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                                   ORISSA STATES

             A.K. Sharma, J.G. Patel, N.M. Suthar and Shailesh Nayak
                      Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad


Development and management of water resources within a river basin requires a host of
information on a variety of themes to be collected, compiled and studied individually
theme wise and also in conjunction with other themes. Mainly the information on
natural resources, climate, socio-economic conditions and other physical terrain
parameters need to be studied. While remote sensing can provide a variety of latest and
updated information on natural resources, Geographic Information System (GIS) has the
capability for capture, storage, manipulation, analysis, retrieval of multiple layer
resource information occurring both in spatial and aspatial forms.      Also in GIS it is
possible to create and visualize a host of development and management scenarios by
varying the key parameters influencing the scene. Thus, it is expected that a GIS and
remote sensing based information system would prove to be a powerful tool for
development and management of water resource within the Kharkai sub-catchment (No.
4H3B), Subarnarekha river basin. It is envisaged to generate a regional model for
development and management of water resources while in the later phase the model
would be upgraded for application at local level. The available information with various
State and Central Government agencies has been procured and utilized. A GIS based
resources information system for Kharkai river sub-catchment (6,23,000 hectares of
area) located in the central part of the Subarnarekha river basin covering parts of the
Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj districts of Jharkhand and Orissa states is developed.
With trained manpower it would be possible to handle various types of development and
management problems associated with a multipurpose river basin project. This paper
describes in brief the work carried out for the study area using remote sensing and GIS.


The principal objective of the project is conceptualization of the procedure vis-à-vis
information outputs for water resources management, which include organisation of
geographical database and identification of data manipulation/analysis techniques for
water resources management in the Kharkai river sub-catchment, Subernarekha river
basin. The     outputs generated from the study can be used for various developmental


       Major part of the area shows excessive runoff due to crystalline and impervious
        rocks and undulating terrain with steep slope, which together inhibits infiltration
        resulting in limited ground water recharge.
Paper presented in one day workshop on “ The utilization of Remote sensing, GIS and
GPS technologies for development of Jharkhand State” at Ranchi on Sep. 24, 2005
       Agriculture is mainly rainfed. The monsoon period (mid June to the end of
        September) is a period of water surplus and Kharif - paddy crop predominates in
        the region. The summer months are worst periods as regards water availability,
       Lack of adequate facilities for irrigation is a major problem.
       Erosion too has a major impact on the landscape and the agricultural economy of
        the region.     Various types of erosion like gully erosion, rill erosion and sheet
        erosion and of varying intensity depending on the soil, slope, vegetation and other
        terrain characteristics are found in the basin.
       Extensive areas are under wastelands.
       Denudation of forest cover on the hill slope is leading to excessive runoff and poor
        ground water recharge and excessive soil erosion.
       There is poor connectivity between rural and urban centres through all weather
        motorable roads.
       Adequate electrification of rural areas is yet to be achieved.
   There is poor literacy and lack of awareness in tribal population on the optimal use of
    their existing natural resources.
   Migration of rural populace to towns and cities due to above problems is a matter of
    grave concern for the administration.


Developmental planning is a complex process of decision-making based on information
about the status of resources and socio-economic conditions. Reliability of the database,
both spatial and non-spatial is therefore crucial to the success of the developmental
planning. Remote Sensing technology is an efficient and ideal tool for generating spatial
information databases. The major advantage is that they provide timely inflow of
information to serve planning needs (Radhakrishnan, 1995).

Again this database requires an efficient system of information gathering, compiling,
classification, transformation, storage, retrieval and analysis. The GIS is a data base
management system, which has capability of conducting spatial searches and overlays
and association of the spatial data with the non-spatial data to eventually generate new
information. The Locale specific prescriptions could be arrived at through the effective
use of space based remote sensing data merged with other collateral socio-economic data
using geographic information systems.


The Subernarekha literally means "line of gold" and is one of the most important and
sacred river of the Singbhum district, Jharkhand. It originates 16 km west of the city of
Ranchi near Nagri village at an elevation of about 600 m above mean sea level. The sands
found in the river bed are auriferous.    The Subernarekha basin (Fig. 1) lies between
latitude 21o34'N to 23o18'N and longitude 85o11'E to 87o21'E having total are of 19, 296
sq. km. The river also drains through Orissa and West Bengal to Bay of Bengal covering
a length of 395 km. The Kharkai sub-catchment occupies greater area (6,23,000
hectares) than any other sub-catchment of the subernarekha river catchment and
consists of six watersheds.
DATA USED                            Fig. 1 : Study Area Map

In the present study multidate Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) 1D/LISS III satellite data
(Path 105/106 and Row 55/56 period oct-Nov/1998 and Jan/Feb1999) in digital format
(softcopy) and geocoded FCC paper prints on 1:50,000 scale have been used.

The collateral data as maps reports charts on watershed boundary, geology and soil of
the area, settlement location, socio economic data, etc. collected from departments like
AIS&LUP, Nagpur, Geological Survey of India, Survey of India, Census Dept etc. have
been collected and used.

Preparation of Thematic Map
Various Theme maps essential for the study have been either prepared at 1:50,000 scale
using multi date satellite data `and other ancillary data in the form of published maps,
charts, tables and reports. The same have been compiled into compatible digital formats
using GIS for studying individually as well as in relation to each other. The generalized
broad methodology for preparation of thematic maps is shown in Fig. 2

Thematic map description
Thematic maps like drainage, surface water bodies, watershed, transportation and
settlement locations, geology, geological structures, geomorphology, ground water
conditions, landuse/landcover, soil, etc., have been prepared. Other maps derived based
of census data (1991 Census) are percent SC/ST population, Percent literacy, Percent
marginal workers, Percent cultivators, village development index. etc. Some of the
thematic maps particularly those derived based on census and village boundary maps
have been prepared for the Sanjai river watershed only. Brief description on
thematic maps prepared are given below.

          Reconnaissance          Preliminary
              survey                 image

                                               Pre-field Thematic
   Multidate                                          Map
  Satellite Data

                      data                                      Ground Truth
                                     Formulation                 verification
                                      of legend

                   Fig. 2 Broad methodology for Preparation of thematic maps

Climate - Rainfall and Temperature
Transportation And Settlement Locations, Drainage, Watershed, Land Use Land Cover
Map, Geomorphological Map, Geological Structures /Lineament Map, Geology, Ground
Water Prospects Map, Soil, Slope, Action Plan Water Resources Development, Action
Plan Land Resources Development, Socio -economic analysis,
Watershed prioritisation

Action Plan For Water Resources Development
The study area is mainly rainfed and even availability of water for drinking and domestic
use is a big problem. The local people depend on the few dug wells and surface water
body sources located in the vicinity of the habitations. The natural recharge process in
the area is very poor due to hard compact granitic terrain. In the absence of water for
irrigation major part of the study area is single crop however if irrigation water is made
available than there is possibility of double cropping. Presently double cropping is limited
adjacent to surface water sources mainly along higher order drainage where few
perennial streams, shallow surface water bodies and shallow dug wells are providing
limited water for irrigation. The upper reaches of the study area are prone to erosion.
Thus the proposed water resources development plan (Fig. 3) is devised for increasing the
recharge to sub-surface ground water, conservation of water on the surface and soil
conservation. This is expected to suffice the water needs for drinking and domestic use.

The information on surface water body and drainage in every micro-watershed was
studied in conjunction with the geomorphology, land use / land cover, slope, soil to
identify and locate specific sites for water resources development. Probable sites for
rainwater harvesting and ground water recharge have been identified based on pre-
assigned criteria. The first and second order streams draining the hill slopes have been
identified for "Nala Plugs" at a regular interval. The sites for " Nala Bunds" have been
identified on lower order streams mainly up to 2nd and 3rd order streams. The location for
"Check Dams" have been identified along and at junction of two or more higher order
streams, i.e. greater than 4th order streams which drain more water and having valley
shape for storage of water for period beyond the monsoon season.

The hilly part of the study area with rocky outcrops and steep slopes acts as a high
runoff zone. The runoff washes away precious topsoil from the hill slopes which gets
deposited in the downstream tanks /reservoirs thus reducing their storage volume and
natural ground water recharge capability and ultimately their effective life. Hence there is
a need for construction of structures for proper soil moisture conservation measures and
rainwater harvesting and ground water recharge. The main recommendations comprised
sites for construction of Check dams, Percolation Tanks, Sub Surface Dykes, Boulder
Bund / Nala bunds, Farm Ponds, Nala Plugs,
                         Fig. 3 water resources development plan

Action Plan For Land Resources Development
Land resources Development planning is a highly complex process influenced by basic
needs of the people, governmental policy and resources condition of the area.       The
primary function is to guide decisions on land use in such a way that the subsystems of
the land environment are put to the most beneficial use for man, whilst at the same time
land stock and its quality are preserved for posterity.

Evaluation was done for the current land use and various actions have been suggested
based on pre decided criteria. The criteria were applied to the combined map obtained
by overlaying land use / land cover map, soil map, slope map and Hydrogeomorphic map
and Ground water prospect map of the study area.

Based on the problems in study area a development strategy based on integrated
management of soil, appropriate change in landuse pattern and other conservation
measure for soil and moisture have been suggested. The actions suggested for the Land
resources action plan (Fig. 4) can be broadly divided in to two, i.e. Soil and moisture
conservation measures and Vegetative measures. The various recommendations for land
development are given Table- 6
                            Fig. 4 Land resources action plan

 Table-6 Percent Area Under Proposed Land Resources Development Classes For Sanjai
                            River (4H3B5 & 4H3B6) Watershed
          Sr. No.   Proposed Action                                   % Area
           1        No Action                                         28.86
           2.       Minimal Action-Farm Bunding,Contour Bunding etc   3.89
           3.       Double Cropping With Groundwater exploration      32.42
           4.       Agro Horticulture                                 0.04
           5.       Agro Forestry                                     18.28
           6.       Afforestation with Soil & Water Conservation      5.11
           7.       Afforestation with Staggered Trenches             0.21
           8.       Protection with Gap Filling                       10.9
           9.       Silvipasture                                      0.05
          10.       Fodder & Fuel wood Plantation                     0.13
          11.       Natural Regeneration                              0.11
                    Total                                             100.00

For the purpose of Natural Resources Development and management, the database
consisting of two components i.e. Primary database and Secondary/ Collateral data set
(Table-7/ 8) in the form of Spatial and Attribute data has been organised. The data has
been captured in digital form, edited and stored based on predefined design
specifications. During analysis the spatial data were subject to various GIS functions like
union and intersect etc., to derive information essential for planning land and water
resources development. The non-spatial data (Census data 1991) (Table-9) was linked to
Village map (Spatial data) for Socio-economic analysis. The outputs of the analysis in the
form of map were prepared by map composition using ARCPLOT module of ARC/INFO
GIS software.

                             Table- 7 List Of Primary Data Sets
 Sr. Item             Layer          Featu   Source              Remarks
 No                   name           re
 1.   Land use        Luse           Poly    RS data             Land      use    Level     III/IV
 2.   Geomorpholo     Geom           Poly    RS data             Geomorphic         units       &
      gy                                                         landforms
 3.   Lithology       Litho          Poly    RS data             Rock group/ Lithological
 4.   Structures      Stru           Line    RS data             Geological structures
 5.   Soil            Soil           Poly    RS/Soil             Soil type - series level with
                                             agencies            associations & soil profile
                                             Soil profile data   data
 6    Drainage        Drainl         Line    RS data             Drainage network line
 7.   Canal           Canal          Line    RS data             Existing canal network
 8.   Slope           slope          Poly    Dem                 Slope conditions
 9.   Watershed       Wshed          Poly    RS data             Watershed              hierarchy
      boundary                               Watershed Atlas     polygons        upto     micro-
                                                                 watershed level.
 10   Village         Village        Poly    -do-                Village Boundary
 .    Boundary
 11   Settlements     Settlep        Point   RS data             Settlement locations
 12   Roads           Roads          Line    RS data             Roads
 13   Railway         Rail           Line    RS data             Railway lines
14       Rainfall data       Met          Point     Literature        Rainfall data
15       Spatial             Frame        Poly      Lat.-Long.        15’ x 15’ graticule
         Frame               Grid50       Poly

                               Table- 8 List Of Secondary Data Sets
     Sr. Item                Layer name           Feat    Source       Remarks
     No                                           ure
     .                                            type
     1.     Drainage         Drainp               Poly    Luse         Water          body      mask
                                                                       polygons retrieved from
                                                                       land use layer.
     2.     Settlement       Settlea              Poly    Luse         Habitation               mask
            s                                                          polygons retrieved from
                                                                       land use layer.
     3.     Ground           Gwater               Poly    Geom.        Ground water Prospects
            water                                         Litho        derived                  from
            prospects                                     Stru         hydrogeomorphology
                                                                       map elements
     4.     Comp.            CLDU                 Poly    Luse         Composite                map
            Land      dev.                                Gwater, Soil, generated by overlay of
            Units                                         Slope        input layers
     5.     Land             LRDP                 Poly    CLDU         Final     Land    Resources
            Resources                                                  Development Plan
            Dev. Plan
     6.     Water            Wrdp                 Point   Gwater       Location Specific Water
            Resources        Glyplg               Line    Met          Resources Development
            Developme        Rchpit               Poly    Drainl,      Prescriptions
            nt Plan          Resrw                Poly    Drainp
     7      Watershed        Landuse/landco       Poly    Luse,        Prioritisation             on
            Prioritizati     ver,                 Poly    Geom.        watershed        basis     for
            on      based geomorphology,          Poly    Slope        development
            on               slope,               Poly    Soil
            natural          soil
     8      Village          Population           Poly    POP_D        Level     of    development
           developme    Density,            Poly    SCST_PER        indicated village wise for
           nt index     Percent     SC/ST                           Watershed no 4H3B5 &
                        Population,                 L_PER           4H3B6 Only
                        Percent Literacy,   Poly    C_PER
                        rs,                 Poly    MW_PER
                        Percent Marginal

                              Table –9 List of Non-spatial Inputs
     Sr.        Item               Parameters            Key-        Source      Remarks
     No.                                                 item
     1     Demography     Total Population, Male, Vilcode           Census91    Watershed
                          Female, Scheduled Cast,                               no     4H3B5
                          Scheduled tribe, Literacy                             &      4H3B6
     2     Occupation     Total              workers, Vilcode       Census91     - do -
                          Agricultural       workers,
                          Cultivators,      Marginal
                          workers, etc.


The main objective of the socio-economic analysis using census data is to
   Spatial representation of the non-spatial tabular attributes of the villages viz.
    population density map, percentage literacy map, percentage of SC / ST, percentage
    cultivators map, % marginal worker map, % Agricultural workers map.
   Merge attributes of the villages and the natural resources for generating plan
   Generate the village / block wise information of natural resources.
   Use the information for prioritization of developmental activities viz. Village
    Development Index (VDI) map.

The Sanjai River watershed covers total area of 2131.46 sq. km. There are 9 Blocks and
992 Villages, 37 of them are uninhabited, and hence analysis has been done for 955
Villages. Main towns of the study area are Bandgaon, Chakradharpur, Sonua, Goelkera,
Khuntpani, Adityapur, Seraikela, Kharsawan, Rajkharsawan and Kuchai.

The village development index (VDI ) analysis is to generate an index of the level of
development of each village through the village development index (VDI ) map (Fig. 5).
Primary census Abstract data of 1991 was used for assessing the social and economic
development / backwardness of a village. VDI was worked out using four parameters viz.
Percentage Literacy,   SC/ST Population, Cultivators and       Marginal worker. Table-10
Showing Distribution Of Settlement Based On Cumulative VDI is given below (Average
VDI: 261, Maximum VDI: 423 And Minimum: 102)

            Table-10 Distribution Of Settlement Based On Cumulative VDI
            Range Of VDI        Developmental            No.        Of %Area
                                Status                   Villages
            VDI <=150           Sufficiently developed   18             1.88
            150<VDI<=200        Moderately developed     106            11.09
            200<VDI<=250        Marginally developed     288            30.15
            VDI>250             Poorly developed         543            56.85
                         Fig. 5.Village development index (VDI ) map


The resource considerations for implementation of watershed management programme or
various other reasons pertaining to technical, administration or even political
considerations may limit the implementation to a few micro-watershed during a given
period. Watershed prioritization is the ranking of different micro-watersheds of a
watershed according to the order in which they have to be taken up for treatment and
conservation measures. Often, the intensity of land degradation is taken as the basis of
watershed priotritisation. The priority/suitability assessment is based on a combination
of mathematical analysis and human judgement. The four major steps involved in the
prioritisation of watershed are

     Identifying the parameters for prioritization (anduse, Geomorphology Slope, Soil, etc.)
     Objective based ranking of the parameters
     Generatinion of importance matrix and calculation of weights
     Integrated analysis & assigning of weights and watershed priority class (Table-11) in

                   Table-11 Statistics of prioritised micro-watersheds
        Cumulative Weight          RANK        No. of Watersheds       Priority
        CSI > 3000                 IV          28                      HIGH
        2000 < CSI =< 3000         III         95
        1000 < CSI =< 2000         II          83
        CSI =< 1000                I           86                      LOW

    The watershed prioritisation map (Fig. 6) genereated in GIS for 292 micro-watershed is
                                          shown below.

    Fig. 6 Watershed prioritisation map

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