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Assimilation and Contrast in Social Judgment The inclusion

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Assimilation and Contrast in Social Judgment The inclusion Powered By Docstoc
					        The 6th Sydney Symposium of Social Psychology,
                          Volume 6
                      March 18-20, 2003
                                   SOCIAL MOTIVATION:


                                              Edited by
           Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, and William VonHippel
     University of New South Wales, and Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia


Aarts, Henk (Utrecht) & Ran Hassin (Hebrew University, Israel):
     Automatic goal inference and contagion
              Most theories of motivated action emphasize the role of conscious choice in the
     adoption of goals and in guiding goal-directed behaviors. It is assumed that the mere
     activation of goals does not directly put the body into motion. Activated goals need to be
     accompanied by a conscious decision, and goal pursuit needs some form of ―expressed
     mandate‖ to be initiated. According to this view, then, it is conscious awareness that allows
     people to get goals and start acting on them. Recently, this widespread view has been
     challenged. Goals, it is argued, can be automatically put in place by situational cues, and
     goals can guide behavior without a person’s awareness of them. The present contribution
     aims to further explore this conception by examining how goals spread – without intention or
     awareness -- between people, that is: how goals can be automatically contagious.
              The framework consists of two key components. First, we propose that people can
     automatically infer other people's goals from behavioral information. Second, we suggest that
     these inferred goals may be automatically adopted and pursued by the perceiver. Support for
     the first proposition is provided by experiments that include off- as well as on-line
     measurement for the examination of automatic inferences. Support for the second proposition
     consists of empirical evidence from paradigms that examine how goals can be automatically
     put into motion by a mere perception of others' behaviors. Moreover, further explorations
     reveal that the pursuit of these adopted goals follows classic characteristics of goal pursuit,
     such as persistence over time. The role of such unconscious goal pursuit in everyday social
     life is considered.

Devine, Trish (Wisconsin): The role of external and internal motivation in

              As social norms proscribing prejudice crystallized overtime, concerns arose pertaining
     to what motivates expressions of nonprejudiced attitudes and behaviors. Do such responses
     reflect internal, personal motivation to respond without prejudice or do they merely reflect
     compliance with social norms discouraging the expression of prejudice? A review of the
     prejudice literature suggests that given compelling external reasons for concealing prejudice,
     internal reasons are often discounted. In recent work, however, we have developed and
     provide convergent, discriminant, and construct validation for separate measures of these
     alternative sources of motivation to respond without prejudice. Moreover, they are largely
     independent, suggesting that people can be motivated to respond without prejudice for
     primarily internal reasons, primarily external reasons, for both internal and external reasons,
     or not motivated to respond without prejudice for either reason. Thus, we argue that both
     sources of motivation exist and affect people’s prejudice related responses, though to varying
     degrees for different people. We contend that making progress on core issues concerning the
     activation, control, and expression of prejudice requires examining the role of both internal
     and external sources of motivation to respond without prejudice.

             In the present chapter I present the background work concerning the development of
     our separate measures of internal (IMS) and external (EMS) motivation to respond without
     prejudice. These measures predict a wide range of outcomes such as the affective
     consequences of violating internal vs. external standards, expression of prejudice in public
     and private settings, the conditions under which people will exert effort to overcome
     prejudice, implicit expressions of prejudice, effective and ineffective control of prejudice,
     anxiety in inter-group interactions, and neuro-physiological indicators of the activation and
     control of prejudice). A central theme is that it is not sufficient to know whether or how
     much one is motivated to respond without prejudice, it is critically important to know the
     reasons why one is so motivated. Recently, we have linked internal and external motivation
     to respond without prejudice to different self-regulatory concerns (i.e., approach
     egalitarianism vs. avoid prejudice). In so doing, we are integrating our work with the
     existing motivation, goal, and self-regulation literatures. The goal of the chapter is to
     articulate and provide evidence to support the new overarching conceptualization of the
     nature and consequences of internal and external sources of motivation to respond without

Forgas, Joseph (UNSW): The interaction between affect and motivation
    in social judgments and behavior

             This chapter will review historical and contemporary evidence for the role of affect in
     social motivation, and an integrative theory of these effects will be outlined. The chapter will
     review experimental evidence demonstrating both (1) the motivational consequences of mild
      affective states, and (2) the role of motivational states in channelling and moderating
      affective influences on thinking and behavior. The first half of the chapter will describe a
      series of recent experiments demonstrating the motivational consequences of positive and
      negative mood states for the performance of strategic interpersonal behaviors, such as
      negotiation, bargaining, requesting, and social influence strategies. It will be argued that mild
      mood states exert a motivational influence on behavior through selectively facilitating
      retrieval and access to mood-congruent information when ambiguous social situations are
      interpreted, and behavioural responses are planned.
              In the second half of the chapter, the role of pre-existing motivational states in
      moderating affective influences on social judgments and behavior will be discussed. Several
      experiments from our laboratory and from elsewhere indicate that motivation to achieve a
      particular objective often interferes with and even reverses the commonly observed mood
      congruent effect that would occur otherwise. It will be argued that motivational states reduce
      affect congruence because they interfere with open and constructive information processing
      and thus limit the incidental use of affectively primed information in judgments and behavior.
      Recent work also indicates that affective states may spontaneously trigger motivated
      cognitive strategies designed to regulate excessive affective fluctuations. The general
      implications of this research for our understanding of the links between affect and motivation
      will be discussed, and the implications of these findings for everyday social judgments and
      behavior will be considered.

Forster, Jens (Bremen, Germany) & Liberman, Nira (TelAviv): How goals
     influences what we think: Towards a motivational priming model
          Investigating the bases of unconscious and conscious effects of knowledge activation (priming),
   we introduce a comprehensive theory on goal related accessibility which has three basic assumptions:
          1. Accessibility persists (and may even be enhanced) as long as the goal is active.
          2. When a goal is fulfilled, accessibility of goal-related constructs diminishes.
          3. Accessibility increases as a function of the motivation to achieve the goal - the stronger this
   motivation the stronger the accessibility. Therefore, distance from the goal, expectancy, and value
   should be positively related to the accessibility of goal-related constructs.
          In a first series of studies, these basic hypotheses were confirmed. In Studies 1, 2, & 3
   participants searched for a target picture among other pictures. Lexical decision and Stroop measures
   of accessibility showed that accessibility of target-related words was enhanced prior to finding the
   target and reduced after finding it relative to both a preceding stage and relative to a control, no-goal
   condition. Studies 4 and 5 used the same basic paradigm with additional value and expectancy
   manipulations, showing that both value and expectancy increase the effects of activation and
          This model has been applied to several domains. First, we found that rebound effects after
   thought suppression can be explained by the fact that suppression activates a goal to think the
   forbidden thought. As a consequence we predicted and found that expression after suppression
   reduces rebound (Liberman & Förster, 2000; Förster & Liberman, 2001). Similar effects of
   suppression have been recently found on automatic behavior. Second, we show that person perception
   is influenced by goal fulfillment. We conceptualized an interrupted priming task as a state of an
   unfulfilled goal and a completed priming task as a post-fulfillment state. Both a lexical decision task
   and a subsequent impression formation task showed enhanced accessibility after interrupted priming
   but not after completed priming, a pattern that was interpreted in terms of post-fulfillment inhibition.
         Finally, we showed that after having activated the goal to aggress against a certain person,
   stabbing a Voodoo doll, signifying goal fulfillment led to an inhibition of aggressive constructs and
   aggressive behavior. The implication of these findings for classic priming theories and some more
   consequences of this basic model for human behavior and motivation will be discussed.

Harackiewicz, Judy (Wisconsin): Multiple goals and optimal motivation

              Why do some students become involved and interested in their studies and why do
      they continue in a particular academic discipline? Why do some athletes become engaged in
      their sport, persist at practice, and seek competition against others? In recent years, my
      students and I have conducted a number of studies examining the development of interest and
      continuing motivation for activities, studying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence
      optimal motivation. For example, we have examined the role of self-set achievement goals
      and personal values in promoting interest and performance in academic contexts, and we
      have also examined the effects of competition, external evaluation, and rewards on intrinsic
      motivation in basketball and football camps. How do these intrinsic and extrinsic factors
      combine to influence performance and ongoing motivation in these domains?
              In the proposed paper, I will overview and synthesize these different lines of research
      to integrate work on achievement goals, values, interest, and intrinsic motivation. I will
      argue that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can both play a positive role in promoting
      performance and intrinsic motivation, and discuss why my colleagues and I advocate a
      multiple goals perspective (Harackiewicz, Barron, Pintrich, Elliot & Thrash, 2002; Hidi &
      Harackiewicz, 2000). In our most recent work, we have examined these issues with
      experimental studies in which we teach students new mental math techniques, and I will
      present some representative findings that demonstrate the impact of multiple goals and values
      on interest, performance and continuing motivation. I will also present the results of a
      longitudinal study in which we examined the consequences of students’ achievement goals in
      an introductory psychology course. We followed students from their freshman year until
      they graduated, and in the short term, we examined whether students’ goals predicted their
      interest and performance in an introductory course taken their first semester at college.
      Seven years later, we obtained behavioral measures of continued interest in the discipline and
      long-term performance. We found positive and complementary effects of mastery and
      performance goals on different measures of academic success, and these results are consistent
      with a multiple goals perspective in which both goals can have beneficial consequences.
      More generally, these findings are consistent with a model of motivation that considers
      intrinsic and extrinsic factors to be complementary forces that can promote optimal

Kernis, Michael (Georgia) and Michael Goldman (Georgia): Authenticity,
     consciousness and social motivation
              Many psychological theories posit that the motivation to achieve authenticity is
      important for psychological functioning and subjective well-being. Historically, authenticity
      has been conceptualized in terms of awareness and operation of one’s true or core self. In
      this paper, we introduce a new multi-component conceptualization of authenticity that has
      considerable implications for social motivation and the nature of ongoing conscious
      experiences. We define authenticity as the unobstructed operation of one’s true or core self
      in one’s daily enterprise (Kernis, in press). More specifically, it involves the following four
     components: awareness, unbiased processing, behavior, and relational orientation. The
     awareness component refers to having awareness of, and trust in, one's motives, feelings,
     desires, and self-relevant cognitions. Unbiased processing reflects objectivity in assessing
     one's positive and negative self-aspects, attributes, qualities, and potentials. In other words,
     unbiased processing involves not denying, distorting, exaggerating, or ignoring private
     knowledge, internal experiences, and externally generated evaluative information (Kernis, in
     press). The behavior component involves acting in accord with one's values, preferences,
     and needs as opposed to acting merely to please others or to attain rewards or avoid
     punishments. The relational orientation component involves valuing and achieving openness
     and truthfulness in one's close relationships.
             We view these multiple components of authenticity as separable from, but as having
     motivational implications for, each other. For example, authentic behavior can be
     distinguished from inauthentic behavior by the conscious, motivated intentions that underlie
     it. Authentic behavior involves an honest assessment of one's self-aspects via awareness and
     unbiased processing components. In essence, authentic behavior implies choice and is
     motivated to solve self-relevant problems. In turn, inauthentic behavior involves being
     unaware of, ignoring, oversimplifying, and/or distorting self- aspects relevant to the
     behavioral context.
             We developed the Authenticity Inventory to assess these components of authenticity
     (Goldman & Kernis, in press) and found that authenticity is positively related to self-esteem
     and life satisfaction and negatively related to self-esteem contingencies and negative affect.
     We also examined the relation between authenticity and the motivational underpinnings of
     everyday goal strivings. Authenticity relates positively to experiences of integrity and
     personal meaning, and enjoyment, and negatively to egotism (oriented toward pride and
     contingent self-esteem). We also present data indicating authenticity's role in social
     motivation related to collective self-esteem, self-monitoring, cultural estrangement, social
     comparison, and attachment. We also expect that authenticity should relate to greater
     mindfulness and being ―in the moment‖ and to less of a tendency to cogitate over events and
     experiences separate from the immediate context. Taken together, the results of these studies
     illuminate the role of authenticity in conscious and nonconscious aspects of social

     Goldman, B.M., & Kernis, M.H. (2001). Development of the Authenticity Inventory.
             Unpublished data, University of Georgia.
     Goldman, B.M., & Kernis, M.H. (in press). The role of authenticity in optimal psychological
             functioning and subjective well-being. Annals of Psychotherapy.
     Kernis, M.H. (in press). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological
     Perls, Hefferline, & Goodman (1951). Gestalt Therapy. New York: Julian Press (reprinted
             1965, Dell Press).

Neuberg, Steve (Arizona), D. Kenrick & M. Schaller (U. British
    Columbia): Social motives in early-stage cognitive processing
          People spend much of their social lives in complex social environments. In office
     buildings, cocktail parties, shopping centers, waiting rooms, and farmers’ markets, we
     encounter a variety of different people with different characteristics doing different
     things. Rarely do we attend equally to all individuals, however, or to all characteristics of
     a given individual. Rather, we selectively direct our limited information processing
     resources to a smaller subset of individuals and characteristics. But what particular kinds
     of information are we likely to notice, remember, and act upon? What determines
     attentional selection and its consequences?
          Although social psychology has made great strides over the past two decades in
     understanding the influences of social motivation on cognition, its theoretical focus has
     leaned heavily toward understanding issues of process—of the mechanisms through
     which goals might alter, for instance, the impressions we form of one another. By its
     very nature, however, the process approach is unable to address issues of content—of
     what goals are likely to be especially influential, and why. The process approach is
     therefore unable to predict which features of the social environment people will
     frequently attune themselves to.
          Doug Kenrick, Mark Schaller, and I believe that what people think about is at least
     as important as how they do the thinking, and we have recently embarked on a program
     of research designed to address this deficiency. From a functional,
     ecological/evolutionary foundation, we have derived the social motives that should be of
     fundamental importance to people as social animals, hypothesized how they might
     adaptively alter early-in-the-stream perceptual and cognitive processes, and have begun
     to test the often novel predictions that emerged. To this point, we have focused on the
     goals of self-protection and mating. When activated, each goal is hypothesized to have
     both excitatory and inhibitory effects, selectively facilitate attention toward target
     individuals possessing goal-relevant characteristics and inhibiting attention to target
     individuals with goal-irrelevant characteristics. The model further specifies asymmetries
     in cross-goal inhibitory effects (e.g., self-protective goals take priority over mating
     goals), and yields hypotheses concerning the effects of goal activation on attention to and
     cognitions about individuals who differ in ethnicity, gender, and physical attractiveness.
          Our initial experiments are providing rich early support for our hypotheses. In one,
     white males concerned with self-protection (and therefore ostensibly on the ―lookout‖ for
     danger) were especially likely to ―see‖ anger in neutrally-expressive black male faces to
     which they’d been briefly exposed, whereas white males interested in romance (and
     therefore ostensibly on the lookout for liaison opportunities) were especially likely to
     ―see‖ sexual interest in neutrally-expressive attractive white female faces. The effects of
     these manipulated goals were quite specific, as the framework would predict—they did
     not generalize to functionally-irrelevant targets or to unrelated emotions. We’ve labeled
     this phenomenon functional projection, to reflect the extent to which these biases in
     perception appear quite sensitive to the goal-relevant affordances provided by the social
     environment. In the chapter I also discuss studies using eye-tracking and ―change-
     blindness‖ methods designed to assess how self-protection and mating goals affect early,
     relatively automatic, visual attention processes.

Pyszcynsky, Tom (UC): How do death-related thoughts affect cognition and
     action? An update on the dual process model of conscious and
     unconscious motivation
     This chapter will discuss the cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying the effects of
     death related thought on human behavior. Distinct mechanisms involved in coping with
     conscious and unconscious threats will be explored, with a focus on the role of the
     accessibility of death related ideation and the potential for affect that this produces. Extensive
     experimental evidence for the theory will be presented, and the motivational implications of
     death-related thoughts in a variety of social domains will be considered.

Rhodewalt, Fred (Utah): Narcissistic Social Motivation: Causes,
    Mechanisms, and Consequences of Interpersonal Self-Esteem
             This chapter will briefly review clinical perspectives on narcissism and describe our
     recently proposed interpersonal self-regulatory processing model of narcissism (Morf &
     Rhodewalt, 2001; Rhodewalt, 2001; Rhodewalt & Sorrow, in press). The essence of the
     model is that narcissism can be viewed as a set of coherent cognitive, motivational, and
     interpersonal self-regulatory processes rather than as a ―trait-like‖ behavioral syndrome.
     After describing the model and illustrating it with research, the chapter will focus more
     directly on Annie Reich’s (1960) contention that the narcissist engages in a pathological form
     of self-esteem regulation wherein the narcissist must chronically perform compensatory self-
     inflation in order to support a megalomanic self-image. Evidence concerning the relation
     between narcissistic motivation and social feedback will be presented. The chapter will
     present research examining the elements of the self-esteem regulation process: 1.) factors that
     motivate interpersonal engagement, 2.) interpersonal self-regulatory behavior, and 3.) the
     intra- and interpersonal consequences of such interpersonal exchanges. The chapter will
     conclude by discussing the implications of this work for models of self-esteem.

Spencer, Steve (U. Waterloo): Implicit thoughts and explicit motives and
     This chapter will review four lines of research that examine the interaction of
     people's implicitly activated thoughts and explicit motives, arguing that
     implicit thoughts primarily influence behavior when they are not only
     activated but also when people's explicit motivations make the implicit
     thoughts applicable to the situation. For example, if the implicit thought of
     slowness were activated, people would primarily walk slowly if they were had
     an explicit motive to do so (i.e., time to waste). In one line of research
     (Strahan, Spencer, & Zanna, in press) I will examine how subliminally
     priming people with the concept of thirst only leads people to choose a thirst-
     quenching beverage when they are explicitly motivated to reduce their thirst
     (i.e., when they are thirsty). In a second line of research (Fein, Davies,
     Hoshino-Browne, & Spencer, 2002) I will examine how subliminally priming
     people with the word "gay" only leads to negative evaluation of a gay target
     when people are explicitly motivated to stereotype others (i.e., when their self-
     image is threatened). In a third line of research (Davies, Spencer, Quinn, &
     Gehardstein, in press) I will show that although both men and women activate
     stereotypes about women when they see commercials that portray women
     stereotypically, this activation of the stereotype only influences women's
     performance on a math test. Presumably, only women are explicitly motivated
     to suppress the stereotype about them, and independent evidence will be
     presented that this sort of suppression undermines women's math performance.
     Finally, in a fourth line of research (Jordan, Spencer, & Zanna, 2002) I will
     examine how among high self-esteem people it is only those with low implicit
     self-esteem (who presumably have doubts about themselves chronically
     activated) that show defensiveness when they are threatened (i.e., when they
     are externally motivated to repair their self-image). Together these lines of
     research suggest that implicit and explicit motivations interact powerfully in
     determining behavior.

Fritz Strack & Roland Deutsch (University of Würzburg): Reflective and
      impulsive determinants of social behavior

     The motivation of social behavior is assumed to be jointly determined by reflective and
     impulsive processes. In particular, we suggest that what people do is controlled by two
     interacting systems that follow different operating principles. While the Reflective System
     generates behavioral decisions that are based on knowledge about facts and values, the
     Impulsive System elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations.
     The proposed model describes how the two systems interact at various stages of processing
     and how their outputs may determine behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. The
     implications of this Reflective Impulsive Model (RIM) are applied to various phenomena
     from social psychology and beyond. Extending previous dual-process accounts, the current
     model is not limited to specific domains of mental functioning and attempts to integrate
     cognitive, motivational and behavioral mechanisms. Such a perspective will extend the scope
     of social psychology to include phenomena like mass behavior, vandalism, aggression, which
     have once been at the core of social psychology but have more recently be neglected or
     assigned the status of ―abnormal‖ events. New results from our own research will be
     presented to support the conceptual claims of the model.

Vohs, Kathleen (Utah): A regulatory source account of conscious and
    unconscious self regulation
     This chapter addresses the question: What motivates and allows people to achieve their
     conscious and nonconscious goals? First, research on conscious self-regulation will be
     reviewed as governed by a pool of limited regulatory resources (Vohs, 2002a); then, research
     will be presented testing nonconscious regulatory processes and regulatory resources. The
     studies investigate underlying mechanisms of self-regulation using a self-regulatory resource
     model. In this model, self-control is conceptualized as being governed by a global - but
     limited - pool of resources from which all acts of self-regulation draw. Accordingly, when a
     person engages in self-regulation the pool of regulatory resources is temporarily depleted,
     thereby rendering subsequent acts of self-control less successful. Empirical tests of the
     resource model have confirmed its utility, but until recently its applicability to nonconscious
     regulatory acts was unknown. The results of six studies across suggest that nonconscious
     self-regulation also uses this expendable resource. For example, Studies 1 and 2 (Vohs &
     Heatherton, 2000) illustrate that regulatory resources become depleted and self-regulation
     fails when dieters are exposed to tempting foods, which serve to activate nonconscious
     weight goals. Studies 3 and 4 (Vohs, 2002b) demonstrate a link between nonconscious
     approach-avoidance states and self-regulation. Results show that when participants perform
     arm flexor or extension movements to prime basic approach and avoidance goals, those who
     perform approach-related movements exhibited greater self-control than those who
     performed avoidance-related movements. Last, Studies 5 and 6 (Vohs, Ciarocco, &
     Baumeister, under review) extend this line of inquiry to impression management. Results
     demonstrate that self-presentational processes are impaired when self-regulatory resource are
     depleted. Together, these studies point to similarities in the mechanisms that motivate the
     self-system to achieve both conscious and nonconscious goals and suggest exciting avenues
     for future research.


     Vohs, K.D. (2002a). Self-regulation and regulatory resources. To appear in R.F. Baumeister,
     & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation Research. New York: Guilford.
     Vohs, K.D. (2002b). Nonconscious self-regulation requires regulatory resources. Manuscript
     in preparation for submission to Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
     Vohs, K.D., Ciarocco, N.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (under review). Self-Regulation and self-
     presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful
     self-presentation depletes regulatory resources. Under review at Journal of Personality and
     Social Psychology.
     Vohs, K.D., & Heatherton, T.F. (2000). Self-regulatory failure: A resource-depletion
     approach. Psychological Science, 11, 249-254.

Weiss, Howard (Purdue) & Ashkanasy, Neal (Queensland): Effects of
     negative emotion on employee motivation and performance: A model
     based on regulatory resource theory

             Affective Events Theory (AET: Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) holds that emotions
     mediate the motivational effect on behavioural and attitudinal outcomes of hassles and uplifts
     experienced by employees in organizational settings. Weiss and Cropanzano do not, however,
     address directly the effect of emotions on employee motivation and performance outcomes,
     nor do they provide a plausible causative explanation for effects of emotions. In the paper we
     argue than an explanation for this effect can be based on the based on the idea of regulatory
     resources (see Muraven & Baumeister, 2000 for a review). In this theory, regulatory
     resources are the resources that individuals have at their disposal to enable them to exercise
     self-control, including performance of productive work. Critical to the theory is that
     individuals possess only a limited amount of regulatory resource. Any factors that serve to
     deplete these resources leave less reserve available for subsequent behaviours calling for self-
     control. For example, Muraven, Tice, and Baumeister (1998) found that, when actors engage
     in consecutive acts of self-control, performance on the second act is impaired.
             Muraven and Baumeister (2000) note, in particular that, while the effects of
     regulatory resource depletion are not mediated by emotions, attempts to over-ride natural
     emotions (e.g. by engaging in emotional labor, a requirement to display emotional states
     different from felt emotion, see Hochechild, 1983) result in self-control decrements (see
     Muraven et al., 1998, Study 1). In a similar vein, they note that attempts to regulate mood
     also cause lessened self-control. In this paper, therefore we reframe AET in terms of
     regulatory resource theory to propose a model that explains how and why the emotions
     arising from affective events affect employee motivation and performance. Specifically, we
     hypothesize that higher organisational demands on employees to engage in emotional labor
     will deplete regulatory resources, and thus will lead to lower employee motivation and
     performance. In addition, we argue that employee motivation and productive work
     performance are likely to be adversely affected by a negative organisational climate that
     further depletes their regulatory resources.
             Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling.
     Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
             Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited
     resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological bulletin, 26, 247-259
             Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Self-control as a limited
     resource: Regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74,
             Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical
     discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Res. in
     Org. Beh, 18,1-74.

Williams, Kip, Case, Trevor and Warburton, W. (Macquarie): The
      motivational consequences of social exclusion

     Ostracism, social exclusion, and rejection have been examined extensively in the past ten
     years, leading to a greater understanding of how these strongly negative social forces
     motivate individuals to cope. Two divergent effects have been found: (1) targets of ostracism
     try to elevate their social attractiveness in order to be included, either with the group who
     ostracized or with a new group; or (2) they retaliate and become aggressive, either toward the
     rejecting group or to innocent others. This chapter will review these literatures, offer a
     theoretical integration, and will elucidate the conditions that will trigger the motivational
     states producing either pro- or anti-social behaviors. Several studies will be presented to
     provide support for these predictions. The implications of this research for our understanding
     of the motivational mechanisms that regulate interpersonal behavior in general will also be

Wood, Wendy & Quinn, Jeffrey (Texas A&M): Implicit and Explicit
    Determinants of Behavior: Habits and Intentions

             Recent theories of behavior prediction recognize that behavior can be generated
     through multiple motivational processes. These include explicit intentions to perform an act
     as well as implicit processes that function outside of conscious awareness, such as habitual
     patterns cued by stable aspects of the environment (Brandstatter, Langfelder, & Gollwitzer,
     2001; Ouellette & Wood, 1998). In this paper, we propose to discuss the conditions under
     which behavior can be predicted from implicit versus explicit motivational factors. We will
     also review recent research on the nonconscious mechanisms guiding habitual behavior.
             Evidence of the unique mechanisms guiding habitual behavior includes
     neuropsychological findings that habitual acts are stored in separate brain systems and are
     learned as complete units of action sequences (Gabrieli, 1998; Jog, Kubota, Connolly,
     Hillegaart, & Graybiel,1999). In addition, social cognitive studies provide evidence of the
     characteristic thought processes associated with habits. Specifically, Wood, Quinn, and
     Kashy (in press) used a diary methodology to demonstrate that everyday habitual behaviors
     do not require conscious guidance. Intentions for habits become implicit over time as
     behaviors are practiced in stable contexts. This research also indicated that habits are
     associated with specific self-regulatory benefits and costs. On the one hand, people reported
     less stress when performing actions habitually, presumably because of the minimal load on
     decision making. Yet, habits also tend to be associated with more muted positive emotions
     and are not a source of personal pride. The paper will also discuss the implications for
     behavior change of models that recognize multiple-processes of behavior generation. Past
     acts are likely to maintain into the future when habits proceed relatively automatically in
     stable contexts. However, when contexts change or for other reasons people are encouraged
     to think about their behavior, then behavior comes under conscious control. Given sufficient
     motivation and ability, people will bring their behavior in line with their explicit intentions,
     which may often differ from the implicit intentions directing habits. In summary, the paper
     will develop a framework to understand how the multiple cognitive processes guiding
     behavior interact in the generation of action.
     Brandstaetter, V., Lengfelder, A, Gollwitzer, P. M. (2001). Implementation intentions and
              efficient action initiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 946-960.
     Gabrieli, J. D. E. (1993). Cognitive neuroscience of human memory. Annual Review of
              Psychology, 49, 87-115.
     Jog, M. S., Kubota, Y., Connolly, C. I., Hillegaart, V., & Graybiel, A. M. (1999). Building
              neural representations of habits. Science, 286, 1745-1749.
     Ouellette, J., & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple
              processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin,
              124, 54-74.
     Wood, W., Quinn, J., & Kashy, D. (in press). Habits in everyday life: The thought and feeling
              of action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Wright, Rex (Alabama) & Gendolla, Guido (Nurnberg, Germany):
     Motivation in social settings: effort related cardio-vascular responses
             The construct of effort, or task engagement, figures prominently in explanations of
     social psychological phenomena. Therefore, it is surprising that social psychologists have
     devoted relatively little attention to understanding fundamental effort processes. As often as
     not, social psychologists have based their theoretical analyses on common sense effort
     assumptions, including the assumptions that effort is proportional to success importance and
     perceived ability in a performance realm.

     We will discuss in this chapter new research from our laboratories that have sought to
     improve understanding of fundamental effort processes and explore implications of those
     processes for responses in social settings. This project relies heavily on Jack Brehm’s theory
     of motivation intensity. The program also takes as a working hypothesis the proposition
     advanced by Paul Obrist that sympathetic nervous system influence on the heart and
     vasculature rises and falls with task engagement (termed ―active coping‖). Together, Brehm’s
     theory and Obrist’s proposition we provide a framework for predicting momentary
     engagement and a means of measuring it. Our findings call into question common sense
     effort assumptions. The studies also shed light, for example, on the manner in which social
     evaluation impacts on cardiovascular (CV) arousal, sex differences in CV response, mood-
     arousal relations, self-involvement as a determinant of effort and CV response, motivational
     effects of performance resource depletion, and the CV influence of challenge and threat
     appraisals. Our research does not make clear to what extent engagement reflects conscious
     deliberation; however, it suggests that people sometimes expend themselves to different
     degrees non-consciously, that is, without thinking about it.

Hing, Leanne (U. Guelph) & Zanna, Mark (U. Waterloo): Exploring
     implicit and explicit prejudice: a test of aversive racism theory
              Theoretical assumptions regarding the motivational aspects of implicit and explicit
     prejudice have received increasing attention in recent years. Originally, it was argued that
     one’s true prejudice was expressed at the implicit level and that explicit measures of
     prejudice reflected impression management (e.g., Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). Later findings
     suggested that explicit prejudice predicted controlled behaviors, whereas implicit prejudice
     predicted automatic behaviours. In this chapter we focus on the discrepancy between low
     prejudice at the explicit level and high prejudice at the implicit level to examine the
     discriminatory behavior of aversive racists: A group hypothesized to be consciously
     nonprejudiced and unconsciously prejudiced, but that has yet to be identified a priori
     (Gaertner & Dovidio, 1986).
               According to aversive racism theory, aversive racists (AR) should bend over
     backward to avoid discriminatory behavior when the negative portion of their attitudes is
     made salient. We (Son Hing, Li, & Zanna, 2002) examined how a hypocrisy induction
     technique might produce a motivational effect to reduce discriminatory behavior among AR
     (i.e., those low in explicit but high in implicit prejudice). Consistent with our hypothesis, AR
     felt more guilty and discriminated less when they were reminded that they haven’t always
     practiced what they just preached, compared with those in a control condition. Thus,
     participants who score low in explicit prejudice but high in implicit prejudice behaved in a
     manner consistent with aversive racism theory. In contrast, truly low prejudiced participants
     (i.e., those low in both implicit and explicit prejudice) were equally non-discriminatory
     across conditions.
              More recently, we have moved toward classic aversive racism paradigms in which an
     excuse-to-discriminate is manipulated. Because AR perceive themselves to be egalitarian,
     they should only discriminate when a non-race-related justification for discrimination is
     present, so they can maintain their egalitarian self-image (Gaertner & Dovidio, 1986). In two
     studies (simulating an instance of an interaction between students and a job interview,
     respectively), we examined how participants evaluated a target on the basis of his ethnicity
     (i.e., Asian vs. White) and experimental condition (i.e., excuse-to-discriminate vs. no-excuse-
     to-discriminate). We found that, as expected, AR discriminated more against the Asian target
     when an excuse for discrimination exists, compared with when no justification is present. In
     contrast, truly low prejudiced participants evaluated the Asian target consistently across
     conditions. Furthermore, only in the excuse-to-discriminate condition, did AR evaluate the
     Asian target more negatively than did truly low prejudiced participants. Theoretical
     implications of the results are discussed.