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jpw Construction Ltd Sustainable Architectural Design Energy


									                       •      Passivhaus
                       •      Offices
                       •      NASEG
                       •      March 3rd 2009

 Canolfan Hyddgen
• Passivhaus Offices
• March 3rd 2009

                           Cepheus at

                       jpw Construction Ltd
                  John P. Williamson

                  jpw Construction Ltd
JPWC-ECO-JW13     Sustainable Architectural Design
                  Passivhaus Consultancy & Construction
                  Carbon Neutral Solutions

                  •   6 Vane Hall Place, Hoel Pentrerhedyn
                  •   Machynlleth, Powys, SY20 8DQ , UK
                  •   Tel 01654 703779
                                                 jpw Construction Ltd

Project Drivers


Passivhaus concept & principles

Design details & construction method

Carbon neutrality

Post occupancy evaluation

Challenges to Passivhaus construction in Wales
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                                                 jpw Construction Ltd
Dyfi Valley Path Finder (DVPF)
WAG/PCC Funded Scheme

Property Rationalisation

Reduce energy consumption,
fuel bills & overheads

Maximise revenue through
design and management
Strategy for multiple tenancy
& Community use

Reduce Carbon Footprint

Client requirement
PHI Passivhaus & BREEAM Excellent Certification                           Cepheus at

(First time In UK that both standards have been applied simultaneously)
                                                                          jpw Construction Ltd
A Range of Sustainable issues & Targets

Health & Wellbeing
Land Use & Ecology
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                                          jpw Construction Ltd
Passivhaus Concept & Principles

Passive Houses are buildings in which the space heat
requirement is reduced by means of passive measures
to the point at which there is no longer any need for a
Conventional heating system

The air supply system essentially suffices to distribute
the remaining heat requirement

Minimizing heat loss is fundamentally more efficient than
strategies relying primarily upon passive or active solar use

The space heat demand for a house in the cold season is
the major energy consuming service. Reduce investment
through energy efficient design                                 Cepheus at

                                                                jpw Construction Ltd
Principle Energy Targets

The space heat requirement of a Passivhaus must not
exceed 15 kWh/(m²a). This is less than one fifth of the
energy requirement mandated by the building regulations
currently in force in the participating countries.

Total Primary Energy Use (Appliances, lighting, Ventilation,
Pumps, DHW) must not exceed 120 kWh/(m²a). Lower than
average consumption of European new build by factor of
2 to 4

Maximum Heat Load 10W/m2
New Build to UK Building Regs averages 100W/m2
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Energy Savings comparison
German Housing Stock & Standards

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                                   jpw Construction Ltd
Basic 5 Elements

First 3 are crucial to Passive House Concept
Space heating _> 15 kWh/(m²a).

Super Insulation
Exceptional thermal envelope preventing thermal bridging
and air leakage _> 0.6 h-1(40% factor lower than EU best)

Combining efficient heat recovery with supplementary
supply air heating
Optimized continuous supply of fresh air. Excellent indoor air
quality.Supplementary air heating when required. Subsoil
preheat pipes further reduces need for supplementary heating

Passive Solar Gain
Windows dimensioned to provide adequate daylight will provide
approx 1/3 of minimized heat demand via solar gain. Triple low
emissivity glazing in superinsulated frames produce a positive   Cepheus at

energy balance. Enhanced by Un shaded south orientation.         jpw Construction Ltd
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jpw Construction Ltd
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jpw Construction Ltd
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jpw Construction Ltd
Air tightness


n50 = 0.249 -1 @ 50Pa (passivhaus requirement is 0.6)

Q50 = 0.37 m3 /(h.m2 ) @ 50Pa (UK measurement)

Air tightness Standards Comparison for UK

L2A UK Assumed air leakage provided TER is achieved using
NCM (under 500m2) q50=15 m3 /(h.m2 ) @ 50Pa

UK General non domestic & domestic q50 = 10 m3 /(h.m2 ) @ 50Pa

UK best practice for mechanically ventilated q50 = 3 m3 /(h.m2 ) @ 50Pa

EST Advance Practice q50 = 1 m3 /(h.m2 ) @ 50Pa
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Ventilation System
             Auxiliary heat load to top up Solar &
             Internal gains at times of peak load
             (e.g. Mid Winter) are calculated.
             This Auxiliary load is very low and and is
             often only needed for 4-5 months a year in
             winter. Common solutions include:
             Gas, LPG, Oil boiler
             Bio fuel - wood pellet / wood chip boiler or
             Electric Heaters in ductwork
             Compact Ventilation units
             The above methods are often combined
             with pre heat ground pipes, heat stores &
             SHW systems                                    Cepheus at
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jpw Construction Ltd
Basic 5 Elements

4 & 5 are necessary to fully minimize:
Energy Consumption and CO2 emmissions
Primary Energy _> 120 kWh/(m²a).

4. Electrical efficiency means efficient appliances
Fit Passive Houses with, efficient appliances, hot water
connections for washing machines & dishwashers,
airing cabinets, CFL’s & DC motor ventilation systems.
These measures greatly reduce energy consumption
without any loss of convenience or comfort.

5. Meeting the remaining energy demand with renewables
Cost optimized Solar thermal systems can meet approx 40-60%
of low temperature demand for DHW.
Minimized remaining energy consumption (DHW, Space Heat
& Electricity) can be met by cost effective renewable sources.
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Outcome is affordable autonomous carbon neutral buildings
                                                                 jpw Construction Ltd
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Elements must be combined & considered in detail to
produce a holistic outcome depending upon :

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                                                      jpw Construction Ltd
Local Building Traditions
Passive house Construction Method in Germany
70% Masonry
15% Concrete
15% Timber
Passive house Construction Method in Austria
80% Timber Frame
20% Concrete & Masonry
Successful Passive Houses adapted to traditional
regional construction practices and vernacular styles

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                                                        jpw Construction Ltd
The Specific Climatic conditions

Specific PH solutions must be adapted
for each territory and climate under

Differences in solar gain & thermal mass being the
main Reason. In other regions, other energy
services, like cooling or dehumidification, could be
of greater importance than heating.

Passive House solution can be soundly applied
independent of the geographic and climatic
circumstances with careful planning.                   Cepheus at

                                                       jpw Construction Ltd
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Economies of Scale & Supply Chain
Extra build costs for PH Standard in Netherlands
(8-12%) are higher due to fewer projects.
Similar costs are likely to be experienced initially in
the UK. Import costs and ‘unfamiliarity tax’
German & Austrian experience has shown that
initial 10% increase in costs reduced to 0 - 4% as
supply chain of components/materials and network
of contractors and Architects increased.
Built to PCC standard costs per m2 for a school

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                                                          jpw Construction Ltd

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             jpw Construction Ltd
Carbon Neutral Passive House
Kronsberg Development - Hannover


To substitute over the annual balance the entire
remaining primary energy requirement, or the
associated CO2 emissions, through a share in a wind
power facility planned nearby.

Test the acceptance of a corresponding mark-up on
the purchase price of a house, i.e Share premium

To identify the precise level of the necessary share.

In Practice the mark- up of Euro 1,278 presented no
marketing impediment at all.                            Cepheus at
Reducing Primary Energy Demand

Survey of 150 Households – reason for choice

51% Personal environmental convictions
16% Encouraged to do so by Architect
12% Due to location of development

Space heating demand similar for all occupants. House
design limits use of energy & resulting CO2

51% who bought due to personal convictions had a
much lower primary energy. (Energy Awareness)

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Reducing Primary Energy Demand

Change the house, the person & energy supply?

Successful design & standard of construction
88% Occupants would buy a Passive house again
High level of satisfaction & personal Comfort
33% Very good - 55% good - 9% satisfactory

Only a small % were able to evaluate their levels of
personal primary energy consumption

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Reducing Primary Energy Demand

Increase personal energy awareness.

Detailed introduction on use of passive house & visual
energy meters.

Dedicated low flow DHW devices & low energy lighting
& appliances - but very personal choices.

Build Carbon Neutrality into the development.
Dedicated on site renewables or local renewable share

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Challenges to
Passive house
Construction in

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                  jpw Construction Ltd
   Planning, Construction & Regulation

• Planning / Bldg Regs / Conservation conflict

• Availability of building products

• Calculation methodologies & existing standards

• Heating systems to meet lower heating demand

• Consumer aspirations – they expect central heating
  and want fireplaces

• Previous voluntary certification schemes have failed.
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References & Acknowledgements
E.Mlecnik, PHP
PassivHaus Institute & Wolfgang Feist/Berthold Kaufmann
David Olivier – Energy Advisory associates
Franz Fruendorfer IZF
Thomas Knecht

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                                                          jpw Construction Ltd

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