Soft Tissue Injuries - PowerPoint - PowerPoint by rt3463df

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									  Soft Tissue Injuries

Includes injuries to skin, muscles,
     tendons, and ligaments
           Soft Tissue Injuries
• The most common injuries in fitness and
  recreation fields

• Injuries to these tissues are usually a result of
  a direct blow, a twisting action, or a stretching
  of the tissue. Sometimes the injury develops
  over time – it is then called an “overuse
  injury”
           Soft Tissue Injuries
• The body’s response to soft tissue injury is
  INFLAMMATION
  – Increase in local blood circulation
  – Brings WBC’s to the area to fight infection and
    clean up old/damaged cells
  – Occurs immediately – can last 2-4 days
Classification of Soft Tissue Injuries
• Muscle
  – Function:
      • causes movement at joints by contracting and pulling on tendons
        that are attached to bones
  – Type of injury
      • STRAIN: tearing of muscle or muscle-tendon tissue
      • BRUISE (contusion): bleeding in the muscle tissue caused by direct
        blow
  – Examples
      • A hockey goalie does the splits to stop a puck and teas the muscle on the back of
        his leg
      • Two outfielders collide while chasing down a fly ball, leaving one with a bruised
        thigh from the impact
Classification of Soft Tissue Injuries
• TENDON
  – Function
     • Joins muscle to bone (ex. Achilles tendon attaches calf
       muscle to heel)
  – Type of injury
     • Strain
  – Example
     • A tennis player reaches for a drop shot, overextending
       the calf muscles, and feels a sharp pain in the heel
Classification of Soft Tissue Injuries
• LIGAMENT
  – Function
     • Noncontracting tissue joining bone to bone; stabilizes
       joints
  – Type of Injury
     • Sprain: ligament fibers are stretched and/or partially or
       completely torn
  – Example
     • A basketball player lands awkwardly after a jump shot,
       causing his ankle to roll over
Classification of Soft Tissue Injuries
• CARTILAGE
  – Function:
     • semi-bone tissue found on the ends of bones or
       wedged between two adjacent bone surfaces to
       provide a gliding surface or act as a shock absorber in
       the joint
  – Type of Injury
     • Torn Cartilage: tearing of cartilage tissue, usually as a
       result of a forceful twisting injury
  – Example
     • A downhill skier catches his ski on a gate and violently
       twists his knee
Classification of Soft Tissue Injuries
• SKIN
  – Function:
     • seals out air, water, germs; evaporation of sweat for
       cooling
  – Types of Injury
     • Laceration: cut
     • Abrasion: broken surface
     • Blister: a fluid-filled pocket
  – Example:
     • Asphalt burn, blister on heel from running, etc.
                S.H.A.R.P.
• Signs of soft tissue injury
  – S = swelling
  – H = heat
  – A = altered function
  – R = redness
  – P = pain
                S.H.A.R.P.
• Swelling
  – Damaged cells release their contents into
    surrounding tissues, which causes puffiness at
    injury site
  – Most critical factor in slowing down recovery time
  – Essential to limit swelling as soon as possible

• Heat
  – increased circulation to injured area brings warm
    blood
                  S.H.A.R.P.
• Altered Function
  – Cannot move the limb as normal

• Redness
  – Increased local circulation also causes redness

• Pain
  – From inflammation; coupled with pain signals
    from stretched nerves
     • Ask injured person to assess pain on scale from 1-10
  Treatment of Soft Tissue Injury
• Immediate treatment can limit the
  inflammation stage and allow body to begin
  healing sooner
  – Prevents further damage
  – Reduces pain
          R.I.C.E. Treatment
• R = rest / restricted movement
   – Prevents “loose” joint; chronic pain
   – Taping / splints
   – Improves chances of healing in proper position


• I = Ice
   – Reduces pain
   – Diminishes circulation and limits swelling
   – Apply ice for 15-20min every hour during first 24-48h
        R.I.C.E. Treatment
• C = Compression
  – Apply directly
     • Reduces swelling and loss of blood
     • Always have a barrier between skin and open wound
     • Use elastic bandage and padding


• E = Elevation
  – Above heart level
     • Encourages venous blood flow towards heart
          Return to Activity
• Monitor after minor injury

• Safe to resume activity if;
   –   There is no pain
   –   Flexibility is normal
   –   Strength can be demonstrated
   –   Person shows the ability to perform the movements
       required by the activity

• Keen participants may try to fake full recovery
Assessing Readiness to Return to Action
• Progressive series of activities for lower leg
  injuries includes many of the following;
   –   Stand on both feet
   –   Rise on toes
   –   Do a knee bend
   –   Walk in a straight line
   –   Walk in a circle
   –   Jump on the spot
   –   Hop on the injured leg
   –   Jog in a straight line
   –   Jog in a circle
          Rehabilitation
• Promotes physical restoration of strength and
  flexibility to the injured tissue

• May include physiotherapist, chiropractor,
  athletic therapist, kinesiologist, and/or other
  qualified health care professional

• Various methods depending on the type and
  extent of injury
            Rehabilitation
• Cryotherapy
   – Use ice for first 48h after injury to reduce swelling
   – An easy way to apply ice is to freeze warm water in foam
     drinking cups

• Massage Therapy / Ultrasound
   – Use when the pain and swelling have subsided
   – Can help break down scar tissue

• Proprioceptive Training
   – Damaged nerve fibers compromise proprioception
   – Involves retraining of nerve pathways

								
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