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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - PowerPoint

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					 Personality Type
       and
Medical Specialties
     Presented by:
      Ada Shave
LEARNING OUTCOMES
• To gain a basic understanding of type
  theory and personality preferences

• To determine “Best Fit” type

• To understand the impact of preferences on
  career choice within the medical profession
   History of Psychological Type
• Personality Type
  – Based on Carl Jung’s Theory of Psychological Type
• Personality type is genetically programmed
  – We are born with our type pre-determined
             Jung’s Theory
Jung believed that:
• As children, we learn about ourselves.
  – What do we like / dislike?
  – What are we good at / not so good at?
  – What feels natural / awkward?
• Children need lots of experiences and
  opportunities to explore.
            Jung’s Theory
Jung believed that:
• As adolescents, we specialize.
  – We know what we like and we “go for it”.
  – We are surprised when people do not see the
    world in the same way that we do.
• Adolescence is seen as a tumultuous time.
             Jung’s Theory
Jung believed that:
• The “middle years” are a time to “try on”
  the other side.
  – We have gained experience.
  – We see the need to use other preferences.
  – We have been “forced” or “required” to use
    other preferences.
• Conflict (internal) can often arise.
                  Conflict
Conflict can be seen as:
• A positive thing.
• An opportunity for growth.
• An indication that the personality is
  becoming more “rounded”.
• An indication that there is transition taking
  place.
             Jung’s Theory

Jung believed that:
• The “retirement years” are a time to move
  in and out of the preferences as we see fit.
  – This occurs in people who are healthy and well-
    rounded.
       ASSUMPTIONS
     UNDERLYING TYPE
• Preferences are inborn
• Environment impedes or enhances
  expression of type
• Type is dynamic not static
• All types are equally valuable
• There is no one best way to be
           ASSUMPTIONS
• Similar people often bond more quickly –
  similarities give strength
• Similar partners may experience boredom
• Different people often attract – differences
  fascinate
• Different partners may conflict
       Activity # 1


     Handedness Exercise

Preferences vs. Non-Preferences
          Activity # 2



Complete the Best Fit Type worksheet
         (refer to last slide).
        EXTRAVERSION
        INTROVERSION
• How we prefer to
  interact with the
  world and where
  we direct our
  energy
            EXTRAVERSION
            Focus attention and energy on the
              world outside of themselves.

•   Talk/act first, think later
•   Think out loud - brainstorming
•   Communicate with enthusiasm
•   Respond quickly – enjoy a fast pace
•   Talk more than listen
•   Dominate conversations
•   Like being the center of attention
            EXTRAVERSION
•   Know a lot of people
•   Have lots of friends
•   Are very approachable
•   Reveal personal information
•   Prefer to work with groups
•   Prefer breadth to depth

       Motto: READY, FIRE, AIM !!!!!
            INTROVERSION
           Focus attention and energy on the
              world inside of themselves.

•   Think, then act
•   Rehearse things before speaking
•   Listen more than talk
•   Avoid being the center of attention
•   Are energized by spending time alone
•   Need to recharge after group
    interaction
            INTROVERSION
•   Keep their enthusiasm to themselves
•   May be called shy, cool, aloof
•   Like to share with one person
•   Irritated by repetition
•   Prefer depth to breadth

      Motto: READY, AIM, FIRE…
       MAYBE !!!
     Representation in the
      General Population


There are 3 times as many extraverted
preference people in the population as
introverted preference people.
              SENSING
             iNTUITION
• The kinds of
  information that we
  focus on or
  naturally notice
                   SENSING
           Concentrate on what can be seen,
            heard, felt, smelled or tasted.

•   Focus on what is real and concrete
•   Take a practical approach
•   Value common sense
•   If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it
•   Like to hear things sequentially not randomly
                   SENSING
•   Are literal in the use of words
•   Prefer specific answers to specific questions
•   Rather do something than think about it
•   Learn from past experiences
•   Like to use and hone established skills
•   Like jobs that have tangible results
•   Live in the present
                iNTUITION
        Naturally read between the lines and
          look for meaning in all things.

• Trust inspiration and inference
• Think about several things at once
• Like figuring out how things work
• Look for interrelatedness rather than
  face value
• Value imagination and innovation
• Find the future intriguing
               iNTUITION
• Love to fantasize
• Are prone to puns and word games
• Tend to give general answers
• Get irritated when pushed for specifics
• Present information through leaps, in a roundabout
  manner
• Are oriented toward the future
     Representation in the
      General Population


2/3 of the general population has a
preference for sensing while 1/3 has a
preference for iNtuition.
             THINKING
              FEELING

• The way that we
  make decisions
  and come to
  conclusions
                THINKING
         Prefer to make decisions using an
           impersonal approach. Prefer
        decisions that make sense logically.

•   Able to stay cool, calm, and objective when
    others are upset
•   Value fairness and truthfulness over popularity
•   More firm minded than gentle hearted
•   Naturally see flaws and tend to be
    critical
                 THINKING
• Pride themselves on objectivity
• Are sometimes seen as cold, insensitive, and
  uncaring
• More important to be right than liked
• Prefer things that are logical and scientific
• Are motivated by a desire for
  achievement and accomplishment
                 FEELING
         Prefer to make decisions based on
                   personal values.

• Take the feelings of others into consideration
  when making decisions
• Value empathy and harmony – see
  the exception to the rule
• Do anything to accommodate
• Naturally like to please others
                 FEELING
• Prefer harmony over clarity
• Accused of taking things too seriously
• May be seen as overemotional, illogical
  and weak
• Will jeopardize own position for others
• Very thin skinned
• Avoid conflict at all cost
• Show appreciation easily
• Are motivated by a desire
  to be appreciated
     Representation in the
      General Population


There are more thinking preference males
in the general population and more feeling
preference females.
             JUDGING
            PERCEIVING

• The kind of
  lifestyle that we
  like to lead
                    JUDGING
Tend to live in an orderly way and are happiest when
   their lives are structured and matters are settled.

•   Work ethic - work first, play later (if there is time)
•   A place for everything and everything in its place
•   Plan the work and work the plan
•   Don’t like surprises
•   Keep lists and use them
•   Thrive on order
                JUDGING
• Seek to regulate and control life
• Set goals and work toward achieving them on time
• Can become unraveled if things don’t fall into
  place
• Are product oriented
• Derive satisfaction from completing
  a project
• See time as a finite resource and
  take deadlines seriously
            PERCEIVING
          Like to live in a spontaneous way
    and are happiest when their lives are flexible.

• Are happiest leaving their options open
• Don’t like to plan, prefer to wait and see
• “Play” ethic – enjoy now, finish the job later (if
  there is time)
• Depend on last minute spurts of energy to meet
  deadlines
• Like adapting to new situations
              PERCEIVING
• Value creativity, spontaneity, and responsiveness
• Change goals as new information becomes
  available
• Love to explore the unknown
• Accused of being disorganized
• Are process oriented (emphasis is
  on how the task is completed)
• See time as a renewable resource and see
  deadlines as elastic
     Representation in the
      General Population


60% of the general population has a
preference for judging while 40% has a
preference for perceiving.
        Functions

ST     SF     NF     NT
ISTJ   ISFJ   INFJ   INTJ
ISTP   ISFP   INFP   INTP
ESTP   ESFP   ENFP   ENTP
ESTJ   ESFJ   ENFJ   ENTJ
           Type and Careers


• Certain personality types will be drawn to
  certain careers.

• People within careers often cluster in
      similar personality types.
        People Who Prefer ST
• Focus on: Facts
• Handle these by applying: Objective
  analysis and experience
• Tend to be: Practical and analytical
• Find interest in: Technical skills with
  objects and facts
            Medical Specialty????
        People Who Prefer SF
• Focus on: Facts
• Handle these by applying: Personal warmth
  and concern for others
• Tend to be: Sympathetic and friendly
• Find interest in: Practical help and services
  for people
            Medical Specialty????
       People Who Prefer NF
• Focus on: Possibilities
• Handle these by applying: Attention to
  people’s potential
• Tend to be: Insightful and enthusiastic
• Find interest in: Understanding and
  encouraging people
            Medical Specialty????
       People Who Prefer NT
• Focus on: Possibilities
• Handle these by applying: Theoretical
  concepts and systems
• Tend to be: Logical and analytical
• Find interest in: Theoretical and technical
  frameworks
            Medical Specialty????
                    Functions
      YOU USE ALL FOUR LETTERS!!!!

• Two middle letters: (Like your preferred hand)
  – Dominant Function – your favourite function
  – Auxiliary Function – helps balance your dominant

• Other two letters: (Like your non-preferred hand)
  – Tertiary Function – not very favored
  – Least preferred (Inferior) Function – your least favored
Order of Preferences
         ISTJ                         ISFJ                           INFJ                        INTJ
#1 Dominant          S (I)   #1 Dominant        S (I)       #1 Dominant          N (I)   #1 Dominant        N (I)
#2 Auxiliary         T (E)   #2 Auxiliary       F (E)       #2 Auxiliary         F (E)   #2 Auxiliary      T (E)
#3 Tertiary          F (E)   #3 Tertiary        T (E)       #3 Tertiary          T (E)   #3 Tertiary        F (E)
#4 least preferred   N (E)   #4 least preferred N (E)       #4 least preferred   S (E)   #4 least preferred S (E)

         ISTP                         ISFP                           INFP                        INTP
#1 Dominant          T (I)   #1 Dominant          F   (I)   #1 Dominant          F (I)   #1 Dominant       T    (I)
#2 Auxiliary         S (E)   #2 Auxiliary         S   (E)   #2 Auxiliary         N (E)   #2 Auxiliary      N    (E)
#3 Tertiary          N (E)   #3 Tertiary          N   (E)   #3 Tertiary          S (E)   #3 Tertiary        S   (E)
#4 least preferred   F (E)   #4 least preferred   T   (E)   #4 least preferred   T (E)   #4 least preferred F    (E)

         ESTP                         ESFP                           ENFP                        ENTP
#1 Dominant        S (E)     #1 Dominant          S   (E)   #1 Dominant        N (E)     #1 Dominant        N   (E)
#2 Auxiliary      T (I)      #2 Auxiliary         F   (I)   #2 Auxiliary       F (I)     #2 Auxiliary      T    (I)
#3 Tertiary        F (I)     #3 Tertiary          T   (I)   #3 Tertiary        T (I)     #3 Tertiary        F   (I)
#4 least preferred N (I)     #4 least preferred   N   (I)   #4 least preferred S (I)     #4 least preferred S    (I)
         ESTJ                         ESFJ                           ENFJ                        ENTJ
#1 Dominant        T   (E)   #1 Dominant          F   (E)   #1 Dominant        F (E)     #1 Dominant       T    (E)
#2 Auxiliary       S   (I)   #2 Auxiliary         S   (I)   #2 Auxiliary       N (I)     #2 Auxiliary      N    (I)
#3 Tertiary        N   (I)   #3 Tertiary          N   (I)   #3 Tertiary        S (I)     #3 Tertiary        S   (I)
#4 least preferred F   (I)   #4 least preferred   T   (I)   #4 least preferred T (I)     #4 least preferred F    (I)
   The SJ Temperament at Work
                 ESTJ ISTJ ESFJ ISFJ



                     Guardians
• Need to belong, to serve, and to do the right thing
• Value stability, orderliness, cooperation,
  consistency, and reliability
• Tend to be serious and hardworking
• Demand a great deal of themselves and others
   The SJ Temperament at Work
                         Strengths
• Practical, organized, thorough, systematic
• Pay attention to regulations and policies
• Take satisfaction in doing a job right the first time and
  every time
• Prefer to deal with proven facts, and use them to further
  the goals of the organization
• Good at seeing what needs attention and taking care of it
             Solid, trustworthy, dependable
    The SJ Temperament at Work
               Potential Weaknesses
•   Not interested in theories or abstractions
•   Tend to be weak in the area of long range planning
•   Sometimes make decisions too quickly
•   Tend to see things in black and white
•   Run the risk of being unable to adapt quickly
•   Tend to resist trying new approaches
          Inflexible, dogmatic, unimaginative
    The SJ Temperament at Work
                      A “Good” Job
• A relatively high level of responsibility
• A clear chain of command
• Rules and standard ways of doing things
• Regulations and rewards are certain
• Colleagues who share their dedication and respect for
  authority
• Colleagues who pull their weight
        Stabilizer – the maintainers of tradition
   The SJ Temperament at Work
• Family Physician       •   Geriatrics
• Community Health       •   Internal Medicine
  Physician              •   Cardiologist
• General Surgeon        •   Allergy and Immunology
• Anesthetist            •   Gastroenterologist
• Ophthalmologist        •   Neurologist
• Medical Technologist   •   Pediatrician
• Radiologist            •    Health Care
• Nuclear Medicine           Administrator
    The SP Temperament at Work
                 ESTP ISTP ESFP ISFP



                       Artisans
•   Like to stay open to all possibilities
•   Live for action, impulse and the present moment
•   Focus on the immediate situation
•   Ability to access what needs to be done now
•   Seldom choose situations with structure
•   Risk taking, adaptable, easy going, and pragmatic
   The SP Temperament at Work
                         Strengths
• Can see clearly what is happening
• Excellent at recognizing practical problems
• Approach problems with flexibility, courage and
  resourcefulness
• Prefer to deal with facts and real problems rather than
  theories
• Many are skillful with tools and instruments – precision
• Keen observers of human behavior
             Resourceful, exciting and fun
   The SP Temperament at Work
                 Potential Weaknesses
• Sometimes fail to think things through carefully before
  acting
• Not interested in the theoretical or abstract and may fail to
  see important connections
• Tend to lose enthusiasm once the crisis phase is over
• Don’t always follow established rules
• Sometimes avoid commitments and plans
       Irresponsible, unreliable, childish and
       impulsive
    The SP Temperament at Work
                      A “Good” Job
• Provides autonomy, variety and action
• Provides immediate results
• Allows tasks to be executed skillfully and successfully
• Opportunity to use acquired skills, independently and
  spontaneously
• Must give a high degree of pleasure (fun)


    “Fire-fighter” - Notices and responds to crisis
    The SP Temperament at Work
•   Family Physician          • Neurologist
•   General Surgeon           • Oncologist
•   Anesthetist               • Psychiatrist
•   Emergency Room
    Physician
•   Critical Care Physician
•   Geriatrics
•   Cardiologist
•   Allergy and Immunology
•   Gastroenterologist
   The NF Temperament at Work
                   ENFJ INFJ ENFP INFP



                         Idealists

• Place a high value on the authenticity and integrity in
  people and relationships
• Focus on human potential
• Gifted at helping others grow and develop
• Natural ability to understand and connect with other people
• Naturally empathic and focus on the needs of others
• Excellent communicators and catalysts for positive change
    The NF Temperament at Work
                          Strengths
•   Know how to bring out the best in others
•   Understand how to motivate others to do their best
•   Excellent at resolving conflicts
•   Ability to help others feel good about themselves
•   Good at identifying creative solutions
•   Communicate well in speech and writing
•   Able to generate enthusiasm for their ideas
          Charismatic, receptive and accepting
  The NF Temperament at Work
               Potential Weaknesses
• Tendency to make decisions based exclusively on their
  own likes and dislikes
• Have trouble staying detached – can become too involved
  and become overwhelmed
• Sometimes too idealistic and not practical enough
• Sometimes are too self-critical
• Will sometimes sacrifice their own opinion for harmony
       Moody, unpredictable, and overemotional
  The NF Temperament at Work
                     A “Good” Job
• Is personally meaningful
• Harmony is valued and there is little competition
• An organization that is democratic and encourages
  participation from all levels
• An organization that promotes humanistic values
• Allows them to help others find fulfillment


              “To thine own self be true.”
    The NF Temperament at Work
•   Family Physician
•   Psychiatrist
•   Critical Care Physician
•   Nephrologist
•   Oncologist
•   Pediatrician
•   Obstetrician/Gynecologist
    The NT Temperament at Work
                 ENTJ INTJ ENTP INTP


                      Rationals

•   Place a high value on independence
•   Driven to acquire knowledge
•   Set very high standards for themselves and others
•   Naturally curious
•   Can see many sides to the same argument or issue
•   Excellent at seeing possibilities, understanding
    complexities, and designing solutions to real or
    hypothetical problems
  The NT Temperament at Work
                         Strengths
• Have great vision and can be great innovators
• Ability to see possibilities as well as the big picture
• Excel at, and enjoy strategizing, planning, and building
  systems to accomplish their goals
• Understand complex theoretical ideas and are good at
  deducing principles or trends
• Enjoy being challenged
• Can accept constructive criticism without taking it
  personally
           Confident, witty, and imaginative
  The NT Temperament at Work
               Potential Weaknesses
• Can be too complex for others to understand
• Tendency to overlook necessary details
• Can be deeply skeptical and often challenge rules,
  assumptions, or customs
• Sometimes have trouble with authority and can be seen as
  elitist
• Often fail to see how they affect others
• Can be fiercely competitive
       Arrogant, remote, and in a world of their
       own.
  The NT Temperament at Work
                      A “Good” Job
• Provides autonomy and variety
• Is intellectually stimulating, and provides the opportunity
  to generate ideas
• Provides opportunity to tackle complex problems
• Provides opportunity to apply vision and logic to long
  range strategic plans
• Surrounded by very capable colleagues
• Provides opportunity to move toward “powerful” positions
• Provides opportunity to use leadership skills
              “Be excellent in all things.”
  The NT Temperament at Work
• Community Health   •   Internal Medicine
  Physician          •   Allergy and Immunology
• Nuclear Medicine
                     •   Hematologist
• Emergency Room
  Physician          •   Internal Medicine
• Psychiatrist           Physician
• Neurologist
• Cardiologist
• Pharmacologist
• Plastic Surgeon
• Anesthetist
         Your “Best Fit” Type


Extraversion – Introversion   E__ or I__
Sensing – iNtuition           S__ or N__
Thinking – Feeling            T__ or F__
Judging – Perceiving          J__ or P__

                __ __ __ __
      J__ or P__

                __ __ __ __