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SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Sustainable Land Management Project: Rangeland Management Specialist The Project The Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP: 2006-2012; see Attachment 1) aims to strengthen and institutionalise sustainable land management planning, practice and policy in Bhutan, from community level through to national level. The Project stems from the concern of the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGoB) over emerging issues of land degradation and is supported by grants from the Global Environment Facility (GEF US$ 7.66M, through the World Bank (WB)) and parallel financing from Danida to its EUSPS (Environment and Urban Sector Program Support). The GEF- funded SLMP is co-ordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), assisted by a multi-sectoral technical advisory committee (MTAC). SLMP was formulated in the context of the earlier GEF Operational Program 15 Sustainable Land Management. Project Development Objective To strengthen institutional and community capacity for anticipating and managing land degradation in Bhutan. Global Environment Objective To protect trans-boundary watersheds in a manner that preserves the integrity of ecosystems in Bhutan. SLMP and Rangeland Management SLMP, as a multi-sectoral project, is seeking to strengthen sustainable land management through land degradation prevention practices in any of the land-user sectors; and by so doing to protect and improve the environment and improve rural livelihoods. The proposed Rangeland Management Specialist (RMS) is in support of the livestock sector and in support of reducing or preventing degradation of grazing lands through improved management and use that is consistent with the commitment of the country to maintain the integrity of its environment and eco-systems. During project formulation (2004-5), rangeland degradation was identified as a concern. A Rangeland Management consultancy was incorporated into the project to address this concern. Rangeland Management Issues Grazing rights to rangelands (tsamdro) have been granted to individuals or groups with formal issue of a thram (land certificate) to the permitted user. For tsamdro, the thram has given usage rights only, with payment of an annual fee, land ownership remaining with the Government. The conditions of the tsamdro thram prevented the user from undertaking any tshamdro improvement, other than through controlling livestock density; and allowed the thram to be withdrawn if, for example, the tsamdro was becoming degraded. This latter condition was rarely applied. Fire control Since the 1970s, strong, conservation and forest cover oriented regulations have prohibited burning of grazing lands, a traditional management practice for maintaining the grass. This has resulted in grasslands being colonised by forest or shrubs, and a reduced carrying capacity. Grazing conflicts Traditional grazing rights, usage and transhumance patterns in Bhutan allow multiple households, chiogs (villages), geogs (blocks) or Dzongkhags (districts) grazing access to the same land area, during the same and/or different seasons. Thus tsamdro rights may be held by livestock owners for grazing on rangeland in other geogs/dzongkhags. This has lead to conflicts over resource use between or within communities, increases the difficulty of agreeing and implementing sustainable management practices, and aggravates unsustainable and exploitative use of the grazing and other vegetation and natural resources, with consequent land degradation and its downstream impact. 1 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Local Administration Land Management Responsibilities In 2004-2005, the Dzongkhag (district) and Geog (block) administrations (DYT and GYT respectively) were given increased powers for management of the land and resources within their administrative boundaries. This had the potential to increase conflict and grazing pressure on those tsamdro traditionally grazed by households from other geogs and the possibility that solutions might be found at the expense of the resource poorer and less influential households and communities. Either outcome was incompatible with RGoB and SLMP development objectives. Original SLMP Terms of Reference (ToR) It was in the context of the above issues that the original ToR (Attachment 2) for the RMS consultancy were drafted, with their emphasis on conflict management and conflict resolution in rangeland. More recent events (below) have resulted in the revised version of the ToR below. New Land Act Very recently (June 2007), a new Land Act was passed. Although not yet implemented, under the Act, all tsamdro will be returned to the Government, for re-issue to individuals or groups, according to the tsamdro carrying capacity and against an agreed management plan. It is expected that this will lead to improved management. In turn, it is likely that this will increase the demand on research and extension to provide the service needed for assessing and improving tsamdro management and carrying capacity. The Land Act should remove the potential for tsamdro conflict and conflict-linked over-exploitation although both could intensify in the interim period before the tsamdro is revoked for re-issue. Implementation of the Act will be phased for those tsamdro for which grazing rights are held by livestock owners from other Dzongkhags, to enable the traditional users to make alternative arrangements. The newly created National Land Commission (NLC) is guiding the development of the rules, regulations and guidelines necessary for the Act to be applied but these are unlikely to be operationalised before 2008. National Grazing Resources Management Policies and Strategies (NGRMPS) Key national stakeholders, with technical assistance (TA) support from ICIMOD and some financial support from the Bhutan EU Livestock Project, have developed a framework of activities that will lead to the development of the NGRMPS (see Attachment 3). Progress has been slower than planned and it is uncertain what will be the status when the RMS is fielded. Many of the activities parallel the RMS ToR and the main stakeholders have expressed their interest in the RMS working in support of the framework. ToR In view of the new Land Act, its implication for tsamdro lease, tsamdro management and the ongoing development of the NGRMPS, the precise focus of the RMS consultancy is difficult to identify in advance of the consultant’s arrival. Accordingly, the ToR should be interpreted as only indicative of the likely scope of the RMS’s activities. The specific tasks to be undertaken by the consultant will be finalised in response to stakeholder priorities and NGRMPS progress within the first week of the consultancy. Rangeland Management Specialist Terms of Reference (ToR) Tasks In consultation with national agencies, and specifically the National Feed and Fodder Development Programme (NFFDP) of the Department of Livestock (DoL), Planning and Policy Division of the Ministry of Agriculture (PPD-MoA), and the Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Jakar (RNR-RC Jakar) of the Council of RNR Research of Bhutan (CoRRB), the consultant will: a) Review existing studies/documents on rangeland and its management in Bhutan or elsewhere under similar agro-ecological zones. 2 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy b) Review national acts, policies and strategies that influence rangeland management. c) Visit selected rangelands (2000 mamsl and above, sub-tropical to alpine), and conduct situational analysis with relevant stakeholders on: i the quality, productivity and sustainability of existing rangelands; ii current and traditional grazing management practices taking into account the main social, cultural, and indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) factors and their effect on rangeland condition; iii existing conflicts in rangeland utilization and management between different communities/groups; iv the appropriateness and effectiveness of RNR extension interventions to improve the sustainability of rangeland management; v the appropriateness and effectiveness of ongoing rangeland research; vi the application and effectiveness of national policies and strategies for rangeland management. d) Identify appropriate native grass and fodder species for multiplication and for trials to re- establish and maintain productive indigenous pastures. e) Suggest any appropriate measures that are needed to resolve, manage or minimise grazing conflicts during the interim period before the Land Act is fully implemented, taking into account the capacity development and support needed by the facilitators/mediators. f) Act as resource person at a workshop to train research and extension staff on (participatory) methods for assessing rangeland condition, production and sustainability (taking into account plant composition, soil fertility and ecosystem considerations). g) Outline policy, strategy and implementation options for improved and sustainable management and productivity of priority [subtropical and alpine] rangeland systems, considering also the capacity development needs of extension and research staff; h) Develop and cost a plan for operationalising the preferred strategy/ies, that gives clear guidance on the main responsibilities, tasks and timelines for the key stakeholders; and within this, identify appropriate pilot sites for community-based pasture development. i) Facilitate a final national workshop on the findings and recommendations of the study. The consultant may also advise on the appropriateness of the concept of co-management of rangeland involving communities and/or the government, if this has any potential in view of the 2007 Land Act. Qualification: j) Minimum Msc in Rangeland Management with specialization on intermediate to alpine (> 2000 masl) rangeland. k) Ability and enthusiasm to work in a team with national colleagues to support and strengthen on-going national initiatives. Experience: l) Minimum 15 years working experience of rangeland management for livestock production and eco-system sustainability in similar (and preferably Himalayan, e.g. Nepal, Mongolia, China etc.) rangeland systems. m) Minimum 5 years working experience of rangeland policy and strategy development and implementation in similar agro-socio-cultural-economic zones, 3 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy n) Familiarity with community-based natural resource management approaches and techniques and 5 years of working experience of their application to rangeland. o) Familiarity with natural resource-based community conflict management and mediation techniques and 3 years of working with communities for successful rangeland conflict management. p) Minimum 5 years experience of working with national research and extension staff in rangeland management and basic and applied rangeland research. q) Competence to guide research staff in the design of uptake-oriented rangeland research. r) Previous experience of Bhutan an advantage. Fluency in spoken and written English is a requirement. Physical fitness and willingness to trek to remote rangelands is essential. Location of work The assignment will involve both extensive consultations and deskwork with stakeholders and site visits to representative grazing lands. The headquarters of the project, the Department of Livestock (DoL), the Policy and Planning Division (PPD) of MoA and the Land Commission are in Thimphu; while the National Feed and Fodder Development Programme (NFFDP) and Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre (RNR-RC) Jakar (with the mandate for rangeland research) are in Bumthang (approximately 300 km east of Thimphu). The consultant will need to spend time in both locations. The rangeland sites to be visited will be decided jointly with the above stakeholders but could include tsamdro in one or two project pilot sites (Radhi, in Trashigang (600 km east of Thimphu); Chhukha, (100 km south-west of Thimphu)). Consultancy duration 4 months Starting date May 2008 Objective To support and further national initiatives and national capacity to improve the sustainability and productivity of rangelands consistent with maintaining eco-system integrity Output The specific outputs from the consultancy will be detailed in the first week of the consultancy, once ToR are finalised (see ToR paragraph above) but will include: one training rangeland management workshop with research and extension; one final workshop with main national stakeholders; final report in digital and hard copy (2 copies). Approach The RMS will be expected to work in a collaborative manner which facilitates participation of the key stakeholders for rangeland use. The RMS will be contracted through SLMP, to whom s/he will be administratively and legally responsible, and the final workplan and consultancy outputs will be agreed with SLMP to ensure that they contribute to project outcomes. However, the RMS will work in close association with the Department of Livestock (DoL) who will act as the main professional counterpart to the consultant and who will guide the finalisation of the ToR. 4 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Provisional schedule Week 1 Discussions with main central agency stakeholders (SLMP, DoL, DoA, DoF [Departments of Livestock, Agriculture and Forestry], NEC [National Environment Commission], NLC [National Land Commission], PPD-MoA [Policy and Planning Division] Visit and discussions with NFFDP, RNR-RC Jakar Review and finalise the ToR and consultancy outputs with DoL and SLMP Develop and submit detailed and workplan for approval by DoL and SLMP Conduct literature review Week 2 Review, revision and approval of workplan Literature review Familiarisation visits to stakeholders As per agreed workplan Week 8 (approx) Interim report to SLMP on progress and preliminary findings/recommendations Week 16 Conduct a national level workshop on the consultancy outputs and draft report contents Submit draft report incorporating workshop feedback Report due date: Within 2 calendar weeks of completion of consultancy (i.e. week 18) Responsibilities Responsibility of consultant Supply of all professional items; computer equipment, stationery, Supply of field equipment (sleeping bag) Insurance cover (medical, travel, accident, third party liability) Procurement of international air ticket for re-imbursement at cost Responsibility of SLMP Procurement of national air ticket Procurement of visa and visa extension DSA at UN rates for Bhutan hotel accommodation and RGoB rates for field work Logistic arrangements (with DoL; RNR-RC Jakar and including workshop preparations) Photocopying facilities Tender procedure The tender and selection will follow the World Bank procedures: “Guidelines Selection and employment of consultants by World Bank borrowers” ISBN 0-8213-5828-6; www.worldbank.org The standard WB terms and conditions for international consultants will also be followed: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/PROCUREMENT/0,,contentMDK:2006 0656~menuPK:93977~pagePK:84269~piPK:60001558~theSitePK:84266,00.html Interested international applicants are invited to submit in hard copy an expression of interest and financial proposal in separate sealed envelopes addressed to the SLMP Project Manager, with the applicant’s name and e-mail address printed on the envelope, as follows: Envelope 1: labelled EoI Letter of application; Bio-data of consultant formatted to highlight the experience of the consultant that demonstrates her/his ability to fulfil the ToR 5 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Envelope 2: labelled Financial Proposal Financial proposal (fee rates, main reimbursable costs [e.g. travel] and requirements for advance DSA payment [2 months maximum]; all quoted in USD) The Expression of Interest should be addressed to: The Project Manager SLMP, NSSC P.O.Box 907 Thimphu, Bhutan Telephone (+) 975 (0)2 351 037; Facsimile (+) 975 (0)2 351 038; E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org Attention SLMP PM Expressions of Interest are to reach the Project Manager by May 5, 2008 Applicants will be notified by e-mail on receipt of the EoI Selection will be made within 6 weeks of the application closing date Applicants will be informed by e-mail of the outcome of their application Further Information Further information on the project and NSSC is available on www.moa.gov.bt/nssc Specific queries on the RMS consultancy should be directed to the Project Manager 6 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Attachment 1: SLM Project Attachment 1 Sustainable Land Management Project The Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP) is a 6-year project that aims to strengthen and institutionalise sustainable land management planning, practice and policy in Bhutan, from community level through to national level. The Project stems from the concern of the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGoB) over emerging issues of land degradation and is supported by grants from the Global Environment Facility (GEF US$ 7.66M, through the World Bank (WB)) and parallel financing from Danida to its EUSPS (Environment and Urban Sector Program Support). The GEF funded SLMP is co-ordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), assisted by a multi-sectoral advisory team. It was formulated in the context of the earlier GEF Operational Program 15 Sustainable Land Management. Project Development Objective To strengthen institutional and community capacity for anticipating and managing land degradation in Bhutan. Global Environment Objective To protect trans-boundary watersheds in a manner that preserves the integrity of ecosystems in Bhutan. Achievement indicators of success 10% reduction in sediment flow in selected micro-watersheds in pilot geogs. Number of geogs effectively adopting land degradation prevention plans. 30% increase in number of farmers practising sustainable land management. Duration February 2006 – June 2012 Guiding principles Bottom-up planning approach – community priorities and community decisions. Phased implementation – initially in 3 pilot geogs, extending to other geogs as SLM capacity is built. Support to decentralisation. Ensuring an appropriate knowledge and information base to guide SLM decision making on practices, planning and policies. Integrated multi-sectoral approach – a strategy for improving the management of natural resources. Stakeholder consultation – throughout the project cycle. Implementation pilot sites Project Year 1-3 Project Year 3-6 Chukkha Dzongkhag Phuentsholing Geog Bongo Geog + Logchina Geog Zhemgang Dzongkhag Nangkhor Geog Bardo Geog + Goshing Geog Trashigang Dzongkhag Radhi Geog Lumang Geog + Thrimshing Geog Project components and main activities Component 1: Pilot projects to demonstrate effective application of land degradation prevention approaches. Conducting resource mapping. Defining community priorities and investments. Validating SLM investments. Documenting and disseminating lessons learnt. 7 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Attachment 1: SLM Project Component 2: Mainstreaming of practices for protection against land degradation. Developing analytical tools for bio-physical and socio-economic baselines. Replicating SLM approaches to other Geogs and Dzongkhags. Generating knowledge for SLM policy guidance. Building capacity for inter-sectoral planning and mainstreaming. Component 3: Policy support and guidance for mainstreaming land degradation prevention practices. Facilitating mainstreaming of SLM approaches in Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plans. Facilitating mainstreaming of SLM approaches in Dzongkhags’ and Geogs’ five-year and annual development planning processes. Facilitating integration of SLM principles in sector level policies and legislation. Facilitating local level resource management regulatory systems at the chiog and geog levels. Component 4: National level support for co-ordination of implementation of land degradation prevention practices. Strengthening of MoA capacity to co-ordinate a land degradation management program. Providing multi-sectoral and multi-level support for SLM activities (technical assistance, training, equipment, management information systems). 8 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Attachment 2: Original Terms of Reference Attachment 2 Original Rangeland Management Specialist ToR Original from SLMP a) Review of existing studies/documents on rangeland and its management in Bhutan or elsewhere under similar agro-ecological zones. b) Site visits to intermediate to lower altitude rangelands and conduct situational analysis in consultation with relevant stakeholders. c) Study existing conflicts in rangeland utilization and management by different communities and suggest appropriate policy, strategy and capacity development mechanisms to resolve, manage or minimise conflicts. d) For one or two conflicts with good potential for resolution, outline a detailed action plan for conflict resolution, including the capacity development and support needed by the facilitators/mediators. e) Outline of future strategies for management and development of intermediate - lower altitude rangeland in Bhutan and advise on the appropriateness of the concept of co-management of rangeland involving community or communities. f) Develop a plan for operationalising the preferred (best bet) strategy/ies. g) Facilitate a final national workshop on the findings and recommendations of the study. Proposed by RNR-RC Jakar a) Overgrazing is considered to be a common phenomenon in rangeland across Bhutan and it is believed to be an important contributing factor leading to deterioration of rangeland resources. Therefore, the most important task of the technical assistance is to assess quality and productivity of existing rangelands in sample sites applying suitable methods for Bhutan. b) Despite importance of rangelands, not many research works had been carried out due to limitations in human capacity and other resources. Research and management interventions are needed to sustain the rangeland resources. Therefore, the TA is expected to visit some of the existing rangeland research sites, evaluate current research methods, data collection and recommend design for rangeland trials. c) Since the existing researchers lack research skills on rangeland, the TA is expected to train our researchers on various research methods and techniques for assessing rangeland production, plant composition, soil fertility assessment and relating rangeland condition to the surrounding ecosystems. d) Based on findings from field studies and visits, the consultant needs to propose future strategies for management and development of subtropical and alpine rangelands and develop a plan for implementing effective strategies for future rangeland development. e) The consultant should be able to explore social and cultural factors such as herder’s traditional grazing management, soil fertility management etc. and relate those factors to rangeland condition. f) The consultant should be able to identify needs for future research on rangeland. 9 SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy Attachment 3: NGRMPS draft workplan Attachment 3 National Grazing Resources Management Policy and Strategies: NGRMPS draft workplan activities 1 Review of experiences in Bhutan and the Hindu Kush – Himalaya region 2 Establishment of the national task force 3 Situation analysis and rangeland case studies Inventory and maps of vegetation Grazing intensity Management Use Ownership rights and lease systems Taxation system Non-grazing rangeland products Wildlife conflicts 4 Problem analysis Community/herder consultative workshops in specific and representative sites 5 Policy option review Socio-economic consideration Environmental considerations Political considerations 6 Strategy drafting 7 Policy drafting 8 National workshop to finalise policy and strategies 9 Submission of policy and strategy to Cabinet 10 Translation and publication 11 NGRMPS awareness workshops 12 Implementation Source Extracted from: “Work programme for development of National Grazing Resources Management Policy & Strategies” National Feed and Fodder Development Programme: Department of Livestock, MoA, Bhutan 10
"Rangeland Management Specialist Tasks"