Sit ins Sit ins Freedom by rt3463df


Freedom Riders                  Civil Rights

    The basic African American and Noemi C students would buses into counter and ask
                                               a group of
  ~ Volunteers, plan of the sit-ins was thatwhite, rode in interstate go to a lunchthe
       to be served. If they were, they’d move on to the next lunch counter, if they were not, they
      segregated Southern US
       would not move until they had been Kimiko C
  ~ They did this to test the 1960 United States Supreme Court decision Boynton
                                              Angela their in interstate transportation
      v. Virginia, which outlawed racial segregation place
    If they were arrested, a new group would takeC
      facilities, including bus stations and railroad terminals
    the of 436 would be dressed wereKitty L for trespassing, unlawful
  ~ A totalstudents Freedom Ridersup in their best Sunday clothing
      assembly, violating state and local “Jim Crow” laws, etc.
                                           Meaghan U
    When Northern students heard of the movement, they decided to help their Southern
  ~ The worst violence occurred when buses approached Birmingham, Alabama
       counterparts by picketing local branches of chain stored that were segregated in the South
  ~ Police Chief Eugene “Bull” Connor openly conspired with Ku Klux Klan
      members to beat and harass Freedom riders
    On February 27, 1960, sit-in students in Nashville were attacked by a group of white teenagers.
       Police arrived but they let the was teens go while arresting the protesters for ”disorderly
  ~ In Anniston, Alabama, a bus white firebombed, forcing those Freedom Riders
      to exit, once they did, they were viciously beaten
  ~ Freedom Riders inspired many subsequent civil rights campaigns, including
    voter registration, freedom schools, and the black power movement
       In addition, the technique of the sit-in was used to integrate other public facilities, such as
       movie theaters
Violence in Birmingham
Kennedy and Civil Rights

   1962, violence broke African American, tried
  ~ In After James Meredith, an out in Birmingham to enroll
       in Alabama, of Mississippi, but entirely with
       at the UniversityKennedy sidedhe was prevented from
       doing so Luther King Jr. and the civil
       Martin by white students
       rights workers.
  ~ Kennedy responded by sending some 400 federal marshals
   and 3000 of 1963, King that Meredith could enroll
       In April troops to ensure lead a march
       through Alabama. In Birmingham, the
  ~ Kennedy also assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom
       Riders commissioner Eugene Connor
       used Kennedy initially believed
  ~ Presidentviolence against the his views on civil rights
       demonstrators in the form of fire hoses,
       would only anger many Southern whites and make it even
       more difficult snarling rights
       clubs, and to pass civildogs.laws through Congress,
   whichmedia came by Southernhere,
       The was dominated into play Democrats
  ~ Ascarrying pictures of the brutal attacks many
        A result of him distancing himself from civil rights,
       civil rights men, women, and children alike of
       against leaders viewed Kennedy as unsupportive
       into homes all over America
       their efforts
   In response, Kennedy sent 3,000
  ~ On June 11, 1963, Kennedy intervened when Alabama
       Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the
       troops in to restore peace. That June,
       University of Alabama bill was proposed by
       a new civil rights to stop African American students
       from enrolling
       Kennedy, stating that segregation was
       now moved aside after being confronted by federal
  ~ Wallace outlawed throughout the nation
      marshals, and the Alabama National Guard
Trouble in Southern
  September 1962: James Meredith,
   Mississippi – AAlabama – Another civil rights issue is dealt
     June 1963: veteran of the Air
    Force, he requested permission to
     with the University of Mississippi.
    attendat the University of Alabama.
   The Governor defied the court
     The violence of these confrontations convinced
    order and refused him entrance,
     Kennedy of the need for federal legislation regarding
    declaring “Never! We will never
     segregation evil discrimination. He proposed laws
    surrender to theand and illegal
    forces of tyranny.” federal in stores, restaurants, hotels,
     forbidding segregation
    marshals, and eventually the
     theatres, and in Guard were
    Mississippi National employment.
   called upon by Kennedy to not cooperate with the federal
     However, schools did allow
    Meredith entrance to the university.
     laws, able to attend classes
    He wasand remained segregated. Most southern
     African-American school children remained in all-black
    safely, however two people died in
    a mob action.
      TheOn Washington
The March Rights Act
  The March ondemonstrators attended, both support from the
                       August 28, 1963.
     Over 200 000 Washington earned much
  “March on Washington
     black and for a civil rights bill
    Congress white people, marching from the
    for Jobs and
     Washington House of to the Lincoln Memorial
  Passed the Monument Representatives in February 1964, but
   Freedom”
     Included singing hymns and musical
    met resistance at the Senate, where the States were equally
     performances, and was covered extensively
  represented (Southerners opposed it) by
    Held in
     the media
  Civil Rights Act of 1964 the passed
   commemoration of have a dream…” was
     King’s famous speech, “I
       Outlawed Lincoln of
     delivered at thesegregation of public facilities
    100th anniversaryMemorial
       Emancipation
   the Prohibited racial, gender, and religious discrimination in the
        workforce and Rights Legislation
    Proclamation in education
          Passage of Civil
       Strengthened right to vote
          Abolition of school segregation
  Arguably the largest
        Prohibition of
  Voting Rights Actracial discrimination in the
          most famous civil
    and workforce
       Helped minorities such as Puerto Ricans and Mexican
        Protection against police
    rights demonstration violence
         Americans vote
    ever held in the United

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