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					Sentence Fragments
Which of the following are complete
            sentences?
• I am.
• The horse enjoys eating oats.
• Although most students do not have much
  experience with grammar lessons.
• The most exciting, glorious, and evocative
  day in history.
• A multitude of authors writing popular
  fiction.
What are sentence fragments?
Sentence fragments are incomplete
 sentences that have been made to
 stand on their own as complete
 sentences.
Q: What must every complete
     sentence have?
A simple complete sentence has at least two
components:
1] Subject: the person or thing that does the action
2] Predicate: the action performed (finite verb) and
the person(s)/thing(s) that receive the action.
The subject and predicate together form a clause.

Eg: Today, companies increasingly
compete in global markets.
         A little more complexity
More complex sentences can be formed by
 joining clauses and phrases.

Eg: The manager held a departmental meeting
  (complete sentence).
Eg: The manager held a departmental meeting
  at 9 a.m. yesterday (phrase added).
Eg: The manager held a departmental meeting, which all were
  expected to attend (dependent clause added).
Eg: At 9 a.m. yesterday, the manager held a departmental
  meeting, which all were expected to attend (phrase and
  dependent clause added).
Q: What is a clause?
A: A clause is any combination
of words that contains a subject
   and a predicate. Some are
independent, called sentences.
 Others are dependent, usually
   called subordinate clauses.
  Q: What is the difference
between an independent and a
     dependent clause?
A: An independent clause can stand on
  its own as a complete sentence. It
  contains a subject and a predicate and
  expresses a complete thought (though
  sometimes it doesn’t). A simple
  sentence is an independent clause.
               Eg: James waited.
               Eg: They wanted to go to Granada
               for a holiday.
               Eg: Nearly everyone experiences
               some degree of stage fright when
               speaking before a group.
A dependent clause requires another
  statement to stand as a sentence. It includes
  a subject and predicate, but with a
  preposition or conjunction that indicates that
  it is incomplete and related to an
  independent clause. It cannot stand on its
  own.

  Eg: I hired him because you
  recommended him.
 Examples of Dependent Clauses:

• The jockey’s parents, who were residents
  of Kentucky, came to the race.
• Pay careful attention to what I am going to
  say.
• Unsettled when she forgot the books, the
  professor gave a terrible lecture.
• We don’t know if all our stocks will plunge
  in value.
Q: What is a phrase?
• A Phrase is a group of words that
  together do the work of an adjective
  or an adverb. They cannot stand
  alone, and must be attached to a
  clause.
 Eg: in a timely manner, one morning,
 made of gold, by the lakeshore, at 9 a.m.,
 such as volleyball, etc.
        Examples of Phrases
• We need to order more office supplies,
  such as paper, ink cartridges, and a desk
  stapler.
• After the meeting, let’s all go for a cup of
  coffee.
• Gardens with cool, shady trees surround
  the village.
• It is of no use.
Three Common Types of Sentence
         Fragments
1. A Dependent Clause or a Phrase is used as
   a stand-alone sentence.
2. The main verb in the sentence is missing.
3. The subject in the sentence is missing.
 Mistake 1: Confusing a Dependent
      Clause or Phrase for an
        Independent Clause
i.   Although grammar is important for
     effective writing.
ii. Students sometimes neglect to
     proofread their work. Unless they are
     reminded by their professors.
iii. She enjoyed playing many sports. Such
     as volleyball, basketball, and hockey.
         How do I fix it?




HINT: To find dependent clauses or
   phrases, look for subordinating
    conjunctions or prepositions.
     Examples of Subordinating
    Conjunctions and Prepositions:

• Cause: because, in that, since
• Condition: if, although, unless
• Manner: as, as though, as if
• Result: in order that, so that
• Time: after, before, since, until, when,
  whenever, while
• Place: over, in, beside, under, in front of
 A: Remove the conjunction or
preposition to make the sentence
      stand on its own OR
  Join the dependent clause or
 phrase to a complete sentence
          with a comma.
    Note: Sometimes, this simply means
  combining the dependent clause with an
   independent clause in your paragraph.
                Correct:
i.   Grammar is important for effective
     writing.
ii. Students sometimes neglect to
     proofread their work, unless they are
     reminded by their professors.
iii. She enjoyed playing many sports, such
     as volleyball, basketball and hockey.
     Mistake 2: Omitting the Main Verb


i.   A group of athletes with amazing team
     spirit.
ii. A good way to combat pollution is taking
     the TTC. A weapon at our disposal to
     fight environmental degradation.
iii. Pages torn from the book.
         Q: How do I fix it?




• Add a main verb OR
• Identify the fragment as a clause or phrase
  and attach it to a complete sentence with a
  comma.
     Correct: Adding a Main verb

i.   The group of athletes had amazing team
     spirit.
ii. A good way to combat pollution is taking
     the TTC. This weapon is at our disposal
     to fight environmental degradation.
iii. Pages are torn from a book.
  Correct: Attaching the clause or
  phrase to a complete sentence
• They are a group of athletes with amazing
  team spirit.
• A good way to combat pollution is taking
  the TTC, a weapon at our disposal to fight
  environmental degradation.
• We found pages torn from a book under
  the desk.
Mistake 3: Omitting the Subject

• For creating a good marketing plan made
  the manager praise the team.
• With a paddle is used to row a canoe.
• Because he was always early gave him
  the promotion.
               How do I fix it

• Identify where the main verb is and add a
  subject who performs this action OR
• Identify the phrase or clause and see if
  removing the conjunction of preposition will
  provide you with the correct subject.
    Correct: Adding a Subject
• For creating a good marketing plan, the
  manager praised the team.
• With a paddle, I used to row a canoe.
• Because he was always early, the
  manager gave him the promotion.
Correct: Removing the Preposition
          or Conjunction
• With Example 1, this is not possible.
• With Example 2, removing the preposition
  makes sense:
  Eg: The paddle is used to row a canoe.
• With Example 3, the missing subject must be
  added in, and a re-write is needed if the initial
  conjunction is removed:
  Eg: He was always early, therefore the manager
  gave him the promotion.
                 Self Test:
• What is wrong with
  each of the following
  sentence fragments?

• How would you fix the
  problem?
  1. Speaking in public is a
 common fear. A trepidation
suffered by most of us at some
       time in our lives.
2. After Jack came back from
          the store.
 3. Jennifer worried about her
  grades. As though worrying
could take the place of studying.
 4. The labeling of genetically
modified foods is a contentious
issue. A topic open to heated
            debate.
 5. Because of torrential rain
causes flooding in the valley.
    Visit the Writing Centre:
              LIB 272 B

 Telephone: 416-979-5000 ext. 7192
               Website:
  http://www.ryerson.ca/writingcentre
Email address: writingcentre@ryerson.ca

				
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