Anatomy Final - Table 1 - Table by decree


									                        What is it?                  How is it contracted?                     Symptoms                       Who is at risk?
              Involves cells of the immune        Unkown. Could be caused             1st sign - painless swelling      Lymphoma is the most
              system, called lymphocytes.         by infections (HIV), possibly       in the neck, under an arm,        common type of blood cancer
              Group of cancers that affect        autoimmune, exposure to             or in the groin. + fever,         in the United States. It is the
              the cells that play a role in the                                                                         sixth most common cancer in
                                                  toixic chemicals, family            chills, weightloss, night
              immune system, and primarily                                                                              adults and the third most
                                                  history.                            swats, lack of energy,
Lymphoma      represents cells involved in the                                                                          common in children. Non-
              lymphatic system of the body.                                           itching.                          Hodgkin lymphoma is far more
                                                                                                                        common than Hodgkin disease.

              Lack of Vitamin B12                 Lack of animal products.            Feel weak, tierd, and             Vegetarians
                                                                                      ligheaded. Pale skin.

Vitamin B12

              a contagious viral illness. In      resides only in humans and enters   fever, headache, vomiting,        Poor sanitation, traveling to
                                                  the environment in the feces of
              its most severe form, polio                                             diarrhea, fatigue, back pain      an area that is frequent,
                                                  someone who's infected.
              causes paralysis, difficulty        Poliovirus spreads primarily        or stiffness, neck pain or        living with someone who
              breathing and sometimes             through the fecal-oral route,       stiffness, pain or stiffness in   has it, being around it.
              death.                              especially in areas where           the arms or legs.
   Polio                                          sanitation is inadequate.
                                                  Poliovirus can be transmitted
                                                  through contaminated water and
                 Syphilis is a bacterial         Treponema pallidum, enters     Primary - 10-30days; sore       STD
                 infection usually transmitted   minor cuts or abrasions or     2nd - Rash(red/brown),
                 by sexual contact. The          mucous membranes. STD.         fver, fatigue, soreness and
                 disease affects your            Other routes are through       ach Latent - no symptoms
                 genitals, skin and mucous       transfusion of infected        Teriary - neurological
                 membranes, but it may also      blood, through direct          problems, cardiovascular
                 involve many other parts of     unprotected close contact      problems.
                 your body, including your       with an active lesion
                 brain and your heart.

                 Takayasu arteritis is an      unknown, might be auto-          muscle pain and arthrelgia,     children and women younger
                 inflammation of the aorta -- immune.                           no pulse in wrist, arm          than 30, especially those who
                 the artery that carries blood                                  weakness or pain with use,      are of Asian or African descent.
                 from the heart to the rest of                                  chest pain, dizziness,
  Takayasu       the body -- and its major                                      fatigue, fever, light-
  Syndrome       branches.                                                      headache, muscle or joint
                                                                                pain, skin rash, vision

                                                 Caused when your platelet
                                                                                East or excessive bruising,
              causes blood clots to form         begins to fall below normal.
                                                                                superficial bleeding into the
              in small blood vessels             (150,000 - 450,00)
                                                                                skin that apperars as a
              throughout the body. These         Pregnancy, ITP, other
 Thrombotic                                                                     rash, prolonged bleeding
              blood clots can cause              autoimmune diseases,
Thrombocytope                                                                   from cuts, spontaneous
              serious problems if they           blood poisoning, TTP
  nic Purpura                                                                   bleeding for you gums or
              block blood vessels and
                                                                                nose, blood in urine or
              limit blood flow to the brain,
                                                                                stooolm heavy menstrual
              kidneys, or heart.

                                                Sometimes unkown.
              a fast heart rhythm that
                                                Usually caused by a
              starts in the lower part of
                                                underlying heart
              the heart (ventricles). If left                                   Palpitations, dizziness or
                                                disease(heart attack, heart
Ventricular   untreated, some forms of                                          lightheadedness, shortness
                                                defect, hypertrophic, dilated
Tachycardia   ventricular tachycardia may                                       of breath, chest pain,
                                                cardiomyopathy) Something
              worsen and lead to                                                fainting
                                                occurs after heart surgery.
              ventricular fibrillation, which
                                                Some medication could
              can be life-threatening.
                                                also cause it.

                                                                                muscle weakness and
              disorder that results in your                                     fatigue, weightloss and
                                                occurs when the cortex is
              body producing insufficient                                       decresed appetite,
Addison’s                                       damaged and doesn't
              amounts of certain                                                darkening of your skin, low
 Disease                                        produce its hormones in
              hormones produced by your                                         blood pressure, low blood
                                                adequate quantities
              adrenal glands.                                                   sugar, nausea, irritability,
                                                                             Difficulty lifting the front part
                a serious neurological        nvolves death of motor
                                                                             of your foot, weakness in
                disease that attacks the      neurons — the nerve cells
                                                                             your leg feet or ankles,
                nerve cells that control      that control voluntary
                                                                             hand weakeness or
                voluntary muscles. It may     muscles. both upper motor
     ALS                                                                     clumsiness, slurring of
                begin with muscle twitching   neurons, located in your
                                                                             speech or trouble
                or weakness in an arm or      brain, and lower motor
                                                                             swallowing, muscle cramps
                leg, or with slurring of      neurons, located in your
                                                                             and twitching in your arm,
                speech.                       spinal cord, gradually die.

                healthy brain tissue
                                                                          foregetfullness, difficulties
Alzheimer’s     degenerates, causing a                                                                           >65, genetics, women,
                                              cause is not exactly known. with thinking, difficulty
  Disease       steady decline in memory                                                                         heart disease
                                                                          finding the right word
                and mental abilities.

                                               some of the cells in your
              Cancer that forms in tissues
                                              breast begin growing           Spontaneous clear or
              of the breast, usually the                                                                         Chances rises as women
                                              abnormally. These cells        bloody discharge from your
              ducts (tubes that carry milk                                                                       get older. Genes. Before
                                              divide more rapidly than       nipple, retraction or
              to the nipple) and lobules                                                                         the age of 12 - after 55.
Breast Cancer                                 healthy cells do and may       indention of your nipple,
              (glands that make milk). It                                                                        overweight, hormone
                                              spread (metastasize)           change in size or contour,
              occurs in both men and                                                                             replacement, birth control,
                                              through your breast, to your   flattening or indention on
              women, although male                                                                               alcohol
                                              lymph nodes or to other        ski, redness or pitting of skin
              breast cancer is rare.
                                              parts of your body.
              genetic disorder that                                          falttened facial features,
              causes mental retardation        All three abnormalities       protruding toungue, small
                                                                                                               Adcancing maternal age
              and other problems. The          result in extra genetic       head, upward slanting eyes,
                                                                                                               (>35), Mothers who already
Down Syndrome condition varies in severity,    material from chromosome      unusally shaped ears, poor
                                                                                                               have one child with downs,
              so developmental problems        21. Trisomy 21, Mosaic,       muscle tone, broad short
                                                                                                               patient who are carriers
              may range from mild to           Tranlocation                  hands, relatively short
              serious.                                                       finegers, excessive flexibilty.

                                               Traumatic brain injury,       begins in a single region,
                   muscles contract            stroke, brain tumor, oxygen   occur with specific actiion,
                  involuntarily — causing an   deprivation, infection,       rapid blinking or squinting,
                  uncontrollable twisting of   reaction to certain drugs,    head to twist and turn,
                  the affected body part.      heavy metal or carbon         slurred speech or difficulty
                                               monoxide poisoning            eating, cramps

                                                                        arthritis, chronic fatigue,
                                                                        loss of sex drive, lack of
              causes your body to absorb                                menstruation, abdominal
Hemochromatos                             frequent blood transfusions,                                         Family history, Northern
              too much iron from the food                               pain, high blood sugar
     is                                   high amounts of dietary iron,                                        European decent, Men 5x
              you eat.                                                  levels, liver failuer, liver
                                                                        cancer, diabeteies, heart
                                                                        failur, cardiac arrhymia
               causes inflammation in the unkown
               walls of small- and medium-
               sized arteries throughout
               the body, including the                                         extremely red etes without
 Kawasaki      coronary arteries                                               thick discharge, rash on
                                                                                                               children 2-5
  Disease                                                                      body, sore throat, swollen
                                                                               lymph nodes

                                              the abnormal blood cells are
               ancer of your body's blood-    immature blood cells (blasts).   fever chills, persistent
               forming tissues, including     They can't carry out their       fatigue, frequent infections,
                                              normal work, and they multiply
               your bone marrow and                                            losss of appetite or weight,
 Leukemia                                     rapidly, so the disease
               lymphatic system. It usually   worsens quickly. hese blood
                                                                               swollen lympjh, shortness
               starts in your white blood     cells replicate or accumulate    of beat, tiny red spots in
               cells.                         more slowly and can function     your skin
                                              normally for a period of time.

               .affecting the liver is
               more commonly                                                                                   Men>Women, US+EU=60
               metastatic cancer, which                                        Loss of appetite and weight,
                                                                                                               elsewhere 20-50, chronic
               occurs when tumors from liver cells begin to grow               abdominal pain, nausea
                                                                                                               infection with hbv or hcv,
                                                                               and vomiting, weakness
Liver Cancer   other parts of the body  abnormally. Not exactly                                                cirrhosis, diabetes,
                                                                               and fatigue, enlarged livre,
               spread (metastasize) to  sure why this happens.                                                 exposure to aflatoxins,
                                                                               abdominal swelling, yellow
               the liver. affecting the                                                                        excessive alcohol, smoking,
                                                                               discoloration of you skin.
               liver is more commonly                                                                          bile duct
               metastatic cancer, which
               occurs when tumors from
              inflammatory disease          autoimmune disease,         Fatigue, fever, weightloss
              that occurs when your         which means that instead    or gain, joint pain, butterfly
              body's immune system          of just attacking foreign   shaped rash, skin leisons,
              attacks your own tissues      substances, such as                                          Women>men, 15-45,
                                                                        mouth sores, finger and
                                                                                                         sunlight exposure, some
  Lupus       and organs. Inflammation      bacteria and viruses,       toes that turn whie or blue
                                                                                                         medication, exposure to
              caused by lupus can           your immune system also     in the cold, shortness of
              affect many different         turns against healthy       breath, chest pain, easy
              body systems, including       tissue. This leads to       brusing, dpression, memory
              your joints, skin, kidneys,   inflammation and            loss, dry ryes
              blood cells, heart and        damage to various parts
              an infectious disorder
                                            Caused by a viral infection,                                 Mainly between the ages of
              causing he inflaminaion of
                                            but can be conracted                                         15 and 24. Children
              he membranes(called                                        Early sign and symptom -
                                            through bacterial and fungal                                 younger than 5 years.
Meningitis    meninges) and                                              minor flu,, and tend to
                                            infection. Bacterial -                                       Older Adults. Living in
              cerebrospinal fluid                                        develop over the first
                                            bacteria enters the blood                                    places with large groups of
              surrounding the brain and
                                            stream.                                                      people.
              spinal cord.

              rare infection of the deeper
                                                                        The infection begins locally,
              layers of skin and
                                                                        at a site of trauma, which
Narcotizing   subcutaneous tissues,        Many types of bacteria can
                                                                        may be severe (such as the anybody
 fasciistis   easily spreading across the cause necrotizing fasciitis
                                                                        result of surgery), minor, or
              fascial plane within the
                                                                        even non-apparent.
              subcutaneous tissue.
                                                            Tremor(shaking), slowed
              develops gradually, often                     motion, rigid muscles,
                                                                                         increase with age, heredity,
              starting with a barely                        impaired posture and
Parkinson’s                             lack of dopamine.                                male>female, exposure to
              noticeable tremor in just                     balance, loss of automatic
              one hand.                                     movements, speech
         Diagnosis                      Treatment
Blood test, biopsy, imaging,
bone marrow, lumbar
funtction. [Male, >45,
Stage IV, Albumin (blood
test) less than 5.0 g/dL,
WBC 15,000mL

Blood test to determine the    Vitamin B12 supplements
number of red blood cells
and to see if your body has
enough vitamin b12.

Usually by the symptoms,       No treatment - Antibiotics
to comfirm a sample of         for secondary infections
throat secretions, stool, or   analgesics for pain,
cerebrospinal fluid.           ventilators,.
painless sores in your         Penicillin, or anyother
genital area and enlarged      anitbiotic.
lymph nodes in your groin
area. Smaple of sore,
analyze under microscope.
Blood test. Lumbar

decrease readial pulses        Steroids and
(wrist). Difference in blood   immunosuppressive drugs.
pressure between the two       Surgery to bypass
arms. High blood pressure.     narrowed arteries.

                               Depends on the cause -
Routine blood check.           medication, surgery, blood
EKG                        Medication

Blood Test, ACTH
stimulation, Insullin-induced
                              horomones supplement
hypoglycemia test, imaging
EMG, NCS, Imagaing,          Medication, physical and
Tumbar puncture, blood       occupational theorapy,
and urine test, muscle       nutritional support,
biopsy                       breathing assistance.

not really diagnosis,
narrows down to possibilty
                             no treatment
of other memory loss

                             Lumpectomy, mastectomy,
Breast exam, mammogram       chemotherapy, hormone
                             therapy, biological therapy
Screen test during
pregnancy, amniocentesis,
chorionic virus sampling,       no treatment
precutaneous umbillical
blood sampling

blood or urine test to look     medication, sensory trick,
for toxins, MRI to look for     botulinum toxin, deep brain
tumor                           stimulation

serum transferrin
saturation, serum ferritin,     dontating blood
liver biopsy, genetic testing
sarlet fever, toxic shock
syndrom, measles, urine      aspirin, gamma globullin
test, blood test

                             chemotherapy, bioloadical
physical exam, blood test,
                             therapy, kinase inhibitors,
bone marrow sample
                             radiation therapy

                             Surgery, alcohol injection,
                             readiofrequency abiation,
ultrasound, CT scan, MRI,
Liver biopsy, blood test
                             cyroablation, radition
                             therapy, liver transplant
blood count, kidnet and liver   Nonsteriodal anti-
assessment, urinalysis,         infalmmatory drugs,
chest x-ray, ECG, syphillis     antimalatial drugs,
test                            corticosteroids.

The diagnosis is confirmed
by either blood cultures or
aspiration of pus from
tissue, but early medical
treatment is crucial and
often presumptive
no exact way, neurological
disorders, drugs, toxins,
head trauma, structual

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