Sparkling Wine Production

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					Sparkling Wine Production

   WIGA Christmas Social
    December 8, 2009
                   Safety First
• Sparkling wine may be crafted with
  up to 6 atmospheres of pressure
  (84 psia) of CO2
• Beware of shrapnel
  – Glasses (goggles) / gloves should be
    worn while handling bottles prior to
    disgorgement
  – Care must be taken sabering sparkling
    wines – again the bottle could shatter
    / the sabered end will become a sharp
    glass missile.
    Different types of carbonation
• Wine carbonation
   – Same essential method as used in
     production of soda pop
   – Same result – large bubbles, less of them –
     max pressure is ~35 psi
• Charmat process
   – Wines are carbonated in a bulk pressure
     tank and then bottled (carbonation could
     be from secondary fermentation or CO2
     injection
• Method Traditionelle
   – CO2 produced in the bottle during a second
     fermentation process
   – Yeast must be subsequently removed
             What’s your goal?
• If you want to produce a quality
  sparkling wine, secondary
  fermentation in the bottle is the
  only way to get the fine, persistent
  bubbles so highly valued by
  sparkling aficionados
• If you are looking at more of a
  “cider” end product, then CO2
  injection may be worth
  considering (certainly less work /
  lower cost)
   How to make a sparkling wine
1. Prepare base wine (cuvée)
2. Bottle & secondary
   fermentation
3. Remuage (Riddling)
4. Disgorgement
5. Dosage
            Prepare base wine (cuvée)

• Grapes should be picked between 15 – 18 brix, 10 –
  18 g/l TA, pH 2.9 – 3.2
• Cuvee must be flawless
    – Any flaws in the base wine will be amplified by CO2
• Typically very little skin contact (whole cluster
  pressing), unless dealing with an aromatic sparkling
  wine
• If colour is desired (rose) cold soak only so to avoid
  extracting astringency
• Yeasts for primary fermentation vary, but are
  typically selected to make an austere cuvee
• Typically fermented in stainless steel
• Wine must be protein stable, cold stable prior, and
  filtered (sterile) prior to bottling & secondary
  fermentation
    Bottle & secondary fermentation

• Bottling assembles the following
  components
   – Base wine
   – Additional sugar to produce CO2
      • 25.2 g sugar / liter wine will yield 6 atm CO2
      • Also adds 1.1 – 1.5% alcohol
      • Petillants posses 2 -2.5 atm pressure
      • Creamants possess ~3.5 atm (require 15-18
        g/l sugar)
      • Mousseuxs require 25 g/l, yield 4.5 atm +
   – Yeast
   – Riddling aids may be added
Secondary fermentation continued
• Yeast
   – Traditional yeast for secondary
     fermentation is DV-10
   – Available loose, or as encapsulated yeast
   – Encapsulated yeast eliminates the need
     to riddle the wine
   – Traditional yeast, aged surlie will impart
     specific aromas from autolization of the
     yeast which are desirable in a traditional
     French Champagne
• Fermentation typically cool (<60 deg
  F), bottles are stored on their sides
          Remuage ( Riddling)
• Lengthy process to move yeast
  sediment to neck of bottle prior
  to disgorgement
• Bottles are rotated, oscillated
  and gradually oriented so that
  their necks are down, and yeast
  is all accumulated in the neck
• Not required for encapsulated
  yeast!
           Disgorgement
• Bottles are chilled (CO2
  more soluble in wine at
  low temperatures)
• Necks are frozen (using
  Brine, or other
  methods)
• Bottle cap is removed,
  ice plug ejects (with
  yeast)
                              Dosage
• Final additions before corking/capping
• Used for balancing/tweaking final product
• Wine, sugar, brandy, SO2, ascorbic acid, citric
  acid all possible additions
• Sugar additions (to sweeten/balance acidity):
    –   Brut Naturale (no sugar added)
    –   Brut 0-15 g/l
    –   Extra Dry 12 – 20 g/l
    –   Sec 17-35 g/l
    –   Demisec 33-50 g/l
    –   Doux >50 g/l
• Dosage must be brilliantly clear & filtered – to
  avoid gushing
                       Tasting!
• All sparkling wines selected have
  been fermented in the bottle
• All have been made from local
  grapes (grown on Vancouver
  Island or Quadra)
• 4 utilize traditional yeast / require
  riddling
   – 2 utilize encapsulated yeast
• 2 use traditional grapes (Pinot
  Noir, Pinot Meunier, Chardonnay),
  4 use non-traditional grapes
             Venturi-Schulze
• Equal amounts Pinot Gris / Pinot Auxerrois,
  with a small amount of Kerner (acid
  addition)
• Fermented separately, blended prior to
  secondary fermentation
• Traditional yeast (DV-10), aged surlie
• No dosage
• No sulphites added
                    Zanatta
• Tradizionale, allegria (rose), taglio rosso (red)
• Tradizionale – Pinot Noir & Chardonnay
• Allegria Brut – Pinot Noir
• Taglio Rosso – Cabernet Sauvignon & Castel
• All secondary fermentation using traditional
  yeast / riddling
• All aged surlie (18,18,12 months)
                     South End Farms
Jimmy K 2008

• Named after a friend of the farm, this Pinot Gris is like his personality:
  sparkling, crisp, with green apple flavour. Made in the method
  champenoise style with final fermentation in the bottle. It’s bubbly,
  ENJOY!

• Variety: Pinot Gris grapes

• Harvest: Hand picked on Oct. 10 at Nevermore Farm, Quadra Island.

• Fermentation and aging: Primary fermentation and bulk aging in steel
  tanks, secondary fermentation in bottle.

• Analysis: Alc. 11.9%alc./vol.
          Rocky Creek Winery
• Katherine’s Sparkle 2008 (Brut
  Naturale)
• 45% Ortega, 25% Gewürztraminer,
  25% Bacchus, 5% Siegerrebe
• Fermented separately, blended
  prior to bottling & secondary
  fermentation
• Encapsulated yeast (DV-10)
  utilized
• No Dosage
                      More Information
• A Review of Méthode
  Champenoise production – Bruce
  Zoecklein
    – http://www.fst.vt.edu/extension/enology/downlo
      ads/463-017.pdf
• Vinification Methode Traditionelle: Vinification
  by Encapsulated Yeast: Champenoise Style –
  Peter Brehm
    – http://www.brehmvineyards.com/2006Champeno
      iseRecipe.pdf
• Scott Labs Encapsulated yeast ProElif (DV -
   http://www.scottlab.com/products/fermentation/documents/Usersg
   uideforProElif.pdf