Organise Business Travel

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					Element 2              2 Make travel arrangements

                       When you have finished this section you should be able to
                       demonstrate your ability to:
Performance Criteria      Make bookings in accordance with organisational
                           policies and procedures for business travel
                          Identify and arrange travel documents in accordance
                           with itinerary and individual requirements
                          Confirm and check travel arrangements and despatch
                           confirmation documents to the traveller within
                           designated timelines
                          Negotiate and confirm alternative arrangements in
                           response to changed requirements
                          Record travel details and itinerary in accordance with
                           organisational requirements
                          Negotiate and confirm communication arrangements
                           in accordance with organisational requirements
 Make bookings for business travel                                                 Make travel arrangements

2.1 Make bookings for business travel

             “Make bookings in accordance with organisational policies and procedures
             for business travel.”

What are organisational policies and procedures?
      When you begin your job at a new workplace, you should find out what methods, rules or systems
      are used in relation to your job specification. In most businesses there are informal as well as formal

      Informal procedures

                                      Informal means ‘relaxed and friendly’, or ‘not according to
                                      prescribed or customary forms’.

                                      Formal means ‘following established conventions’; ‘methodical
                                      and organised’.

      The informal or ‘unwritten’ rules could be called ‘the way things work’ or ‘the way we do things here’
      and they are not generally written down in a workplace manual.

      You are likely to find informal procedures in small companies, where there is only a small number of
      staff. Because of this, the requirements are generally not in written form, but are passed on verbally
      from more experienced staff members or management to new employees. However, just because
      the procedures are not written down, it does not mean they should not be observed and followed

      If unsure, ask
      You will need to find out about and remember the procedures in your workplace if you are to do well
      and avoid making errors. It is always difficult at first to remember everything—people’s names, what
      they are responsible for, and all the procedures—so don’t be shy about asking questions.

      As a new employee, your co-workers will expect you to want to find out as much as possible about
      the company and its policies and procedures. They won’t expect you to learn and remember every
      detail in the first few days. It is much better to risk appearing foolish by asking more than once than
      to make a mistake because you did not know what to do and didn’t ask for help. That’s even more

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      Keep a notebook handy
      To help you remember all the new information, and until you become familiar with the various
      procedures, keep a notepad or journal on your desk for jotting down things you learn such as
      people’s names and their positions, and policies, procedures and requirements. Then, if you need to,
      revise everything you have written down each day or each week.

      Your journal will become a helpful personal handbook about your workplace and your duties.
      Gradually, as you become more familiar with routines, you will need to refer to your journal less and
      less, but it will still be a trusty guide when you are unsure about something.

Formal procedures
      Companies that employ a large number of people have a greater need for formalised procedures and
      policies. This type of company would have its own printed manuals and reference materials outlining
      company policies and procedures. Alternatively, the information could be stored on the office
      computer network.

      If the information is in printed form, your supervisor or manager should provide these materials to
      you along with any instructions that relate directly to your job when you begin work.

      An example of formal procedures in a book publishing company could be where the wording of
      contracts needs to be straightforward and unambiguous. The policies and procedures for dealing
      with authors and their manuscripts, such as keeping records of and confirming discussions and verbal
      agreements, need to be observed strictly.

                                     Unambiguous means ‘having a clear meaning which can only be
                                     interpreted in one way’.

Organisational procedures
      Most companies have developed procedures that work best in their particular line of business. These
      procedures have been created to help their employees work efficiently and safely; that is why it is
      important for you to find out which procedures relate to your job.

      Once you have learnt a particular procedure, it will make planning and performing your tasks quicker,
      and easier for you to accomplish. In addition, by following company procedures you will quickly gain
      confidence and feel a part of the team. Examples of organisational policies and procedures could

         being aware of occupational health and safety issues
         the correct procedure for dealing with telephone calls
         how to contact clients to make appointments

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         how to respond to instructions and how to give instructions
         policies governing the use of voice mail and e-mail

      Check your office standard
      How you perform your various tasks will depend very much on your workplace procedures and the
      instructions and expectations of your supervisor. However, it is your responsibility to ensure that you
      are following the company guidelines and the procedures provided in the staff manual or the
      instructions given to you directly by your boss.

      Make sure you get all the facts
      When you are asked to make travel bookings, and before you begin working out timetables and
      accommodation, you must make sure that you are given all the necessary details.

      Refer to Prepare itinerary, page 37, which shows a list of travel demands or requirements, followed
      by explanations of each item. You could use the list as the basis for gathering all the information you
      need to make the necessary bookings or to brief the company’s travel agent on the traveller’s

      However, if the travel arrangements are simply for an interstate business trip, there will be fewer
      details and less complex bookings to arrange.

Making bookings for business travel
      As has been stated above, every company develops its own methods and procedures for
      accomplishing a desired result. For example, you may find that in your office staff usually make travel
      arrangements directly with the providers by phone, or where appropriate, through face-to-face
      discussions with the travel agent, who will arrange every aspect of the travel and accommodation
      requirements. Yet in another office, staff may use e-mail exclusively or make reservations with
      airlines and hotel bookings on the Internet.

      In the early stages of your job, ask someone you work with or your supervisor which method(s) you
      should use. Also, ask your manager or the person whose business travel you will be organising how
      they wish you to do this—they may have a preferred method or a system (a protocol) they have
      worked out with a previous employee.

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 Make travel arrangements                                              Make bookings for business travel

                       Exercise 8 – Organisational procedures and making bookings

        1. What is another way to describe informal procedures?




        2. Explain the difference between informal and formal rules.




        3. What sort of businesses are likely to have informal procedures?




        4. Name a type of company that is likely to need formal procedures.




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          5. What would be the advantages to you of learning and following organisational procedures?




          6. Give three examples of organisational procedures.




          7. Write some reasons of your own as to how you might use a notebook or journal when you
             begin a new job.




          8. List three methods you could use to make travel bookings.




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 Make travel arrangements                                                   Identify and arrange travel documents

2.2 Identify and arrange travel documents

              “Identify and arrange travel documents in accordance with itinerary and
              individual requirements.”

      The international traveller, in particular, will require a variety of travel documents apart from those
      you have prepared such as the daily itineraries, business schedules, meeting notes and so on.

Identifying travel documents
      These documents could include:

           passport
           visas or visa
           travel insurance policy
           travel itinerary
           travel vouchers
           timetables
           maps
           accommodation guides and
           health or medical documents
      The travel agent will be able to arrange all of these, including the airline ticket, with the exception of
      the last one.

      Here are brief descriptions of some of the items listed above.

                                      An official document in the form of a small booklet issued to a citizen by the
                                      government of a country. Its purpose is to grant permission to the person
                                      identified to visit foreign countries, and authenticates the holder’s identity,
          PASSPORT                    citizenship and right to protection while abroad.

                                      The passport is stamped by the immigration authorities of every country
                                      visited on arrival and on departure. The passport also contains any visas.

                                      An endorsement made by an authorised representative of a country in the
                                      passport of a traveller. The endorsement permits the holder of the passport to
                                      travel into and through that country. Few countries still require a visa to be
                                      obtained before leaving Australia; examples are China, Hungary, Russia and
          VISAS                       some Latin American countries.

                                      A visa can also take the form of a stamp indicating that the passport has been
                                      examined and found to be in order by the immigration authorities of countries

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                                 A policy that usually covers cancellation fees and loss of the deposit (if the trip
                                 is cancelled), loss of luggage and personal effects such as cameras, watches,
                                 and legal and medical expenses while travelling overseas.

                                 This type of insurance is often offered as part of a package when the travel
          TRAVEL INSURANCE       agency is making overseas travel bookings.

                                 Some policies also offer benefits such as compensation for trip disruption,
                                 travel delays or missed connections (due to unforeseen circumstances or an
                                 injury that happens during the trip), excess on the insurance of or repairs to a
                                 rental vehicle. As with all insurance policies, specific conditions apply.

                                 This is prepared according to the instructions and any alterations the traveller
                                 may have required. The itinerary will show flight details, any connections and
          TRAVEL ITINERARY       transfers, arrangements made for rental or hire cars, accommodation, leisure
                                 activities, together with other helpful information such as the time the
                                 traveller is required to be at the airport before a flight’s departure.

                                 These are dockets or documents provided for various bookings made on behalf
                                 of the traveller by the travel agent. For example, hotel accommodation and
                                 meals, transfers, rail travel, coach excursions, entrance tickets to art galleries
                                 and other tourist attractions. They are sometimes called ‘Miscellaneous Charge
                                 Orders’, and look similar to a plane ticket.
                                 As an example, the traveller would present the accommodation voucher (or
                                 MCO) at the hotel reception desk on check-in. The voucher would show the
                                 traveller’s name, the name of the hotel, the travel agency and the date of
                                 booking, the class of accommodation paid for and the cost, the dates of arrival
                                 and departure by the guest, and if any meals are included in the tariff.

                                 As discussed earlier, the travel agency will supply timetables, maps and
          TIMETABLES and MAPS
                                 accommodation guides on request.

                                 These documents would be any vaccination certificates issued by the
                                 traveller’s medical practitioner. These documents record the type of
                                 vaccinations and the date(s) they were performed.

          HEALTH AND MEDICAL     Some insurance companies require a Traveller’s Medical Appraisal form to be
          DOCUMENTS              submitted to them if the traveller has an existing medical condition which, if it
                                 occurred or deteriorated, could cause cancellation or disruption of the trip.
                                 This form must be appraised by the insurance company before it will grant
                                 insurance cover. The travel agent should be able to supply this form, if

Arranging travel documents
      If you are not using a travel agent to make the overseas travel arrangements, then you would need
      to check, well in advance of the departure date, that the traveller has each of the following:

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