Mapping the Canadian North by rt3463df

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									Mapping the Canadian North

     (and working a little DX
  between weather observations)

       Doug Leach - VE3XK
      ex VE3DWG/VE8 (1957)
                       What’s Ahead
•   1957 summer job was on aerial photo mapping survey of Baffin Is
•   Several Ottawa amateurs are survey veterans
•   I’m not the best to tell the survey story but story is long overdue
•   I will cover:
     • Recap of early years and aerial survey methods
     • The RCAF, photo survey firms - equipment and areas covered
     • My 1957 aerial survey and my amateur radio opportunities
     • Recent aerial photo mapping developments
• First for those who weren’t there, what about 1957?
        My Aerial Survey Year - 1957
• PM St. Laurent, President Eisenhower, Chairman Kruschev
• Before integrated circuits, microprocessors or Sputnik
• Before the Boeing 707 commercial jet airliners started flying
• First electric watch, first electric typewriter
• Only twelve years since WWII. Only four years since Korea
• The Avro Arrow was Canada’s major technological project
• International Geophysical Year - peak of Solar Cycle 19 - the
  highest to that time
• Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier modulation was very new -
  only the bold pioneers were using it on amateur radio
• Opening of Distant Early Warning Line (July)
• First let’s look at The Early Years of aerial survey before 1957
                    The Early Years
                                           Aerial camera mounted
                                           on Vickers Vedette flying
                                           boat - 1931
                                           Public Archives Canada
                                           Photo PA-062895
• Maps first plotted from mountaintop photos - 1885
• Aerial photography for mapping and forest inventory - 1920’s
• 1925 - Inter-Departmental Committee on Air Surveys (ICAS)
  formed - to coordinate requirements.
• All ICAS survey contracts henceforth had these requirements:
  photos to be cross-referenced to index map or flight report
  showing flight path, altitude, film type, film number, date/time of
  exposure, camera and weather conditions for that run.
• The quality of aerial survey results was assured
                    The Early Years
                                         RCAF Fairchild Super 71
                                         Closeup shows 1936
                                         multicamera installation
                                         Public Archives Canada -
                                         Photos PA-063184,
• National Air Photo Library (NAPL) also 1925 to take charge of all
  federal non-military air photographs.
• RCAF primary air surveyor in 20’s and 30’s and their major
  centre for aerial photography was RCAF Station Rockcliffe
• 1944 RCAF aerial survey of Ungava Peninsula and west coast of
  Hudson Bay showed existing Arctic maps inaccurate
• Aerial surveying of north tasked to RCAF
                   The Early Years

• “High oblique” photo (L) - taken with a camera inclined 45º
  from plumb. Relief shows well, but image wedge-shaped
• “Vertical” photos taken plumb (straight down).
• “Tri-camera” mode (R) - comprised one “vertical” and two
  “high oblique” cameras, mounted transverse to flight path,
  producing a fan of photos and horizon-to-horizon coverage
• Tri-camera mode sacrificed accuracy and detail for fast coverage
                      The Early Years

                                       PE Print Layout Room - 1945
                                       Public Archives Canada
                                       Photo PA-068026

• RCAF “tri-camera” aircraft flew at around 24,000 ft.
• “Tri-camera” fans laid out in strips, 16 miles wide, with overlaps
  at RCAF Rockcliffe #1 Photograpic Establishment to be indexed
  for the map plotters. Maps were then plotted at 8 mi/inch.
• Photos allowed for stereoscopic views to be arranged to determine
  land contour information.
• Higher accuracy vertical photography was on flight lines 3 miles
  apart, with overlap of photos. Maps were then plotted at 4 mi/in.
                      The Early Years
                                       Installation of cameras in a
                                       photo squadron Lancaster
                                       Public Archives PA-65920

• When possible, tri-camera coverage was obtained before vertical
    photography done in that area.
•   This delayed vertical aerial photo surveys by a year or more, but
    those coarse 8 mi/in maps filled in many areas that had never been
    mapped and were used to plot flight lines for the vertical surveys
•   RCAF 408 Squadron did all the tri-camera work.
•   Other squadrons and the aerial survey firms followed with vertical
•   Most RCAF photography used Lancaster, Dakota, and Norseman
    aircraft, with Canso amphibians doing the survey supply work.
                   The Early Years
                                 RCAF SHORAN camp - 1949
                                 Joe Snyder (L) and Harry Splett (R)
                                 Public Archives Canada
                                 Photos PA-066513, PA-066363

• For geodetic marker location and later for precision mapping,
  a navigation method was required to position camera aircraft .
• The triangulation-based SHORAN radio navigation system
  was developed during WWII for precision bombing.
• Ground stations set up at precisely-known ground locations.
• As camera aircraft flew along prescribed lines, onboard
  SHORAN equipment interrogated two of the SHORAN
  ground stations to determine precise air distance from each
                    The Early Years

                                  Types of aerial photographic
                                  cameras used by the RCAF in 1945
                                  Public Archives Canada
                                  Photo PA- 065562

• Known ground distance between SHORAN ground stations, and
  measured distances from the aircraft formed a triangle, with
  aircraft position in space at the apex
• Cameras mounted in the aircraft photographed the terrain below
  and SHORAN distance readings were recorded with the
  corresponding aerial photos
• Both air and ground had SHORAN technicians. To avoid wasted
  flying time, ground stations also had weather observer / radio ops
                   The Early Years
                                 Rockcliffe-based 408 Squadron
                                 aerial photographic Lancaster at a
                                 Northern base.
                                 Public Archives Canada
                                 Photo PA-066067
• RCAF use of SHORAN was limited to geodetic work
• RCAF aerial photos were used in planning of the Alaska
  Highway, Distant Early Warning Line, and Mid-Canada Line.
• By 1957 RCAF completed tri-camera coverage of Canada. Gaps
  due to cloud and other operational problems were common.
• Survey requirements were now taken over by other departments.
• Air survey firms, would continue to be coordinated by ICAS, with
  photos going to NAPL.
    The Major Aerial Photo Survey Firms
• Under Canadian law, foreign companies could not own or
    operate Canadian-registered ships or aircraft in Canada.
•   Only two firms were doing aerial photography for mapping:
•   Canadian Aero Service Corporation, a subsidiary of Philadelphia
    Aero Service Corporation partnered with Spartan Air Services, a
    Canadian-owned Ottawa company that owned and flew survey
    and support aircraft for Canadian Aero’s aerial surveys.
•   Photographic Survey Corporation (PSC), a subsidiary of Hunting
    Surveys Group of Britain, partnered with Kenting Aviation Ltd, a
    Canadian-owned Toronto company that owned and flew the
    survey and support aircraft for the PSC aerial surveys.
•   Both aerial survey firms were supported by SHORAN
    contractor Offshore Navigation, Inc of New Orleans, Louisiana
            Offshore Navigation, Inc
• ONI was formed to provide electronic navigation services to the
  US oil exploration industry marine surveys in Gulf of Mexico.
• Soon spread to Canada, Caribbean, Latin America, and world.
• ONI provided teams of SHORAN technicians and equipment.
• ONI teams travelled and lived with client field teams.
     Canadian Aero / Spartan - Ottawa

• Canadian Aero / Spartan had been doing aerial photo survey work
  since 1940`s - covering much of Canada
• DeHavilland Mosquitos (like CF-HMP shown) provided some
  high-level aerial photographic surveys (RCAF CF-100 in rear)
• Chapter 70’s Bob Zieman - VE3ATN was camera operator
  aboard the Mosquito and other aircraft during 1956 -1960 period.
     Canadian Aero / Spartan - Ottawa

• P-38 Lightning also used for high level aerial photo surveys. Photo
  shows Spartan P-38 CF-GCH in its earlier WWII paint scheme.
• High-level vertical photo surveys resulted in more detailed maps,
  and also filled in gaps in tri-camera coverage (due to cloud, etc)
  Canadian Aero / Spartan - Ottawa

• Bob Zieman also flew many hours as camera operator aboard
  the Spartan Cessna 310 similar to the above for low level work
• Both Spartan and Kenting had new superior compact cameras
  and Automatic Profile Recorder radars to better establish
  height above ground.
   Canadian Aero / Spartan - Ottawa

• Our Bob Zieman - VE3ATN was camera operator aboard Spartan
  DC-3/Dakota CF-ICU (L). Supercharged engines allowed flight at
  20,000’ (with oxygen masks for the crew)
• Air & ground calibration was required before a survey. Canadian
  Aero SHORAN calibration truck at Uplands Airport - 1955 (R).
• Other Spartan aircraft include Avro Anson and Lockheed Ventura
   Canadian Aero / Spartan - Ottawa
Canadian Aero / Spartan 1950’s aerial survey bases across Canada
• Yukon - Whitehorse
• NWT - Inuvik, Norman Wells, Yellowknife, Sawmill Bay, Pelly
  Lake, Cambridge Bay, Coral Harbour, Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit)
• Ontario - Armstrong, Ottawa (St Lawrence Seaway surveyed
  several times to update forecasts of flooding)
• Quebec - Val d’Or, Roberval, Mont Joli, Sept Iles
• New Brunswick - Fredericton
• Nova Scotia - Halifax
• Many of the same bases were used in those years by competitor
  Photographic Survey Corporation / Kenting Aviation.
• Both Spartan and Kenting lost too many aircraft and crews
  during that period. Aerial survey and mapping was dangerous.
     Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto
                                          Photo shows
                                          PSC/Kenting B-17G
                                          CF-HBP as it was at
                                          Foxe Main in 1957.

• PSC undertook the first commercial Arctic survey in 1957
• Two-year survey of northern Baffin Island used B-17G for high-
  level photos, newest ground station gear, and licensed hams as
  weather observer/radio ops. Based at Fox Main (now Hall Beach)
• I was first hired of the PSC weather / radio ops, and recruited
  seven more at Ryerson.
• Maximum effort to get ham and commercial phone licenses.
       Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

•   MCA DC-4 CF-MCD loaded at Malton in mid-May 1957.
•   With entire survey team and freight aboard, there were still seats
•   After re-fuel at Churchill, flew north to Fox Main.
•   Crashed York freighter, short of Fox Main runway.
•   Much activity at Fox Main - 24 hour sunlight
•   After few more days preparation, we began to deploy field sites.
       Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

•   Chartered DC-3/Dakotas on skis (L) delivered ground stations
•   Landing at Clyde weather-delayed so helped install Gilliam site.
•   When 2nd Clyde attempt, stayed on DEW site. New charter.
•   Our station (R) set up in early June. Tower on a geodetic marker.
•   Both gensets and VHF groundplane antenna in foreground. Fuel
    drums part of two USAF avgas caches - one WWII era. The
    supply tent was mostly for food cartons - “K Rations”
                   Our “K Rations”
• One carton per week per person provided three meals per day
• No bread - just hard-tack biscuits that tasted like cardboard.
• Baked ham, Salisbury steak, pork, sausages, chicken or turkey
  dinners. TV dinners but the technology of 50 years ago.
• Butter, bacon, corned beef, Spam. Jam. Peanut butter. Tea.
  Coffee. Corn syrup. Egg, pancake and milk powders and potato
  flakes (yuk). Dry cereal. Oatmeal. Chocolate. Hard candy.
  Canned fruit. Canned juices. Peanuts. Fruit cake. Eagle brand
  sweetened condensed milk. Catsup. Sugar. Salt. Pepper - all in
  sealed packs.
• My ONI partner slathered his own Louisiana Hot Sauce over all
  he ate - breakfast, lunch and dinner - “not that damned Tabasco”
      Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

• Above photos show layout of Jamesway hut. Heating by Coleman
    fuel-oil stove at rear (L). Very comfortable in cold “summer”.
•   Floor canvas-covered 1/2” plywood over 2”X4” frame
•   AN/CPN2 SHORAN, TMC GPR-90 SSB Receiver/VFO and
    Eldico SSB-100 MIL Transmitter and VHF AM a/g radio (R)
•   Personal locker in front of the bunk (background left)
•   Food preparation table with camp stove opposite radio gear
     Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

• Icing fog frequent at Clyde River station much of summer 1957
• Our first ice storm (L)
• Prolonged heavy icing resulted in collapse of 50 ft aluminum
  SHORAN tower (R)
• Collapse occurred five times over the “summer” due to successive
  ice storms
• Tower shrank to 30’ - SHORAN antenna looked worse each time
    Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

• Photo (L) shows repaired SHORAN antenna and tower after
  first loss - now only 40ft high. Only ex-Marine “Big Ed” Barney
  could walk up that tower, even with me at full effort on guys.
• Rock ledge (R) looked down 1500 ft to the beach on Davis Strait.
• Occasional polar bear along beach
• My ONI partner’s tale of Cuban rebels, Batista, & Miami mafia
    Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

• Aerial view of station atop higher peak.
• (R) USCG Cape Christian LORAN A Station at point - 7 mi
• Mountain is a pile of rocks - no true ground to be found
     Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

                           Home-brew two -element quarter-wave
                           vertical array oriented south (director
                           in front). Third mast (foreground) is
                           for one end of VXW-69 dipole

• Initial 20M SSB ham radio weekly phone patches with Fred -
  VE3AIU in Goderich showed that I needed a bigger signal.
• We had no test gear. 1956 ARRL Antenna Book had little on
  vertical arrays. But with cut and try, it worked!
• I lacked material for a third element for my vertical yagi.
      Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

•   First supply-mail air drop in early July mixed success.
•   Photo (L) shows Kenting Canso CF-IJG overhead and first drop
•   Photo (M) shows the fuel drum drifting down wind.
•   Photo (R) shows the chute disappearing over cliff.
•   Subsequent air drops (with mail) landed ok.
    Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

• Invited to visit Cape Christian the day their supply ship was
  expected, by the C.O. Lt Ed Daniels K4LLA.
• LORAN A antenna array (L), with customary distance sign.
• Also visited USCG Icebreaker Westwind on LCVP. Rode back
  to camp on Bell 47 helicopter (just like in MASH)
     Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

• Clyde not typical site
• Daily VHF QSOs with Cape Christian and DOT Clyde River
• First visit by USCG personnel (L) included W8QNF on right
• 19 yr old Doug Leach and ONI’s Ed Barney flank visitor C.O. Lt
  Ed Daniels K4LLA (M)
• Same Inuit team (R) helped get our gear down to Clyde River
  ready to load onto our aircraft using fishing boats.
     Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

•   Tour of the DOT Clyde River (L).
•   AT-3 and HRO-60. Launched weather balloon.
•   Cook offered meal before departure.
•   Bought two souvenir Eskimo carvings at Hudson Bay store
•   Kenting Canso CF-IJG (R) needed three passes before floating
    ice opened safe landing path to pick up gear and crew.
      Photo Survey / Kenting - Toronto

• Re-deployed to Basin, most southern site - for a week
• Between two small lakes, one with remains of RCAF Canso that
    tried to land on shallow water.
•   One day awoke to rustling sound - surrounded by caribou.
•   When Canso electrics failed on takeoff. Pilot Bob Pettus managed
    to land on the deep end of the right lake! That was TOO close!
•   Ed and I flew home via Frobisher and Mont Joli. Taxi to
    Montreal and train to Toronto.
•   All my 35mm colour slides lost in mail. Just b&w snapshots left.
PSC 1957 Shoran Sites and Call Signs
•   Clyde (Clyde River - Baffin Island) VXW69
•   Home (Cape Dyer - Baffin Island) VXW70
•   Bernier (Bernier Lake - Baffin Island) VXW71
•   Kendall (Kendall Lake - Baffin Island) VXW72
•   Gilliam (Gilliam Lake - Baffin Island) VXW73
•   Basin (Basin Lake - Baffin Island) VXW74
•   Fox Main (Hall Beach) VXW75 (Flight Base - no SHORAN)
•   Simpson (Fort Simpson) VXW76
•   Poor weather plagued our 1957 survey. Few days had
    required max 10% cloud cover on aerial photos so B-17 was
    grounded most of the summer.
                       Post Script
                                                        (f & b)

• Weather observations taken every four hours and radioed
  immediately to Fox Main for flight planning of the B-17.
• Between radio skeds, SSB radios available for ham use (fuel
  permitting). Older fuel cache at Clyde a windfall for me, but
  many water & sediment problems with genset.
• SSB was high tech and rare - mostly above 14.300 MHz on 20M.
• Memorable stations worked on SSB were VE3AIU, W6NAZ,
    Summary of Aerial Survey Efforts

• Shading shows extent of Aerial Survey Data Base Coverage - 2007
• Field bases of the major aerial mapping survey firms are shown
                  Later Developments
• Several years later in another survey farther north, Kenting used
    their other B-17E CF-ICB based at Thule, Greenland. Pushing
    the limits, they flew at 32,000 ft that summer at the cost of 10
    engine replacements and several crew instances of “the bends”
•   6 years later Kenting bought Spartan. Canadian Aero split off. One
    man, who started with Aero and stayed on, got pay cheques over
    his career issued by twelve company names.
•   By mid 1960’s, 35 Canadian air survey firms were in cut-throat
    competition, none making much profit. Eventually consolidated
    into three consortia.
•   Army took on mapping for defence purposes using helicopters.
•   Men who survived a risky air survey career mapping Canada had
    a rewarding life, but it was very hard on wives and families.
•   Canada owes those men and families a huge debt of gratitude.
•   Clyde River, Hall Beach now have daily jet service by First Air.
            Mapping Technology Today
• Canada is world leader in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
    since first computerized geography developed here in 1967.
•   The new term “Geomatics” encompasses gathering, analysis,
    management and distribution of spatially or geographically
    referenced data. Includes surveying, mapping, remote sensing,
    cartography, geodesy, photogrammetry and hydrography.
•   Computers now convert satellite images directly into geographic
    data sets stored in the National Topographic Data Base. These can
    then be used in GIS and mapping applications.
•   Continuous tracking of GPS satellites is principal method of
    maintaining Canada’s 100,000+ geodetic markers.
•   Military photo survey aircraft now digitize and computer-correct
    their photo runs ready for instant map plotting on landing.
•   Today maps are printed to order from a hard drive. See samples.
•   The 8 mi/inch scale is 1:500,000, and 4mi/in is 1:250,000 in metric.
“A History of the Rockcliffe Airport Site: Home of the National
        Aviation Museum” by Stephen R. Payne, Curator
“Photographic Operations of the RCAF” by Wing Cdr R. I. Thomas
and the following individuals (alphabetically, with affiliation):
Bartello, Tom - Photographic Survey Corporation (Chapter 70)
Bisson, Phillipe - National Air Photo Lab
Brinegar, John - Offshore Navigation Int’l SHORAN air technician
Campbell, Betty - Spartan Air Services
Holt, Ken - Spartan Air Services and TMC Corp’n (Chapter 70)
McLarty, Donald - Kenting Aviation
Splett, Harry - Canadian Aero Service (and successor companies)
Zieman, Bob - Spartan Air Services (Chapter 70)
           Thank You

This presentation is dedicated to the
families of those in and around the
  aerial survey industry who died
          before their time.

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