Perception and Individual Decision Making201046102531

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					Chapter 3

  Values, Attitudes, and
  Their Effects in the

     Values
       Basic convictions about what is important
        to the individual
       They contain a judgmental element of
        what is right, good, or desirable.

      Types of values
         Terminal: Goals that individuals would like to
          achieve during their lifetime
         Instrumental: Preferable ways of behaving

      Importance of values
           Values generally influence attitudes and
Values vs. Ethics

    Ethics
      The science of morals in human conduct
      Moral principles; rules of conduct

    Ethical Values are related to moral
     judgments about right and wrong
A Framework for Assessing
Cultural Values
    Hofstede’s Dimensions
      Power Distance
      Individualism Versus Collectivism

      Quantity of Life Versus Quality of Life

      Uncertainty Avoidance

      Long-term versus Short-term Orientation
Exhibit 3-2 Examples of National
Cultural Values
Canadian Values

  The Elders – over 50
  The Boomers – born mid 1940’s to mid-
  Generation X – born mid 1960’s to early
  The Ne(x)t Generation – born between
Canadian Social Values

    The Elders
        Those over 50
        Core Values: Belief in order, authority, discipline,
         and the Golden Rule
    The Boomers
        Born mid-1940s to mid-1960s
        Autonomous rebels, anxious communitarians,
         connected enthusiasts, disengaged Darwinists
Canadian Social Values

    Generation X
        Born mid-1960s to early 1980s
        Thrill-seeking materialists, aimless dependents,
         social hedonists, new Aquarians, autonomous post-
    The Ne(x)t Generation
        Born between 1977 and 1997
        “Creators, not recipients”
        Curious, contrarian, flexible, collaborative, high in
Francophone and Anglophone
    Francophone Values            Anglophone Values

        More collectivist or          Individualist or I-
         group-oriented                 centred
        Greater need for
         achievement                   More task-centred
        Concerned with
         interpersonal                 Take more risks
         aspects of
                                       Value autonomy
        Value affiliation
Canadian Aboriginal Values
    More collectivist in orientation
    More likely to reflect and advance the goals
     of the community
    Greater sense of family in the workplace
    Greater affiliation and loyalty
    Power distance lower than non-Aboriginal
     culture of Canada and the U.S.
    Greater emphasis on consensual decision-
Exhibit 3-3 Ground Rules for
Aboriginal Partnerships
    Modify management operations to reduce negative impact to
     wildlife species
    Modify operations to ensure community access to lands and
    Protect all those areas identified by community members as
     having biological, cultural and historical significance
    Recognize and protect aboriginal and treaty rights to hunting,
     fishing, trapping and gathering activities
    Increase forest-based economic opportunities for community
    Increase the involvement of community members in decision-
Canadian and American Values
    Canadian Values                  American Values
        Protectionist business           Greater faith in the
         environment                       family, the state,
                                           religion, and the market
        Personality: more shy
                                          More comfortable with
         and deferential, less             big business
         violent, more courteous
                                          Intense competition in
        More rule-oriented                business
        Peace, order, equality           Individuality and
        Uncomfortable                     freedom
         celebrating success,             More comfortable with
         play it down                      the unknown and
                                           taking risks
East and Southeast Asian
                                     East and Southeast
    North America
        Networked relations:
         based on self-interest          Guanxi relations: based
        Relationships viewed             on reciprocation
         with immediate gains            Relationships meant to be
        Enforcement relies on            long-term and enduring
         institutional law               Enforcement relies on
        Governed by guilt                personal power and
         (internal pressures on           authority
         performance)                    Governed by shame
                                          (external pressures on

  Positive or negative feelings concerning
   objects, people, or events.
  Less stable than values
Types of Attitudes
    Job Involvement
        . . . measures the degree to which a person
         identifies psychologically with his or her job and
         considers his or her perceived performance level
         important to self-worth.
    Organizational Commitment
        . . . a state in which an employee identifies with a
         particular organization and its goals, and wishes to
         maintain membership in the organization.
    Job Satisfaction
        . . . refers to an individual’s general attitude toward
         his or her job.
Canadian Job Satisfaction
    In 1991, 62 per cent of employees reported they were
     highly satisfied with their jobs, compared to just 45 per
     cent in 2001.
    Almost 40 percent of employees would not
     recommend their company as a good place to work.
    40 percent believe they never see any of the benefits
     of their company making money.
    Almost 40 percent reported that red tape and
     bureaucracy are among the biggest barriers to job
    55 percent reported that they felt the “pressure of
     having too much to do.”
Job Satisfaction and Employee
    Satisfaction Affects
      Individual Productivity
      Organizational Productivity

      Absenteeism

      Turnover

      Organizational Citizenship Behaviour
Expressing Dissatisfaction

  Exit
  Voice
  Loyalty
  Neglect
Summary and Implications

  Values strongly influence a person’s attitudes.
  An employee’s performance and satisfaction
   are likely to be higher if his or her values fit
   well with the organization.
  Managers should be interested in their
   employees’ attitudes because attitudes give
   warning signs of potential problems and
   because they influence behaviour.