Rangeland Management Specialist Tasks

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					SLMP                                                          Rangeland Management Consultancy


Sustainable Land Management Project: Rangeland Management Specialist

The Project
The Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP: 2006-2012; see Attachment 1) aims to strengthen
and institutionalise sustainable land management planning, practice and policy in Bhutan, from
community level through to national level. The Project stems from the concern of the Royal
Government of Bhutan (RGoB) over emerging issues of land degradation and is supported by grants
from the Global Environment Facility (GEF US$ 7.66M, through the World Bank (WB)) and parallel
financing from Danida to its EUSPS (Environment and Urban Sector Program Support). The GEF-
funded SLMP is co-ordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), assisted by a multi-sectoral
technical advisory committee (MTAC). SLMP was formulated in the context of the earlier GEF
Operational Program 15 Sustainable Land Management.

Project Development Objective
To strengthen institutional and community capacity for anticipating and managing land degradation in
Bhutan.

Global Environment Objective
To protect trans-boundary watersheds in a manner that preserves the integrity of ecosystems in
Bhutan.

SLMP and Rangeland Management
SLMP, as a multi-sectoral project, is seeking to strengthen sustainable land management through land
degradation prevention practices in any of the land-user sectors; and by so doing to protect and
improve the environment and improve rural livelihoods. The proposed Rangeland Management
Specialist (RMS) is in support of the livestock sector and in support of reducing or preventing
degradation of grazing lands through improved management and use that is consistent with the
commitment of the country to maintain the integrity of its environment and eco-systems. During
project formulation (2004-5), rangeland degradation was identified as a concern. A Rangeland
Management consultancy was incorporated into the project to address this concern.

Rangeland Management Issues
Grazing rights to rangelands (tsamdro) have been granted to individuals or groups with formal issue
of a thram (land certificate) to the permitted user. For tsamdro, the thram has given usage rights only,
with payment of an annual fee, land ownership remaining with the Government. The conditions of
the tsamdro thram prevented the user from undertaking any tshamdro improvement, other than
through controlling livestock density; and allowed the thram to be withdrawn if, for example, the
tsamdro was becoming degraded. This latter condition was rarely applied.

Fire control
Since the 1970s, strong, conservation and forest cover oriented regulations have prohibited burning of
grazing lands, a traditional management practice for maintaining the grass. This has resulted in
grasslands being colonised by forest or shrubs, and a reduced carrying capacity.

Grazing conflicts
Traditional grazing rights, usage and transhumance patterns in Bhutan allow multiple households,
chiogs (villages), geogs (blocks) or Dzongkhags (districts) grazing access to the same land area,
during the same and/or different seasons. Thus tsamdro rights may be held by livestock owners for
grazing on rangeland in other geogs/dzongkhags. This has lead to conflicts over resource use between
or within communities, increases the difficulty of agreeing and implementing sustainable management
practices, and aggravates unsustainable and exploitative use of the grazing and other vegetation and
natural resources, with consequent land degradation and its downstream impact.


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SLMP                                                          Rangeland Management Consultancy


Local Administration Land Management Responsibilities
In 2004-2005, the Dzongkhag (district) and Geog (block) administrations (DYT and GYT
respectively) were given increased powers for management of the land and resources within their
administrative boundaries. This had the potential to increase conflict and grazing pressure on those
tsamdro traditionally grazed by households from other geogs and the possibility that solutions might
be found at the expense of the resource poorer and less influential households and communities.
Either outcome was incompatible with RGoB and SLMP development objectives.

Original SLMP Terms of Reference (ToR)
It was in the context of the above issues that the original ToR (Attachment 2) for the RMS
consultancy were drafted, with their emphasis on conflict management and conflict resolution in
rangeland. More recent events (below) have resulted in the revised version of the ToR below.

New Land Act
Very recently (June 2007), a new Land Act was passed. Although not yet implemented, under the
Act, all tsamdro will be returned to the Government, for re-issue to individuals or groups, according to
the tsamdro carrying capacity and against an agreed management plan. It is expected that this will
lead to improved management. In turn, it is likely that this will increase the demand on research and
extension to provide the service needed for assessing and improving tsamdro management and
carrying capacity. The Land Act should remove the potential for tsamdro conflict and conflict-linked
over-exploitation although both could intensify in the interim period before the tsamdro is revoked for
re-issue. Implementation of the Act will be phased for those tsamdro for which grazing rights are
held by livestock owners from other Dzongkhags, to enable the traditional users to make alternative
arrangements. The newly created National Land Commission (NLC) is guiding the development of
the rules, regulations and guidelines necessary for the Act to be applied but these are unlikely to be
operationalised before 2008.

National Grazing Resources Management Policies and Strategies (NGRMPS)
Key national stakeholders, with technical assistance (TA) support from ICIMOD and some financial
support from the Bhutan EU Livestock Project, have developed a framework of activities that will
lead to the development of the NGRMPS (see Attachment 3). Progress has been slower than planned
and it is uncertain what will be the status when the RMS is fielded. Many of the activities parallel the
RMS ToR and the main stakeholders have expressed their interest in the RMS working in support of
the framework.

ToR
In view of the new Land Act, its implication for tsamdro lease, tsamdro management and the ongoing
development of the NGRMPS, the precise focus of the RMS consultancy is difficult to identify in
advance of the consultant’s arrival. Accordingly, the ToR should be interpreted as only indicative of
the likely scope of the RMS’s activities. The specific tasks to be undertaken by the consultant will be
finalised in response to stakeholder priorities and NGRMPS progress within the first week of the
consultancy.

Rangeland Management Specialist Terms of Reference (ToR)
Tasks
In consultation with national agencies, and specifically the National Feed and Fodder Development
Programme (NFFDP) of the Department of Livestock (DoL), Planning and Policy Division of the
Ministry of Agriculture (PPD-MoA), and the Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Jakar
(RNR-RC Jakar) of the Council of RNR Research of Bhutan (CoRRB), the consultant will:

    a) Review existing studies/documents on rangeland and its management in Bhutan or elsewhere
       under similar agro-ecological zones.


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SLMP                                                              Rangeland Management Consultancy


    b) Review national acts, policies and strategies that influence rangeland management.
    c) Visit selected rangelands (2000 mamsl and above, sub-tropical to alpine), and conduct
       situational analysis with relevant stakeholders on:
              i    the quality, productivity and sustainability of existing rangelands;
              ii   current and traditional grazing management practices taking into account the main
                   social, cultural, and indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) factors and their effect on
                   rangeland condition;
              iii existing conflicts in rangeland utilization and management between different
                  communities/groups;
              iv the appropriateness and effectiveness of RNR extension interventions to improve the
                 sustainability of rangeland management;
              v    the appropriateness and effectiveness of ongoing rangeland research;
           vi the application and effectiveness of national policies and strategies for rangeland
                management.
    d) Identify appropriate native grass and fodder species for multiplication and for trials to re-
       establish and maintain productive indigenous pastures.
    e) Suggest any appropriate measures that are needed to resolve, manage or minimise grazing
       conflicts during the interim period before the Land Act is fully implemented, taking into
       account the capacity development and support needed by the facilitators/mediators.
    f) Act as resource person at a workshop to train research and extension staff on (participatory)
       methods for assessing rangeland condition, production and sustainability (taking into account
       plant composition, soil fertility and ecosystem considerations).
    g) Outline policy, strategy and implementation options for improved and sustainable
       management and productivity of priority [subtropical and alpine] rangeland systems,
       considering also the capacity development needs of extension and research staff;
    h) Develop and cost a plan for operationalising the preferred strategy/ies, that gives clear
       guidance on the main responsibilities, tasks and timelines for the key stakeholders; and within
       this, identify appropriate pilot sites for community-based pasture development.
    i)   Facilitate a final national workshop on the findings and recommendations of the study.


    The consultant may also advise on the appropriateness of the concept of co-management of
    rangeland involving communities and/or the government, if this has any potential in view of the
    2007 Land Act.


Qualification:
    j)   Minimum Msc in Rangeland Management with specialization on intermediate to alpine (>
         2000 masl) rangeland.
    k) Ability and enthusiasm to work in a team with national colleagues to support and strengthen
       on-going national initiatives.


Experience:
    l) Minimum 15 years working experience of rangeland management for livestock
       production and eco-system sustainability in similar (and preferably Himalayan, e.g. Nepal,
       Mongolia, China etc.) rangeland systems.
    m) Minimum 5 years working experience of rangeland policy and strategy development and
       implementation in similar agro-socio-cultural-economic zones,



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SLMP                                                         Rangeland Management Consultancy


    n) Familiarity with community-based natural resource management approaches and techniques
       and 5 years of working experience of their application to rangeland.
    o) Familiarity with natural resource-based community conflict management and mediation
       techniques and 3 years of working with communities for successful rangeland conflict
       management.
    p) Minimum 5 years experience of working with national research and extension staff in
       rangeland management and basic and applied rangeland research.
    q) Competence to guide research staff in the design of uptake-oriented rangeland research.
    r) Previous experience of Bhutan an advantage.

Fluency in spoken and written English is a requirement.
Physical fitness and willingness to trek to remote rangelands is essential.

Location of work
The assignment will involve both extensive consultations and deskwork with stakeholders and site
visits to representative grazing lands. The headquarters of the project, the Department of Livestock
(DoL), the Policy and Planning Division (PPD) of MoA and the Land Commission are in Thimphu;
while the National Feed and Fodder Development Programme (NFFDP) and Renewable Natural
Resources Research Centre (RNR-RC) Jakar (with the mandate for rangeland research) are in
Bumthang (approximately 300 km east of Thimphu). The consultant will need to spend time in both
locations. The rangeland sites to be visited will be decided jointly with the above stakeholders but
could include tsamdro in one or two project pilot sites (Radhi, in Trashigang (600 km east of
Thimphu); Chhukha, (100 km south-west of Thimphu)).

Consultancy duration
4 months

Starting date
May 2008

Objective
To support and further national initiatives and national capacity to improve the sustainability and
productivity of rangelands consistent with maintaining eco-system integrity

Output
The specific outputs from the consultancy will be detailed in the first week of the consultancy, once
ToR are finalised (see ToR paragraph above) but will include:
   one training rangeland management workshop with research and extension;
   one final workshop with main national stakeholders;
   final report in digital and hard copy (2 copies).

Approach
The RMS will be expected to work in a collaborative manner which facilitates participation of the key
stakeholders for rangeland use. The RMS will be contracted through SLMP, to whom s/he will be
administratively and legally responsible, and the final workplan and consultancy outputs will be
agreed with SLMP to ensure that they contribute to project outcomes. However, the RMS will work
in close association with the Department of Livestock (DoL) who will act as the main professional
counterpart to the consultant and who will guide the finalisation of the ToR.




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SLMP                                                         Rangeland Management Consultancy


Provisional schedule
Week 1
         Discussions with main central agency stakeholders (SLMP, DoL, DoA, DoF [Departments of
         Livestock, Agriculture and Forestry], NEC [National Environment Commission], NLC
         [National Land Commission], PPD-MoA [Policy and Planning Division]
         Visit and discussions with NFFDP, RNR-RC Jakar
         Review and finalise the ToR and consultancy outputs with DoL and SLMP
         Develop and submit detailed and workplan for approval by DoL and SLMP
         Conduct literature review
Week 2
         Review, revision and approval of workplan
         Literature review
         Familiarisation visits to stakeholders
         As per agreed workplan
Week 8 (approx)
       Interim report to SLMP on progress and preliminary findings/recommendations
Week 16
      Conduct a national level workshop on the consultancy outputs and draft report contents
      Submit draft report incorporating workshop feedback
Report due date:
        Within 2 calendar weeks of completion of consultancy (i.e. week 18)

Responsibilities
Responsibility of consultant
       Supply of all professional items; computer equipment, stationery,
       Supply of field equipment (sleeping bag)
       Insurance cover (medical, travel, accident, third party liability)
       Procurement of international air ticket for re-imbursement at cost
Responsibility of SLMP
       Procurement of national air ticket
       Procurement of visa and visa extension
       DSA at UN rates for Bhutan hotel accommodation and RGoB rates for field work
       Logistic arrangements (with DoL; RNR-RC Jakar and including workshop preparations)
       Photocopying facilities

Tender procedure
The tender and selection will follow the World Bank procedures:
        “Guidelines Selection and employment of consultants by World Bank borrowers”
        ISBN 0-8213-5828-6; www.worldbank.org
The standard WB terms and conditions for international consultants will also be followed:
         http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/PROCUREMENT/0,,contentMDK:2006
         0656~menuPK:93977~pagePK:84269~piPK:60001558~theSitePK:84266,00.html

Interested international applicants are invited to submit in hard copy an expression of interest and
financial proposal in separate sealed envelopes addressed to the SLMP Project Manager, with the
applicant’s name and e-mail address printed on the envelope, as follows:
Envelope 1: labelled EoI
       Letter of application;
       Bio-data of consultant formatted to highlight the experience of the consultant that
       demonstrates her/his ability to fulfil the ToR


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SLMP                                                         Rangeland Management Consultancy


Envelope 2: labelled Financial Proposal
       Financial proposal (fee rates, main reimbursable costs [e.g. travel] and requirements for
       advance DSA payment [2 months maximum]; all quoted in USD)
The Expression of Interest should be addressed to:
       The Project Manager
       SLMP, NSSC
       P.O.Box 907
       Thimphu, Bhutan
        Telephone       (+) 975 (0)2 351 037;
        Facsimile       (+) 975 (0)2 351 038;
        E-mail          nssc@druknet.bt Attention SLMP PM

Expressions of Interest are to reach the Project Manager by May 5, 2008
Applicants will be notified by e-mail on receipt of the EoI
Selection will be made within 6 weeks of the application closing date
Applicants will be informed by e-mail of the outcome of their application

Further Information
Further information on the project and NSSC is available on www.moa.gov.bt/nssc
Specific queries on the RMS consultancy should be directed to the Project Manager




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SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy                                  Attachment 1: SLM Project


Attachment 1            Sustainable Land Management Project

The Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP) is a 6-year project that aims to strengthen and
institutionalise sustainable land management planning, practice and policy in Bhutan, from
community level through to national level. The Project stems from the concern of the Royal
Government of Bhutan (RGoB) over emerging issues of land degradation and is supported by grants
from the Global Environment Facility (GEF US$ 7.66M, through the World Bank (WB)) and parallel
financing from Danida to its EUSPS (Environment and Urban Sector Program Support). The GEF
funded SLMP is co-ordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), assisted by a multi-sectoral
advisory team. It was formulated in the context of the earlier GEF Operational Program 15
Sustainable Land Management.

Project Development Objective
To strengthen institutional and community capacity for anticipating and managing land degradation in
Bhutan.

Global Environment Objective
To protect trans-boundary watersheds in a manner that preserves the integrity of ecosystems in
Bhutan.

Achievement indicators of success
 10% reduction in sediment flow in selected micro-watersheds in pilot geogs.
 Number of geogs effectively adopting land degradation prevention plans.
 30% increase in number of farmers practising sustainable land management.


Duration
February 2006 – June 2012

Guiding principles
 Bottom-up planning approach – community priorities and community decisions.
 Phased implementation – initially in 3 pilot geogs, extending to other geogs as SLM capacity is
  built.
 Support to decentralisation.
 Ensuring an appropriate knowledge and information base to guide SLM decision making on
  practices, planning and policies.
 Integrated multi-sectoral approach – a strategy for improving the management of natural resources.
 Stakeholder consultation – throughout the project cycle.


Implementation pilot sites        Project Year 1-3                     Project Year 3-6
Chukkha Dzongkhag                 Phuentsholing Geog            Bongo Geog + Logchina Geog
Zhemgang Dzongkhag                Nangkhor Geog                 Bardo Geog     + Goshing Geog
Trashigang Dzongkhag              Radhi Geog                    Lumang Geog + Thrimshing Geog

Project components and main activities
Component 1: Pilot projects to demonstrate effective application of land degradation prevention
approaches.
 Conducting resource mapping.
 Defining community priorities and investments.
 Validating SLM investments.
 Documenting and disseminating lessons learnt.




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SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy                                   Attachment 1: SLM Project


Component 2: Mainstreaming of practices for protection against land degradation.
 Developing analytical tools for bio-physical and socio-economic baselines.
 Replicating SLM approaches to other Geogs and Dzongkhags.
 Generating knowledge for SLM policy guidance.
 Building capacity for inter-sectoral planning and mainstreaming.


Component 3: Policy support and guidance for mainstreaming land degradation prevention practices.
 Facilitating mainstreaming of SLM approaches in Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plans.
 Facilitating mainstreaming of SLM approaches in Dzongkhags’ and Geogs’ five-year and annual
  development planning processes.
 Facilitating integration of SLM principles in sector level policies and legislation.
 Facilitating local level resource management regulatory systems at the chiog and geog levels.


Component 4: National level support for co-ordination of implementation of land degradation
prevention practices.
 Strengthening of MoA capacity to co-ordinate a land degradation management program.
 Providing multi-sectoral and multi-level support for SLM activities (technical assistance, training,
  equipment, management information systems).




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SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy                  Attachment 2: Original Terms of Reference


Attachment 2           Original Rangeland Management Specialist ToR

Original from SLMP

   a) Review of existing studies/documents on rangeland and its management in Bhutan or
      elsewhere under similar agro-ecological zones.
   b) Site visits to intermediate to lower altitude rangelands and conduct situational analysis in
      consultation with relevant stakeholders.
   c) Study existing conflicts in rangeland utilization and management by different communities
      and suggest appropriate policy, strategy and capacity development mechanisms to resolve,
      manage or minimise conflicts.
   d) For one or two conflicts with good potential for resolution, outline a detailed action plan for
      conflict resolution, including the capacity development and support needed by the
      facilitators/mediators.
   e) Outline of future strategies for management and development of intermediate - lower altitude
      rangeland in Bhutan and advise on the appropriateness of the concept of co-management of
      rangeland involving community or communities.
   f) Develop a plan for operationalising the preferred (best bet) strategy/ies.
   g) Facilitate a final national workshop on the findings and recommendations of the study.


Proposed by RNR-RC Jakar

   a) Overgrazing is considered to be a common phenomenon in rangeland across Bhutan and it is
      believed to be an important contributing factor leading to deterioration of rangeland
      resources. Therefore, the most important task of the technical assistance is to assess quality
      and productivity of existing rangelands in sample sites applying suitable methods for Bhutan.
   b) Despite importance of rangelands, not many research works had been carried out due to
      limitations in human capacity and other resources. Research and management interventions
      are needed to sustain the rangeland resources. Therefore, the TA is expected to visit some of
      the existing rangeland research sites, evaluate current research methods, data collection and
      recommend design for rangeland trials.
   c) Since the existing researchers lack research skills on rangeland, the TA is expected to train
      our researchers on various research methods and techniques for assessing rangeland
      production, plant composition, soil fertility assessment and relating rangeland condition to the
      surrounding ecosystems.
   d) Based on findings from field studies and visits, the consultant needs to propose future
      strategies for management and development of subtropical and alpine rangelands and develop
      a plan for implementing effective strategies for future rangeland development.
   e) The consultant should be able to explore social and cultural factors such as herder’s
      traditional grazing management, soil fertility management etc. and relate those factors to
      rangeland condition.
   f) The consultant should be able to identify needs for future research on rangeland.




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SLMP Rangeland Management Consultancy                     Attachment 3: NGRMPS draft workplan


Attachment 3            National Grazing Resources Management Policy and Strategies:
                        NGRMPS draft workplan activities


1   Review of experiences in Bhutan and the Hindu Kush – Himalaya region

2   Establishment of the national task force

3   Situation analysis and rangeland case studies
        Inventory and maps of vegetation
        Grazing intensity
        Management
        Use
        Ownership rights and lease systems
        Taxation system
        Non-grazing rangeland products
        Wildlife conflicts

4   Problem analysis
        Community/herder consultative workshops in specific and representative sites

5   Policy option review
        Socio-economic consideration
        Environmental considerations
        Political considerations

6   Strategy drafting

7   Policy drafting

8   National workshop to finalise policy and strategies

9   Submission of policy and strategy to Cabinet

10 Translation and publication

11 NGRMPS awareness workshops

12 Implementation


Source
Extracted from:
“Work programme for development of National Grazing Resources Management Policy & Strategies”
National Feed and Fodder Development Programme: Department of Livestock, MoA, Bhutan




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