Docstoc

Leadership Qualities - PowerPoint

Document Sample
Leadership Qualities - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					Nursing Leadership,
Followership and Management

Nursing 493: Unit II
Why study leadership &
management?


   Who are our
    leaders?
What are the most serious
problems people face in the work
environment?

   Technical
   Safety
   People
   Financial
   Ethical
Why?
   To learn how to work with people, not only as
    individuals, but as members of groups,
    teams, and organizations

   Provides greater understanding and control of
    events in the work situation

   Imparts a sense of personal power & self
    direction
Definitions
   Leadership- the process of influencing
    others

   Leaders inspire thru personal
    trustworthiness & self-confidence

   Leaders communicate a vision that turns
    self-interest into commitment to the job
What are the 3 primary tasks
of a leader?
   Set direction: mission, goals, vision

   Build commitment: motivate & inspire

   Confront challenges: innovation, deal
    with change, turbulence, take risks
What does the study of
leadership involve?
   Leadership theories
   Motivation
   Group development & team work
   Power & conflict
   Confrontation & negotiation
   Effective communication
   Critical thinking & problem solving
Leadership
   All people have untapped leadership
    potential …it is there in you.

   The attempt defines leadership…it does
    not have to be successful

   To be a leader you must make a
    decision to act
What is Followership
   Followership & leadership are reciprocal
    roles

   Being an effective follower is as
    important to the new nurse as being an
    effective leader
What are the characteristics of
an effective follower?
   Self direction
   Actively participates in setting group
    direction
   Invests time & energy in the work of
    the group
   Thinks critically
   Advocates for new ideas
What is management?
   Management – too is a process of influencing
    people but with the specific intention of
    contributing to meeting the organization’s
    goals
   Management is the process of getting work
    done through other people
   Management is planning, organizing,
    coordinating, and controlling work given to
    employees
Management Functions
   Officially responsible for the work of a group
   Hiring & firing
   Evaluating staff performance
   Recommending raises and promotions
   Prepare & implement a budget
   Approve expenses & purchases
   Handle conflicts
   Work schedules & assignments
   Plan current & future activities of unit
   Be open to demands of continuous change
New definition of
management

  To do whatever is necessary to see
 that employees do their work and do
               it well.
    Differences b/w leadership &
    management
   Leadership                 Management
   based on influence         based on authority
   an informal                a formally designated
    designation                 position
   an achieved position       an assigned position
   part of every nurse’s      improved by use of
    role                        effective leadership
   independent of              skills
    management
What makes a person a
leader?

  We look to Leadership theories
Most Prominent Leadership
Theories
   TRAIT THEORIES
   BEHAVIORAL THEORIES (Leadership
    styles)
   SITUATIONAL THEORIES
    (understanding all the factors)
   TRANSFORAMTIONAL THEORIES
    (inspiration & meaning)
   Comparison of Authoritarian,
   Democratic, & Laissez-Faire
                        Authoritar.Democrat.   Laissez-F
Degree of
freedom
                        Little     Moderate    Much
Degree of control
                        High       Moderate    None
Decsision making
                        By leader  Leader&     Group or
                                   group       no one
Leader activity level
                        High       High        Minimal
Assumption of
Responsibility          Leader     Shared      Abdicated
Output of group
                        High&      High &      Variable-
                        good qual. creative    Poor?
What are the key differences
in the 3 leadership styles?
   Democratic leader moves the group
    toward its goals

   Autocratic leader moves the group
    toward the leader’s goals

   Laissez-faire leader makes no attempt
    to move the group
Behaviors of an Effective
Leader
   Think critically
   Solve problems
   Respect people
   Communicate skillfully
   Set goals, share a vision
   Develop self & others
Transformative Leadership
Qualities
   Integrity (Action       Optimism
    matches words)          Balance(work,
   Courage (take           reflection,play)
    risks)                  Ability to handle
   Initiative (Act on       stress
    ideas)                  Self-Awareness)
   Energy
What distinguishes ordinary
leaders from STARS?

     Emotional Intelligence –
 addressing the effects of people’s
       feelings on the team
Management Theories: Two
Opposing Schools of Theory

   Scientific
    management

   Human relations-
    oriented
    management
Scientific management

   Frederick Taylor Father of S.M.

   Focus on tasks & ways to increase
    efficiency & productivity by getting
    more work out of individual employees
What makes a person a
manager? Two Perspectives
   Scientific Management - Frederick
    Taylor says (emphasis is on the task
    aspect of providing care, paying people
    by the # of clients seen, incentive is to
    get the most work done in the least
    amount of time. The current emphasis
    on reducing staff & increasing
    productivity is based on this type of
    thinking.
Human Relations-Oriented
Management Theory: X&Y
   Theory X (McGregor’s ) says most
    people think work is something to be
    avoided, and the managers job is to
    make them work hard.
   According to Theory X employees need
    strict rules, constant supervision, & the
    threat of punishment to make them
    conscientious.
Theory Y
   Theory Y manager believes the work
    itself is motivating and people really
    want to do a good job.
   The Theory Y manager emphasizes
    guidance rather than control,
    development vs close supervision, &
    reward vs punishment.
Communication
   Is at the heart of leadership
   Leadership can not occur except in
    relationship to other people &
    communication is the means through
    which leadership is accomplished
Communication


   We “cannot not
    communicate”!
Communication
   Giving & receiving feedback

   Linking (connecting ideas in a group)

   Networking (connecting people in a
    group or organization
Verbal & Nonverbal:KeyPoints
   Most nonverbal is done unconsciously
   It is more difficult to control
   Discrepancies often exist between
    verbal & nonverbal
   What is stated is often not felt or
    believed
   Listening is the most critical
    communication skill
Emotional Intelligence
   Listen to others

   Pick up unspoken concerns

   Acknowledge others’ perspectives

   Welcome constructive criticism
   Bring people together in a spirit of trust
Communication with
colleagues
   Telephone etiquette
   Information systems/computer/e-mail
   Change-of-shift report
   Be assertive without being aggressive
   Staying calm & demonstrating good
    communication skills demonstrates
    professionalism& an ability to work well
    with others
Communicating with other
disciplines
   Nurses are client care coordinators
   Nurses spend the most time with clients,
    therefore they are in the best position to
    communicate among disciplines info re client
   Physicians: nurses need to communicate
    changes in the client condition, discuss
    modification in treatment plan, clarify orders
   This may be stressful-have the info you need
    on hand before phoning (meds, vitals, general
    health assessment status)
   Maintain a record of calling logs
Communicating with clients &
family

  Recognize signs of anger or anxiety
    Intervene to diffuse the situation
 Practice good listening & show respect
    GIVING FEEDBACK
   1. Give both positive & negative feedback

   2. Give immediate feedback

   3. Give frequently-keeps motivation high &
    prevents problems from growing high

   4. Be objective - use standards for making
    judgments, tell “Why” it is good/bad

   5. Base feedback on observable behavior- be
    factual & accurate
Feedback (cont’d)
   6. Communicate effectively - give
    feedback & be prepared to receive
    feedback in return. Engage in active
    listening. When you give negative
    feedback allow time for the individual to
    express their feelings & for problem
    solving to find ways to improve the
    situation. This is impt. If the problem
    has been ignored a long time.
7. Include suggestions for change. Try to
  suggest alternative behaviors

   8. Communicate in a non-threatening
    manner. Highly threatening messages
    reduce motivation & inhibit learning. Too
    much fear immobilizes people.
    Remember your ultimate purpose is to
    bring about improved performance.
Performance Appraisal
Peer Review
Evaluation procedures
One by manager or superior (hierarchical)
One by colleagues with similar status &
  education
Peer review may be combined with
  performance appraisal to form a
  comprehensive system of evaluation
Case Scenario: Small Change
in Procedure??!!
   It was not “big deal” just a small change in
    procedure. At least that is what the VP
    Nursing of the Tri-County Home Care Agency
    thought when she ordered the staff to bring
    their lap top computers back to the office
    every evening. “These machines are
    expensive”, the VP noted, “We can not
    continue to let staff take them home. They
    could be broken, stolen, or used to play
    games in the evening.”
Questions for critical reflection
   How do you think the staff reacted to
    this change? Explain why they reacted
    as you describe?
   Did the VP act primarily as a leader or
    as a manger? Explain your choice
   What alternative procedure might be
    implemented to protect the laptops?

				
DOCUMENT INFO