80.0               6.0          2.8           0.5

Refined Poultry                   94.0                 75.0               18.0         4.0           0.8

Source: NRC-Nutrient Requirements of Fish (1993); Stone unpublished data; Yu Yu 2008; Menghe et al (2008)
            Amino acid composition (% as-fed)
Meal description            Arg      His     Isol     Leu     Lys      Met Cys Phen         Thre   Tyr   Val



Herring                     4.0      1.5     2.9      5.2     5.4      2.0    0.6     2.7   3.0    0.7   3.4

Menhaden                    3.7      1.8     2.6      4.5     4.8      1.7    0.5     2.5   2.6    0.7   3.0

Meat & bone                 3.4      1.0     1.7      3.2     2.6      0.6    0.3     1.7   1.7    0.3   2.3

Meat                        3.7      1.1     1.9      3.5     3.0      0.7    0.7     1.9   1.8    0.4   2.6

Blood                       2.4      3.1     0.8      10.3 6.9         1.0    1.4     5.1   3.8    1.0   5.2

Poultry by-product 3.9               1.3     2.0      3.9     3.3      1.1    0.7     2.3   2.2    0.5   2.5

Hydrolyzed feather 6.5               1.7     4.1      7.1     2.1      0.5    4.1     4.3   4.2    0.3   5.5

Refined poultry             6.1      1.9     3.3      5.5     5.7      1.6    na      3.0   3.3    2.6   3.5
Source: NRC-Nutrient Requirements of Fish (1993); Yu Yu (2008); Menghe et al (2008)
   Apparent protein & energy digestibility & maximum
   dietary inclusion levels of rendered animal products.
Meal description     Fish species       Protein   Energy    Max inclusion      Source
                                        ADC (%)   ADC (%)   (% of fish meal)
Herring              Rainbow trout      >90       >90       100                Unpublished data
                     Marine carnivore   >90       >90       na                 Unpublished data
                     Silver perch       92        92        100                Allan et al 2000

Meat & bone          Rainbow trout      85        75        32                 Bureau et al 2000
                     Silver perch       73        78        80                 Allan et al 2000

Meat                 Rainbow trout      92        na        na                 Sullivan & Reigh 1995
                     Marine carnivore   ~80       ~80       na                 Unpublished data
                     Silver perch       84        82        90                 Allan et al 2000

Blood meal           Rainbow trout      91        89        10                 Sullivan & Reigh 1995
                     Marine carnivore   ~88       ~78       na                 Unpublished data
                     Silver perch       90        100       4                  Allan et al 2000

Poultry by-product   Rainbow trout      85        83        90                 Hardy & Cheng 2002
                     Marine carnivore   ~75       ~77       na                 Unpublished data
                     Silver perch       85        94        90                 Allan & Rowland 1999

Hydrolyzed feather   Rainbow trout      75        75        20                 Bureau et al 2000
                     Marine carnivore   ~55       ~60       na                 Unpublished data
                     Silver perch       92        101       20                 Allan et al 2000

Refined poultry      Rainbow trout      97        96        100                Unpublished data
                Fatty acid profile of oils & fats
                         (mg FA/g oil)
___________________________________________________________________
Item                   EPA       DHA      ΣEPA+DHA          Σω-3      Σω-6 Σω-3 : Σω-6
___________________________________________________________________
Menhaden oil            92           63      155             209       35          5.97


Pollock – AK oil       142           46      188             221       12         18.42


Poultry fat              -           -         -              5        154         0.03


Canola oil               -           -         -             86        187         0.46
_________________________________________________________________
 • Recommended human daily intake for prevention of coronary heart
   disease = 500 mg of EPA + DHA per day (International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids
   & Lipids)

 • Recommended dietary ratio for human health is approximately 0.25:1
   (Simopoulos 2000; Okuyama 2001)
                   Phase feeding (“finishing off”) strategies
  Selected FA concentration



                              Save $$$$
                              on fish oil

                                 PHASE I                      PHASE II
                              Feed animal fat          Finish off with fish oil
                                                      to achieve desired target

                                    Production cycle of fish (time)


Phase feeding strategy is developed to save on productions costs
 while still producing a healthful product for human consumption
                         Restoring the fatty acid profile of poultry
                                   fat fed rainbow trout
                          600                                                        Menhaden
                             Commercial menhaden oil fed RBT                         Pollock
                          500
                                                                                     Canola
DHA (mg / 100g tissue)




                          400                                                        Rockfish
                                                                                     Pink salmon
                          300

                          200
                                                               Wild RBT
                          100

                            0
                                      In it ia l         W eek 4           W eek 8
         180 g trout grown to                        T im e (w e e k s )
          450 g over 8 weeks
                    Cost per unit protein (as fed)
Meal description              Protein content               Cost per tonne            Cost per unit protein
                              (%)                           (US$)                     (US$/kg protein)
Herring                       68.1                          825                       1.21

Menhaden                      62.3                          750                       1.20

Meat & bone                   50.0                          300                       0.60

Meat                          55.0                          400                       0.73

Blood meal                    80.0                          600                       0.75

Poultry by-product            58-65                         400                       0.65

Hydrolyzed feather            80.0                          450                       0.56

Refined Poultry               75.0                          825 nominal               1.10

Source: Protein content NRC-Nutrient Requirements of Fish (1993); Stone unpublished data; Yu Yu 2008; Menghe et al (2008)
Source: Meal cost, University of Missouri Extension 12 march 2009.
Yes certain rendered animal meals stack up:


 •   Assuming the meal is of good quality fish grow well


 •   Rendered animal meals:
      –   High protein content
      –   Excellent amino acid profile
      –   High nutrient digestibility
      –   General lack of anti-nutrients
      –   Widely available
      –   Differences in fat quality (finishing diets)


 •   Major Plus!
      –   Rendered animal meals are relatively inexpensive on a protein unit basis compared to
          fish meal


 •   Need to provide feed mills with ingredient that they can store and process easily
    Why are rendered animal meals not the
    protein source of choice for fish culture?
•   BSE (Mad cow disease) in ruminant meals
     – Australian rendered meals classified as BSE free!
     – EU requirements confusing & constantly changing ruminant meat meal
       products excluded for use in feeds to produce fish for the EU & Japanese
       markets (poultry & blood meal products may be soon accepted in the EU
       markets)
     – Retail chain regulations may override legislation
     – Currently OK for Australia, China, USA

•   Variable nutritional value (feed producers need constant quality & supply)
     – May need to develop more refined products
           • low fat, low ash
           • Use brand name products (consistent quality)
     – Same problem has reduced the acceptance of plant meals such as CDGS

•   Market acceptance, health attributes & flavor:
     –   Animal fats impart bland flavor
     –   Animal fat are saturated! (health?)
     – No problem as we can finish of with fish oils
     The fish feed equivalency ratio or
          “fish in : fish out ratio”
•   Sustainable use of fish meal and fish oil to produce fish
    – World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Seafood Choices Alliance & the
      Monterey Bay Aquariums Seafood Watch program


•   WWF has developed the fish in: fish out ratio to measure & label
    seafood that has been produced in a sustainable manner (≤ 1)


•   The ratio accounts for the amount of natural marine resources
    used in the production of aquacultured seafood


•   This ratio or a modified version will be adapted within the
    impending Best Aquaculture Practices Certification Standards
    being developed by the GAA
    Benefits of the “fish in : fish out ratio”
     to rendered animal meal producers
•    The “fish in - fish out” topic is inextricably linked with industry
     sustainability & is viewed with particular interest by NGOs & major
     global members of the retail chain (Marks & Spencer)


•    In the near future access to international markets in Asia, Europe
     & the USA will be restricted if the acceptable fish in: fish out ratio
     is exceeded


•    Increased urgency of feed manufacturers to use alternative plant &
     animal protein meals & oils in the production of fish


•    The implementation of the ratio will provide a great opportunity for
     the increased use of rendered animal products in aquafeeds
      Conclusions & Recommendations

• Huge potential for rendered meat products to fill the
  ever-growing gap between fish meal supply & demand
  for aquatic feeds

• Identify & implement new technologies to reduce the
  total fat & ash content

• Brand name products to identify consistency

• Consideration to the production of co-products (mix of
  rendered animal meals with alternative plant proteins or
  oils)
       Conclusions & Recommendations
• Marketing strategies must be developed to promote the
  potential of rendered meat products to reduce our
  reliance on fish meals (target China)

• Take advantage of the implications of the “fish in : fish
  out ratio”

• Rendered products must be promoted as sustainable

• Marketing strategies should be developed & adopted to
  enlighten aquatic animal & feed producers of the
  application of finishing feeds
                               Australian Experimental
                             Stockfeed Extrusion Centre
                                  (SARDI AESEC)
                                Roseworthy, South Australia




• R & D, training courses
• Flexible system
• Pilot scale facility for
  commercial scale up
• Throughput 100-600 kg/h
• Minimum batch ~100kg
• Vacuum infusion system
• Milling & drying
  equipment

				
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Description: Rendered animal products in fish feeds