A nTEP MODULE OVERVIEW LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE WORKSHOP STAGE 1 CURRICULUM STUDIES 1B (LANGUAGE & LITERACY) 10070 notional time = 24 hours MODULE AIMS This is the first English as a Second Language (ESL) workshop for AnTEP students, and is particularly aimed at providing students with the opportunity to improve their own English language skills. Hence it is called Learning English as a Second Language Workshop (LESL), rather than a TESL workshop. More specifically this module aims to: 1. Give students the opportunity to consolidate their own English language skills in all four areas of communication (remembering that most AnTEP students speak an Aboriginal language as their first language). These four areas are: a) Speaking - particularly in front of their peers b) Listening c) Reading - from a range of genres d) Writing - maybe concentrate on a couple of genres 2. Explore the specific difficulties facing Aboriginal students learning to speak English in remote communities, knowing that for many Aboriginal students English is a foreign (rather than a second) language. 3. Explore the fact that learning a language involves a lot more than just learning the words and the grammar - it also involves learning how to use that language appropriately, and learning the sociolinguistic rules and cultural norms of Australian English. 4. Explore with students any particular reservations they may have about actively using English in different contexts, particularly in front of their peers in their own communities. Such problems need to be discussed to be resolved. 5. Explore the purpose of AnTEP students (or any Aboriginal person in a remote community) learning English, and the specific types of English (or genres) that students feel they particularly need to learn. Concentrate on these particular genres in the workshop. 6. Explore the concept of idiomatic speech, and how idioms are culture specific. Talk about how mastery of the idioms of a language are a sign of language fluency. 7. Provide students with the opportunity to practise their pronunciation of different words in English that are problematic because of their differing sounds to Pitjantjatjara and other Aboriginal languages (that is, practise fricatives: f, v s, z, ch, sh, th; and voiced stops b, d, g). Also practise saying words with differing phonotactics (word structure) such as words with consonant clusters at the beginning and end (eg. strict, strength etc.) 8. Introduce students to the jargon that is used by teachers of English as a second or foreign language; eg. ESL, TESL, EFL, passive knowledge, active knowledge (of English) etc. 9. Explore with students the fact that learning to speak any language well requires a lot of hard work and lots and lots of practice. Discuss also how a lot of exposure to English will help develop a passive knowledge of the language, but one must practise speaking English out loud (even though they may be worried about making mistakes) in order to have an active knowledge of English. METHODOLOGY This module is presented as a workshop in students home communities, although it has been run in Adelaide in the past. It is recommended that students have daily practice in active use of English, including reading and writing, but especially speaking. The following methods and activities are recommended for the workshop: 1. Brainstorm about the different purposes and contexts in which English is used in Aboriginal communities, and why the AnTEP students in particular wish to learn English. Negotiate a couple of genres of English to concentrate on for large group work in the workshop. 2. Provide opportunities for students to practise speaking English in a limited range of genres amongst themselves in small groups - which is less threatening than big group work. Using the communicative approach of teaching English, the lecturer could negotiate a number of realistic situations in which Pitjantjatjara people need to speak English, and maybe do some role-playing (incorporating the type of English used in these situations). 3. Provide students with daily practice at reading English out loud in front of their peers. Multiple copies of chosen texts will need to be made available from a range of genres. 4. Provide opportunities to write in English each day; choosing either personal journal writing, and maybe two other chosen genres. 5. Students discuss and reflect on the difficulties they face in improving their English language skills while living in their local communities. Discuss ways that may overcome these difficulties, such as: excursions away, having intensive workshops in Adelaide, spending time with English-speaking visitors or workers in communities, reading English books, watching English TV, listening to the English Radio, having intensive formal instruction within AnTEP on particular problem areas. 6. Get students to pin-point specific language difficulties they may have, or specific cultural misunderstandings they may have, and discuss each of these problems specifically. Alternatively, the lecturer may do some error analysis on students' writing or speech, and give intensive instruction to correct the types of errors commonly made. [A list of typical errors made by students is included in this overview] 7. Talk about the importance of "having-a-go" when learning a language, and being willing to make mistakes in front of others, even if one does get laughed at. Talk also about the need for lots and lots of practice in speaking, reading and writing a target language. 8. Look at and discuss a phoneme chart of English sounds, and list words that include these sounds in various positions within words. Discuss how the English sound system differs to that of Pitjantjatjara. [A Sound chart for both English and Pitjantjatjara is included in this overview] 9. Brainstorm to compile a list of the different jargon used by TESL specialists, and discuss what each one means. Students should be encouraged to keep a written record of these terms in their personal dictionaries. 10. View and discuss any relevant videos on TESL. 11. Get students to keep daily journals to reflect on and record what has been learnt each day. 12. Encourage individual students to produce pieces of work, suitable for publication or oral presentation, that review what they have learnt in this module. The presentation of their work, at the end of the workshop, will provide students with more practice in speaking English in front of their peers. A nTEP MATERIALS There are no A nTEP Student Workbooks or Lecturer's Notes for this module, however there are a number of previous LESL Workshop Reports available. They include: 1. LESL. Workshop Report - compiled by Louise Jaensch et al, from a LESL workshop for Pitjantjatjara students, held in Adelaide in September 1989. - there are actually Lecturer's Notes and a Student Workbook associated with this workshop, but they were prepared specifically for this workshop which involved a visit to Pennington School and the Migrant Education Centre in Adelaide. 2. Learning English as a Second Language. Workshop Report - compiled by Steve Forsyth, from a LESL workshop held at Yipirinya School in June 1990. 3. Learning English as a Second Language. Workshop Report - compiled by Libby Fullard from a LESL workshop held at Yipirinya School in November 1993. There is also a Student Workbook plus Lecturer's Notes from an old AnTEP module entitled: The Sound System of English. This was written in 1988 by Mary-Anne Gale and is recommended as a resource for use by the lecturer when discussing difficult English sounds and the pronunciation of difficult words. VIDEOS Learning English in Aboriginal Schools - part of the ASCMP kit (by the same name) produced by the NT Department of Education. STUDENT READINGS Multiple copies need to be made of chosen readings to be read out loud in groups. Students may have particular requests, but the following texts are recommended: 1. Ward, Glenyse (1987)Wandering Girl. Broome, Magabala Books. [AnTEP has 10 copies of this biographical text] 2. NGOONJOOK: Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues. Batchelor College. [AnTEP subscribes to this journal] 3. KOORI Mail [AnTEP subscribes to this newspaper] Plus any other texts that appeal and are available through AnTEP, or some other source. BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Margaret (1985) Using Literature in an Oral English program. Aboriginal Child at School. Vol.13 No.1. pp3-13. ASCMP (1993) Learning English in Aboriginal Schools. Darwin, NT Education Department. - Includes a kit of charts, booklets and a video. Bilingual/TESL units (1985) Concentrated Language Encounters in Aboriginal Schools in the NT: Helping Children Grow in their First Language and English. Darwin, NT Education Department. Curriculum Corporation (1994) To Be Good at English. Carlton, Curriculum Corporation. Curriculum Corporation (1994) English: A Curriculum Profile for Australian Schools.Carlton, Victoria. Curriculum Corporation (1994) ESL Scales. Carlton, Victoria. Department of Education and Children's Services (1994) Supporting English Language Acquisition. Adelaide, DECS. Education Department of South Australia (1993) Aboriginal Children and English Language Acquisition. Adelaide, Educ. Dept. of SA. ESL Support team (1991) Language Activities. Ernabella, Education Department of S.A. Gray, Brian (1984) Helping Children Become Language Learners in the Classroom. Darwin, Northern Territory Education Department Graham, B. (?1982) Wangkami: A Handbook for Aboriginal Teachers involved in Early Childhood Education. Trial Edition, Darwin, N.T. Department of Education. Trial edition pp 119-129. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985) Spoken and Written Language. Deakin, Deakin University Press. Lightbown, Patsy & Spada, Nina (1993) How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press. Matwiejczyk, Rosemary (co-ord.) (1993) ESL in Anangu Schools. Adelaide, Education Department of South Australia. - Four booklets adapted from ESL in the Mainstream - a Teacher Development Course. Murray, Fran (1988) Aboriginal Stories: Reliving the Experience. In: Australian Literature in the Classroom.Canberra, Curric. Dev. Centre. ----------------- (1987) Walkin' Talkin' Stories Darwin, Northern Territory Department of Education. Scott, Vivian (1992) English Language Anangu Schools: Pre-School to Stage 7. Ernabella, S.A. Education Department.