Quality Function Deployment - PowerPoint by rt3463df

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									Quality Function Deployment

 QFD for Software Requirements
         Management

           Guy Davis
         Carmen Zannier
          Adam Geras
                        Objectives

Upon completion of this chapter, students will:
      Understand what Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is
      Understand how QFD compares to other software
       development life cycles
      Be able to identify the primary QFD tools and concepts
      Be able to identify the QFD practices that might be
       useful in non-QFD working environments




                                                         2 of 46
                1. Introduction to QFD




Requirements Engineer
                        ?           QFD




                                         3 of 46
1(a) QFD - Definition

     VOICE OF THE
      CUSTOMER

          +    QFD


=    CUSTOMER
    SATISFACTION
                        4 of 46
1(a) QFD – Definition (Cont.)




 [ASI, 2000]

                           5 of 46
          1(b) QFD - Benefits




[ASI, 2000]

                                6 of 46
 1(c) QFD - History


   STATISTICAL
PROCESS CONTROL

 DESIGN QUALITY   QFD

     VALUE
  ENGINEERING




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 1(d) Software Engineering Context

                   TQM

           SDLC
                          Requirements Engineer
            SQFD


Customer




                            Software Engineer




                                           8 of 46
1(e) Requirements Engineering
           Context


  Requirements Engineer

                          Voice of the
                   SQFD    Customer

                          Requirements
                          Prioritization




        Customer



                                           9 of 46
   2. QFD Life Cycle Considerations

 QFD Process
 SQFD Process




                                10 of 46
2(a) Traditional QFD Phases




                         11 of 46
                     2(b) Adapting QFD to Software



                  Measurable                 High Leve l                Methods,
                                                                                                     Procedures
                  Objectives                   Design                    tools
Customer Voice




                                                                                   Methods, tools
                               Measurable




                                                           High Level
                               Objectives




                                                            Design
                   Product                     Design                   Process                      Production
                   Planning                   Planning                  Planning                      Planning




                 Phase 1:                   Phase 2:             Phase 3:                           Phase 4:
                 Conceive                   Develop             Manufacture                          Deliver




                                                                                                               12 of 46
2(b) SQFD Process




                    13 of 46
3. The House of Quality

                     5. Roof
                      5. Roof

                   3. Technical
                    3. Technical
                  Requirements
                  Requirements




                                   2. Planning Matrix
   Requirements
    1. Customer




                     4. Inter-
                      4. Inter-
                  relationships
                   relationships




                   6. Targets
                    6. Targets




                                                        14 of 46
3(a) Customer Requirements

                                Structured
                               Requirements
                                Document



           Title Card

     Group 1 Group 2 Group 3



                                              15 of 46
          3(b) Affinity and Tree
                Diagrams
      Does not       Accessible
                                         Comfortable           Attractive
restrict movement    Gear Loops
                                           Fits over
    Fits over       Lightweight                                  Does not
                                       Different clothes
Different clothes                                          restrict movement
                                         Accessible
                    Comfortable          Gear Loops              Safe
        Safe
                     Attractive                               Lightweight


                             Facilitates Climbing


                     Usability Attractive Performance



                                                                               16 of 46
Exercise 1 – Affinity Workshop




                           17 of 46
      3(c) The Planning Matrix

 Quantifies Customer Requirements.
 Quantifies Perceptions of Existing Products.
 Allows adjustment based on design team.

   COMFORTABLE         5   4   3    2    1

   EASY TO PUT ON      5   4   3    2    1

   FITS OVER
   DIFFERENT CLOTHES   5   4   3    2    1


                                                 18 of 46
     3(c) The Planning Matrix

Customer Satisfaction – existing products fulfilling
  specified requirements.
Improvement Ratio = Planned Performance / Existing
  Performance

Sales Point – weight for marketability
Overall Weighting = Importance Weighting x
  Improvement Ratio X Sales Point

                                                19 of 46
   3(c) The Planning Matrix




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                                             Im
Comfortable                    5         2       5    2.5   1.4   17.5
Easy to Put On
                               1         1       2     2    1.0    2
Fits over different clothes
                               2         3       4    1.3   1.1   2.9
                                                                   20 of 46
               3(d) Technical
               Requirements
 Engineering Characteristics, Voice of the Company.

 Identify Measurable Characteristics related to
  Customer Requirements.

 Direction of change included to lead to
  improvement of product performance.


                                                   21 of 46
           3(e) Interrelationships

 Between customer requirements and technical
  requirements
 Translation and correlation step
 Critical to generate consensus between
  development team and customers.

Critical Question:
How significant is technical requirement A in
satisfying customer requirement B?

                                                22 of 46
                        3(e) Interrelationships

                                                                        Technical Requirements




                                                                                                                 Overall Weighting
                                                                              Webbing strength
                                   High -        (9)




                                                       Harness weight




                                                                                                 # of buckles
                               Medium -          (3)

                                   Low -         (1)
Customer Requirements




                        Light weight                                                                            3.0
                        Does not restrict movement                                                              11.2
                        Safe                                                                                    6.0
                        Technical Priority


                                                                                                                                     23 of 46
               3(f) “The Roof”

 Considers impact of technical requirements on each
  other
 Feature to feature comparison
 Augment or impede?

Critical Question:
 Does improving one requirement cause a
  deterioration or improvement in another
  requirement?


                                                24 of 46
                  3(f) “The Roof”



                                                                              Legend
                                   Webbing strength


                                                      Padding thickness
                  Harness weight
Meets standards




                                                                              positive/
                                                                          +   supporting


                                                                          -   negative/
                                                                              tradeoff


                                                                                           25 of 46
                       3(g) Targets

       Summarize previous         Results from previous
        steps                       steps:
        Draw conclusions               Customer requirements
       Consists of:                    Prioritized customer
                                         requirements
         Technical Priorities
                                        Technical requirements
         Competitive
          Benchmarks                    Correlated requirements
         Final Product Targets         Feature
                                         interdependencies

                                                           26 of 46
   3(h) Technical Priorities




                                                                                   Overall Weighting
                                                Webbing strength
           High -        (9)




                               Harness weight




                                                                   # of buckles
       Medium -          (3)

           Low -         (1)


Light weight                                                                      3.0
Does not restrict movement                                                        11.2
Safe                                                                              6.0
Technical Priority


                                                                                                       27 of 46
  3(i) Competitive Benchmarks




                                                                        Padding thickness
                                                     Webbing strength
                  Meets standards


                                    Harness weight




                                                                                            # of buckles
Existing System
Competitor #1
Competitor #2
                                                                                                           28 of 46
  3(j) Final Product Targets




Target System



                               29 of 46
       3(k) House of Quality Summary

 Inputs:
      Customer requirements
      Technical requirements
      Customer priorities
      Market reality / competitive analysis
       Organization’s strengths & weaknesses
 Outputs
      Prioritized technical requirements
      Measurable, testable goals

                                                30 of 46
Exercise 2 – Build a House of
           Quality




                            31 of 46
        3(l) House of Quality Pros and
                    Cons
 Pros:
      Generates specific technical requirements
      Requirements are traceable
      Follows a repeatable, quantitative process
      Effectively translates Voice of the Customer
      Records rationale for each technical requirement

 Cons:
      Time-consuming process for >10 requirements
      Data storage, manipulation and maintenance costs
      Very dependent on customer requirement gathering
      Inflexible to changing requirements; must recalculate


                                                               32 of 46
4. QFD Life Cycle Comparisons

                       XP

   CLEANROOM                   SASD
                      ?
             ?       QFD
                               ?        SSM
 RUP
             ?
                 ?         ?       PD
       JAD
                     RAD


                                              33 of 46
4(a) QFD and Cleanroom




                [SAIC, 2001]



                               34 of 46
4(b) QFD and SASD


 Environmental
    Models

          Behavioural
            Models

                 Implementation
                     Models




                                  35 of 46
                         4(c) QFD vs. JAD




QFD is a Quality-focused approach   JAD is a communication-focused approach




                                                                     36 of 46
 4(d) QFD and PD




Workers and Designers work together




                                      37 of 46
     4(e) QFD vs. RAD



QUALITY           SPEED




                          38 of 46
        4(f) QFD vs. SSM




[Wilson, 2001]

                           39 of 46
         4(g) QFD and RUP




[Ronin, 2001]

                            40 of 46
                4(h) QFD and XP




[Wells, 2001]
                                  41 of 46
                        5. Conclusions




Requirements Engineer
                             ?           QFD




                                          42 of 46
              5. Conclusions (Cont.)




Requirements Engineer
                        ?          QFD




                                       43 of 46
              5. Conclusions (Cont.)




Requirements Engineer
                        ?          QFD




                                       44 of 46
              QFD Designer

 QFD Designer Business Improvement
  Software
 Templates to define various aspects of QFD
 Icons, graphs, simplify add/delete




                                          45 of 46
References




             46 of 46

								
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