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# Program Theory

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```									  What is it we do again?
Understanding your program and its value
through the program logic model
Jonathan Brown, M.A.
Aarin Frigon, M.A.
1
Logic Models: An Overview

• A graphic way to represent the current thinking about a
project.
• Logic models facilitate:
• Design
• Planning
• Communication
• Evaluation
• Learning

2
Logic Models: An Overview

• Two types of logic models:
• Theory of Change Models (TCM)
• Program Logic Models (PLM)

• The TCM provides the conceptual framework, while the
PLM provides the operational details.
• The TCM and PLM are premised on the same research,
theory, and practice.
• These models fulfill your if-then statements.

3
Theory of Change Models

Strategies          Results

4
Theory of Change Models
Strategies           Results

Exercise

Nutrition
Improved
Health
Stress
Reduction

Recruitment
and Retention
(Knowlton & Phillips, 2009)
5
Program Logic Models

• A PLM serves as a recipe.
• It will describe in detail how financial and social capital will be
used to produce specific results.

• They can be used to represent many things: an idea, an
existing program, or a process to create change.

6
Program Logic Models

Inputs   Activities   Outputs   Outcomes     Impacts

Strategies                    Results

7
Program Logic Models: Nonlinear

8
Creating a Program Logic Model

Step One
• Start by identifying the end result of your program.
• Identify the impact
• The ultimate change or accomplishment.
• The timing of the impact varies from program to program.
• This may occur well after the final cycle of the program.

9
Creating a Program Logic Model

Step Two
• Identify the outcomes
• Specific changes in program targets.
• These changes are a result of the programs activities and
inputs.
• If including impact in the model, outcomes would be steps of
progress towards that impact.
• These can be distinguished according to time.
• Time should be specified and relative to the program.

10
Creating a Program Logic Model

Step Three
• Identify activities
• What will be done to obtain the desired outcomes.
• These are the essence of the program.
• The tools, events, and interventions.
• These reflect intended processes.

11
Creating a Program Logic Model

Step Four
• Identify inputs
• Inputs are the ingredients needed to make your program
happen.
• Infrastructure
• Special Equipment
• Supplies
• Transportation
• Financial and Human Resources

• Some models even list willing participants as inputs.
12
Creating a Program Logic Model

Step Five
• Identify outputs
• What the program activities actually produce/create.
• Outputs should be expressed in quantity and quality.
• Make sure you are specific.

13

• How to display your model is a matter of personal
preference.
• There are no clear rules.
• Keep your audience in mind.
• Be careful when choosing boxes, lines, curved lines,
circles, and single or double headed arrows.
• Readability should be a number one priority.

14
15
Program Logic Models and Evaluation

• A well developed PLM will outline the indicators needed
for an evaluation.
• Five key evaluation questions:
1. Is the program doing the right thing?
2. Is the program doing things right?
3. What difference has the program made among participants?
4. What difference has the program made across the
community?
5. How could the program better address the needs of
participants and the community?

16
Important Considerations

• Just because it is called a logic model does not mean it
is logical.
• Creating and updating logic models should be an
iterative process.
• It is a good idea to identify the dose of the program in
the model.

17
QUESTIONS??

Jonathan Brown, M.A.
jbrown@asc4solutions.com

Aarin Frigon, M.A.
afrigon@asc4solutions.com
18

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