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					Rational Emotive Behavior
         Therapy

       Chapter 9


                            1
         Background
 Albert Ellis (1913-2007) born in Pittsburgh
 Psychoanalyst; but dissatisfied with
  psychoanalytic theory
   Insight was not enough to ―cure‖ client; behavioural
    change was needed
 Integrated and blended behaviorism, philosophy,
  & psychology
 Prolific psychologist
 Known as Rational Therapy, Rational Emotive
  Therapy (1961), REBT (1991), Cognitive-
  emotive-behavior therapy (1999)
                                                           2
  Basic Philosophy
―It’s never the events that happen that make us
 disturbed, but our view of them (Ellis, 2005)
Soft determinist – individuals have some choice in
 their lives but innate exerts influence
Innate characteristics can be changed—just it is
 difficult
Constructivist – individual create reality
People can control their thoughts, feelings, and
 behaviors
Personally responsible for their behavior
                                                      3
   Human Motivation
To survive & be happy
Obtain pleasure & avoid pain
Humans own a little of God & evil
Humans are biologically programmed to be both
 rational & irrational, self actualizing & self
 defeating
Humans can easily determine if a behavoiour is
 ―bad‖ or ―good‖, ―self & society serving‖ or ―self
 & society defeating‖

                                                      4
     Central Constructs
                 ABCs
---------------- ---------------- experience or
  Adversity or Anything
-------
----------------- (emotional events or
  behaviors
Emotions, beliefs, and behaviors interact
 Life events (As) don’t cause emotions (Cs)
                                                   5
    Central Constructs
                  Beliefs
Declarative sentences we say to ourselves
Form our life philosophies
  which then can ruin our lives
Rational beliefs
  Express ------------------------
  Flexible, anti-awfulizing, high frustration
   tolerance, and acceptance
                                                 6
           Central Constructs
                 Beliefs (cont.)
Irrational beliefs (iBs): rigid demanding --------
  ---------------- –
  Self-demandingness
  Other-demandingness
  World-demandingness
Other irrational thinking
  ---------
  Low ------------
  Damnation
  Allness or overgeneralization                 7
    Central Constructs
                           Goals
 Survive & be happy
 Subgoals : To be loved, comfortable, & successful

        Human Worth Ratings & USA
 Global human worth rating
    Seeing yourself or another person as ----------------------
     --------
    Are a no-no
 Should be replaced by Unconditional Self-Acceptance (USA)
    As humans & their behaviours are two different things
                                                               8
                  Theory of
      Person & Development
   Does not have a personality or
    developmental theory
   Product of both inherited and environmental
    influences
   Construction of musts and shoulds happen
    when we are children and have immature
    thinking processes

                                                  9
       Healthy Individuals
 Rely on ------------- beliefs
 Unconditional self acceptance
 Value flexibility, change, & open-mindedness
 Relativistic thinking & desiring
 Think in terms of preferences
 ----------
 Noneutopianism, nonperfectionism
 Balance self & social interest
 --------------
 Commitment to something outside of oneself
 Tolerance of ----------
 Tolerance of --------------
                                                 10
              Dysfunction
   Operate on irrational beliefs




   Sacredizing: something is absolutely
    important
   Think in terms of -----------
                                           11
            Assessment
   The traditional (medical) model is --------
    ---------
   Both formal and informal are utilized
   Assessment is a continuous process
   Assess clients’ ------------ structures
   ---------- are assessed
   Characteristics such as ---------------------
    ---------------- skills are assessed
                                                    12
Therapeutic Atmosphere
   --------------
   -------------
   Therapeutic alliance very important




                                          13
                Roles
   Therapist is an ----------
   Client is an involved and energetic ---
    --------------------
   Warmth of therapist is preferable,
    but not essential



                                          14
               Goals
Eliminate -------------------------------
 ------- & ----------------------
 resulting form them
Teach the client --------philosophy




                                             15
          Process of Therapy
   ABCDE


   1st task: Reducing ---------------------
   2nd task: ---------------------
       Setting short & long-term goals



                                               16
    Therapeutic Techniques
   Teaching the client about REBT
   Disputing
   Bibliotherapy
   Proselytizing
   Recording therapy sessions
   Reframing
   Stop and Monitor
   Rational Coping Statements
   Rational Emotive Imagery
   Humor
                                     17
        Therapeutic Techniques
   Role-playing
   Forceful coping statements & taped
    disputing
   Rational-Irrational Dialogues
   Reinforcements & Penalties
   Skill Training
   In Vivo Desensitization
   Acting on Rational Beliefs
   Homework
   Shame Attacking                      18
      Evaluation of The Theory
   Too intellectual (age 8 and of average intelligence)
   Ignores emotions and client’s past
   Minimizes the role of social or cultural
    factors in client’s lives
   Simple and clear-cut theory and method
   Research supports that cognitive processes
    lead to emotional distress
   Research supports the effectiveness of REBT

                                                      19
         Related Links
   www.rebt.org
   www.nyccc.org




                         20
          Review Questions
 In one paragraph, describe the historical background
  of and major influences on REBT.
 Discuss REBT’s basic philosophy of human being.
 Identify the human motivation according to REBT.
 Define the concepts of ABCDEs and Goals, according
  to REBT.
 Define the concept Beliefs, and identify various types
  of rational and irrational beliefs according to REBT.
 What theory of person & development is suggested by
  REBT?
 What are the characteristics of healthy and unhealthy
  people according to REBT?
                                                     21
          Review Questions
 How psychotherapeutic assessment is done in
  REBT?
 Identify the basic characteristics of therapeutic
  atmosphere in REBT.
 Describe the roles of therapist and client in REBT.
 Identify the goals of REBT.
 Describe the process/(stages if any) of REBT.
 Identify eight techniques of REBT, describe them,
  give an example for each and show when they are
  used.
 Evaluate the theory of REBT.
                                                   22