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					SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES
               is funded principally
              through a grant of the

       SPE FOUNDATION
        The Society gratefully acknowledges
     those companies that support the program
           by allowing their professionals
             to participate as lecturers.
Slim Hole Technology

     Roger Hough
     Shell Canada
This presentation will:
  Give an overview of slim hole
   technology
  Define why it is only now gathering
   momentum
  Provide some case histories
  Explore the prospects for the future
Slim Hole Technology


       What is slim hole?
       Types of slim hole drilling
       Why slim hole?
       Problems and solutions
What is Slim Hole?
    SHDEC: Drilling , evaluation and
     completion technology which allows
     fully engineered 6 1/4" and smaller
     holes at TD.
    Slimline well: Well with a cost-effective
     design around an optimal production
     conduit.
    Logging: Anything smaller than 4 3/4",
     or minimum 2 7/8". Tool OD 2 1/4"
Types of slim hole drilling:

        Shallow Rotary
        Continuous coring
        Downsized Conventional
        Combination
        Small horizontal sidetracks
        Coiled tubing drilling
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Completion Technology

                                                         3
                                                             /4
  20”                                               10            “

                                                        5/
  13   3
           /8  “                                    7     8“      L


                                      1                                              PBR tie-back
                                      3   /
                                              “ tubing
                                              2


                                                             1
                                                                                     Rotating liner
                5/                                       5            “L
           9      8“                                              /
                                                                      2              hanger




                       7”
                       Conventional                                       Monobore
Monobore Toolkit
      Restriction                  Full bore



                                               High rate jet cleaner

                    Jet cleaner                Packer flow meter

                    PLT
                                               Full-bore CT mill

                    Under reamer
                                               Straddle packer


                                               Retrievable straddle
                    TTBP
                                               Electro line set bridge plug
Typical 3 1/2” monobore completion
                        Standard 3 1/2” flow
                        control equipment
                        with 2.813 seal bore ID

                        Side pocket mandrels
                        with 2.813” seal bore ID
                        Liner hanger complete
    5 1/2” 17 lb/ft     with tubing tieback
    production casing
                        Retrievable straddle


                        Retrievable or
                        permanent bridge plug
    3 1/2” 9.2 lb/ft
    production liner
Slim hole producers


    A 3 1/2” monobore can produce 4000 b/d
     or 50MMscf/d
    Downsizing a completion from 7” to 3
     1/2” can reduce well costs by 15-40%
    Production Rate vs Tubing Size
     100000                                                       100
      50000                                                       50

     25000                                                        25
                                                                        Wet
Gross 10000                                                       10    Gas
Rate
                                                                        Rate
b/d    500                                                              MMscf/d
       0
       2500

      1000

       500


              20   40   60   8      10      120    140     16   180    mm
                             0 1/2” 0
                             3           4 1/2”   5 1/2”   0    7”     inch
Well Productivity vs Diameter
              1.
              1
              1.05


              1.0
Relative PI
              0.95


              0.9


              0.85
                     0   5         10            15   20
                             Bit Diameter (inches)
Slim hole producers
    For Shell’s existing reservoirs on a
     worldwide basis:
     – 40% of the oil originally in place would be
       produced by existing technology
     – 20% would be bypassed
     – 20% would be residual oil saturation
    Recovery of half the remaining oil would
     increase recoverable reserves by 50%.
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Why Slim Hole?

     Exploration in immature areas
     Exploration in mature areas
     Production applications
     High pressure / temperature wells
     Safety
     Environmental
     Logistics
     Economics
Problems and Solutions
         Problem                Solution
         Cementing              Enhanced liners, improved
                                 slurries
         Fishing                Fishing tools
         Drillstring failures   Vibration mitigation, high
                                 torque drillstring
         Well control           Accurate flow in / out
                                 measurement
         Limited evaluation     Slim hole logging and
                                 testing tools
         Small clearances,      Shear thinning fluids /
          high ECDs, hole        formates, thruster to
                 problems                 replace DC
         Bit life, poor         PDC bits, anti-whirl bits,
          penetration rate
Problems and Solutions
         Problem                Solution
         Cementing              Enhanced liners, improved
                                 slurries
         Fishing                Fishing tools
         Drillstring failures   Vibration mitigation, high
                                 torque drillstring
         Well control           Accurate flow in / out
                                 measurement
         Limited evaluation     Slim hole logging and
                                 testing tools
         Small clearances,      Shear thinning fluids /
          high ECDs, hole        formates, thruster to
                 problems                 replace DC
         Bit life, poor         PDC bits, anti-whirl bits,
          penetration rate
Slim hole fluid pressure drops
                          0


                                    Formate mud



          3 1/2” DP




                                                  Chalk mud
    7”
          2 7/8” DP
    5”
                       5000 m
          4 1/8” Bit            0                        250 bar
Problems and Solutions
         Problem                Solution
         Cementing              Enhanced liners, improved
                                 slurries
         Fishing                Fishing tools
         Drillstring failures   Vibration mitigation, high
                                 torque drillstring
         Well control           Accurate flow in / out
                                 measurement
         Limited evaluation     Slim hole logging and
                                 testing tools
         Small clearances,      Shear thinning fluids /
          high ECDs, hole        formates, thruster to
                 problems                 replace DC
         Bit life, poor         PDC bits, anti-whirl bits,
          penetration rate
Problems and Solutions
         Problem                Solution
         Cementing              Enhanced liners, improved
                                 slurries
         Fishing                Fishing tools
         Drillstring failures   Vibration mitigation, high
                                 torque drillstring
         Well control           Accurate flow in / out
                                 measurement
         Limited evaluation     Slim hole logging and
                                 testing tools
         Small clearances,      Shear thinning fluids /
          high ECDs, hole        formates, thruster to
                 problems                 replace DC
         Bit life, poor         PDC bits, anti-whirl bits,
          penetration rate
Kick detection system
      BNP
            SPM
                      SPP P                   Computer   Alarm
                              Flow in

                                   Flow out


             Max


             Min


                  P
                                 BOP
Problems and Solutions
         Problem                Solution
         Cementing              Enhanced liners, improved
                                 slurries
         Fishing                Fishing tools
         Drillstring failures   Vibration mitigation, high
                                 torque drillstring
         Well control           Accurate flow in / out
                                 measurement
         Limited evaluation     Slim hole logging and
                                 testing tools
         Small clearances,      Shear thinning fluids /
          high ECDs, hole        formates, thruster to
                 problems                 replace DC
         Bit life, poor         PDC bits, anti-whirl bits,
          penetration rate
Standard Thruster
                        Hookload
         Drillpipe
                                   No thruster
         Drillcollars


         Thruster
                                   Thruster
         Mud Motor                 in use


         Bit
Soft Torque Rotary Table

                              SCR



         Rotary


                              Drive
                              motor
                  Drillpipe
Field Validation of MKII STRS




           ON        Time = 60s
Problems and Solutions
         Problem                Solution
         Cementing              Enhanced liners, improved
                                 slurries
         Fishing                Fishing tools
         Drillstring failures   Vibration mitigation, high
                                 torque drillstring
         Well control           Accurate flow in / out
                                 measurement
         Limited evaluation     Slim hole logging and
                                 testing tools
         Small clearances,      Shear thinning fluids /
          high ECDs, hole        formates, thruster to
                 problems                 replace DC
         Bit life, poor         PDC bits, anti-whirl bits,
          penetration rate
Problems and Solutions
         Problem                Solution
         Cementing              Enhanced liners, improved
                                 slurries
         Fishing                Fishing tools
         Drillstring failures   Vibration mitigation, high
                                 torque drillstring
         Well control           Accurate flow in / out
                                 measurement
         Limited evaluation     Slim hole logging and
                                 testing tools
         Small clearances,      Shear thinning fluids /
          high ECDs, hole        formates, thruster to
                 problems                 replace DC
         Bit life, poor         PDC bits, anti-whirl bits,
          penetration rate
Integration is important
                       mwd               pump strokes
           p
                       mud viscosity         GPM
     pd        pda
                       mud density

                       mud temperature
     pc        pca


     pt               ecd



     pm               dp RPM
                                             WOB
                       torque
     pb                               bit TFA
                                       bit aggressiveness
Case Histories - Exploration




               BP - West Africa
Slim Hole Well Configuration
                                       10 /4 in
                                         3
          20 in
        conductor                       cond


          17       1 /2                      7/
                                         9     8




               1/
          12           4
                                         6
                                             3
                                                 /8




           8
               1
                   /
                       2
                                             4.8

           6               Reservoir                  3.8
                            3000 m                          SPE/IADC 25724
  Slim Hole Wellsite
  Environmental Impact

            Slimhole
                              60 m
               site
                                         120 m
              75 m

              Conventional site
                       150m
•Hole diameters reduced by 50%
•Mud consumption and cuttings reduced by 75%
•Site reduced by 75%
•Overall costs reduced between 40% and 50%
                                       SPE/IADC 25724
Case Histories - Exploration

            Guatemala
Positive Learnings
  Lower day rate
  Lower material costs
  Lower location preparation costs
  Lower Mob/ demob costs
  Less waste disposal
  Smaller crew
Negative Learnings
  Poor hydraulics
  High ECDs - unable to get desired mud
   weight
  Hole erosion due to high annular velocities
  Limited choice of bits
  Non standard tools
  3 1/2” logging tools unsuitable for 4 1/4” hole
Case Histories - Exploration




                        Madagascar
Madagascar
Slim vs Conventional
      MDZ-1           MDS-1
                                         9 5/8 “

                                          7”


                                         5”

      2500m        8.1/2” 2200m         4.1/4”
       Cost 100%                  60%
Madagascar Cost Comparisons

           12



$US        8
millions

           4



            0
                Well 1   Well 2   Well 3   Slim-hole
                                              well
Positive Learnings
  Reduced tonnage, location, construction work
   and waste material
  Reduced driving hazards (1/2 the trucks)
  Reduced environmental impact
  Kick detection - 20L detected
  Antivibration technology -> gauge 4 1/4” hole
  Good quality logs
Negative Learnings
  Assorted rig packages
  5000 psi design - 3600psi available
  Bit TFA too high - bit selection poor
  Mud pump used for cementing
Case Histories - Production


           Germany
    Field Experience Retrofit SHD
                                                5
           24 2”
              1
                  /                          18 /8“                     13 3 /8“



                                                                            5
            18 ”
                      5/
                        8                    13 3 /8“                     9 /8“


                                                    5
             13 3 /8”                          9 /“
                                                  8                         7“L

                       5
                  9 /8“                             7”L                         5” L
                                                                 7                            1
                                   8 1 /2“                      5 /8“                        4 /8“
5000 m                7”L          OH               5”L         OH             “
                                                                                1
                                                                            3 /2 L           OH
Well costs                  100%                          75%                          60%
Cuttings volume             100%                          60%                          30%
Case Histories - Production


           House
           Mountain
Hole Geometry




             25 deg/30 m
     2120m
                                7
                            3       /
                                        8   “
                    565 m
Where is slim-hole going?
  Slim hole technologies are proven and
   reliable.
  The industry is beginning to embrace
   slim hole - first operators and service
   companies, now the drilling contractors.
  A start can be made with retrofit systems
   before committing to a dedicated rig.
  New applications are emerging.
New Applications
    Coiled tubing drilling
     – Ultra Short Radius Jetting
     – Underbalanced drilling
     – Expandable Tubulars
     – Coiled Tubing Completions
    Dedicated Slim Hole Rigs
       Typical slim hole casing schemes
                                   10.3/4"
                                     or                                  10.3/4"            3.1/2"
            8.3/4" - 8.3/8"                            12.1/4"             or
                                   9.5/8”                                                   Tubing
  7"                                                                     9.5/8”             Monobore
            6.1/4" - 5.7/8"                         9.7/8" - 8.3/8"
  5"                               7.5/8" - 7"                           7.5/8" - 7"
                                                    6.3/4" - 5.3/4"
               4.1/4" - 4.1/8"
                                      5.1/2" - 5"                         5.1/2" - 5"
  3.1/2"

                                                       4.3/4" - 4.1/8"
                 2.7/8" - 2.5/8"                                                   3.1/2"
                                      4" - 3.1/2"

                                                            3.3/8" - 2.5/8"
                                                                                            2.7/8" - 2.5/8"
BHI SH
manual     RE-ENTRY                     EXPLORATION                   DEVELOPMENT / PRODUCTION
Case Histories - Production



  Peace River
New Generation Slim Hole
Rigs


   Euroslim (Forasol / Elf / Total / DBS)
   Simpler (Sedco-Forex)
   Kenting Rig 11
   Hybrid CT units
Slim Hole Wellsite -
the shrinkage continues
 Simpler
           16.5
     44            32m
  Foraslim                    60 m
    26m

                   Slimhole           120 m

            75 m



                  Conventional site

                      150 m
Multidisciplinary Crew

   Rig Team                8 (15)
   Maintenance Team        3 (5)
   MWD / Logging           1 (3)
   Total                  13 (23)

     Conventional Operations (40)
Next Steps
  Good planning and integration of a slim-hole
   campaign is needed with all parties.
  Design the well from inside out.
  Compromises may be needed, but the result
   should be better information for less cost,
   reduced finding / lifting costs, increased
   reserves, better safety and S.D.
  Slim hole is coming - it’s up to oil company
   and contractor alike to benefit from it.

				
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