Nursing Leadership, Followership and Management Nursing 493: Unit II Why study leadership & management? Who are our leaders? What are the most serious problems people face in the work environment? Technical Safety People Financial Ethical Why? To learn how to work with people, not only as individuals, but as members of groups, teams, and organizations Provides greater understanding and control of events in the work situation Imparts a sense of personal power & self direction Definitions Leadership- the process of influencing others Leaders inspire thru personal trustworthiness & self-confidence Leaders communicate a vision that turns self-interest into commitment to the job What are the 3 primary tasks of a leader? Set direction: mission, goals, vision Build commitment: motivate & inspire Confront challenges: innovation, deal with change, turbulence, take risks What does the study of leadership involve? Leadership theories Motivation Group development & team work Power & conflict Confrontation & negotiation Effective communication Critical thinking & problem solving Leadership All people have untapped leadership potential …it is there in you. The attempt defines leadership…it does not have to be successful To be a leader you must make a decision to act What is Followership Followership & leadership are reciprocal roles Being an effective follower is as important to the new nurse as being an effective leader What are the characteristics of an effective follower? Self direction Actively participates in setting group direction Invests time & energy in the work of the group Thinks critically Advocates for new ideas What is management? Management – too is a process of influencing people but with the specific intention of contributing to meeting the organization’s goals Management is the process of getting work done through other people Management is planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling work given to employees Management Functions Officially responsible for the work of a group Hiring & firing Evaluating staff performance Recommending raises and promotions Prepare & implement a budget Approve expenses & purchases Handle conflicts Work schedules & assignments Plan current & future activities of unit Be open to demands of continuous change New definition of management To do whatever is necessary to see that employees do their work and do it well. Differences b/w leadership & management Leadership Management based on influence based on authority an informal a formally designated designation position an achieved position an assigned position part of every nurse’s improved by use of role effective leadership independent of skills management What makes a person a leader? We look to Leadership theories Most Prominent Leadership Theories TRAIT THEORIES BEHAVIORAL THEORIES (Leadership styles) SITUATIONAL THEORIES (understanding all the factors) TRANSFORAMTIONAL THEORIES (inspiration & meaning) Comparison of Authoritarian, Democratic, & Laissez-Faire Authoritar.Democrat. Laissez-F Degree of freedom Little Moderate Much Degree of control High Moderate None Decsision making By leader Leader& Group or group no one Leader activity level High High Minimal Assumption of Responsibility Leader Shared Abdicated Output of group High& High & Variable- good qual. creative Poor? What are the key differences in the 3 leadership styles? Democratic leader moves the group toward its goals Autocratic leader moves the group toward the leader’s goals Laissez-faire leader makes no attempt to move the group Behaviors of an Effective Leader Think critically Solve problems Respect people Communicate skillfully Set goals, share a vision Develop self & others Transformative Leadership Qualities Integrity (Action Optimism matches words) Balance(work, Courage (take reflection,play) risks) Ability to handle Initiative (Act on stress ideas) Self-Awareness) Energy What distinguishes ordinary leaders from STARS? Emotional Intelligence – addressing the effects of people’s feelings on the team Management Theories: Two Opposing Schools of Theory Scientific management Human relations- oriented management Scientific management Frederick Taylor Father of S.M. Focus on tasks & ways to increase efficiency & productivity by getting more work out of individual employees What makes a person a manager? Two Perspectives Scientific Management - Frederick Taylor says (emphasis is on the task aspect of providing care, paying people by the # of clients seen, incentive is to get the most work done in the least amount of time. The current emphasis on reducing staff & increasing productivity is based on this type of thinking. Human Relations-Oriented Management Theory: X&Y Theory X (McGregor’s ) says most people think work is something to be avoided, and the managers job is to make them work hard. According to Theory X employees need strict rules, constant supervision, & the threat of punishment to make them conscientious. Theory Y Theory Y manager believes the work itself is motivating and people really want to do a good job. The Theory Y manager emphasizes guidance rather than control, development vs close supervision, & reward vs punishment. Communication Is at the heart of leadership Leadership can not occur except in relationship to other people & communication is the means through which leadership is accomplished Communication We “cannot not communicate”! Communication Giving & receiving feedback Linking (connecting ideas in a group) Networking (connecting people in a group or organization Verbal & Nonverbal:KeyPoints Most nonverbal is done unconsciously It is more difficult to control Discrepancies often exist between verbal & nonverbal What is stated is often not felt or believed Listening is the most critical communication skill Emotional Intelligence Listen to others Pick up unspoken concerns Acknowledge others’ perspectives Welcome constructive criticism Bring people together in a spirit of trust Communication with colleagues Telephone etiquette Information systems/computer/e-mail Change-of-shift report Be assertive without being aggressive Staying calm & demonstrating good communication skills demonstrates professionalism& an ability to work well with others Communicating with other disciplines Nurses are client care coordinators Nurses spend the most time with clients, therefore they are in the best position to communicate among disciplines info re client Physicians: nurses need to communicate changes in the client condition, discuss modification in treatment plan, clarify orders This may be stressful-have the info you need on hand before phoning (meds, vitals, general health assessment status) Maintain a record of calling logs Communicating with clients & family Recognize signs of anger or anxiety Intervene to diffuse the situation Practice good listening & show respect GIVING FEEDBACK 1. Give both positive & negative feedback 2. Give immediate feedback 3. Give frequently-keeps motivation high & prevents problems from growing high 4. Be objective - use standards for making judgments, tell “Why” it is good/bad 5. Base feedback on observable behavior- be factual & accurate Feedback (cont’d) 6. Communicate effectively - give feedback & be prepared to receive feedback in return. Engage in active listening. When you give negative feedback allow time for the individual to express their feelings & for problem solving to find ways to improve the situation. This is impt. If the problem has been ignored a long time. 7. Include suggestions for change. Try to suggest alternative behaviors 8. Communicate in a non-threatening manner. Highly threatening messages reduce motivation & inhibit learning. Too much fear immobilizes people. Remember your ultimate purpose is to bring about improved performance. Performance Appraisal Peer Review Evaluation procedures One by manager or superior (hierarchical) One by colleagues with similar status & education Peer review may be combined with performance appraisal to form a comprehensive system of evaluation Case Scenario: Small Change in Procedure??!! It was not “big deal” just a small change in procedure. At least that is what the VP Nursing of the Tri-County Home Care Agency thought when she ordered the staff to bring their lap top computers back to the office every evening. “These machines are expensive”, the VP noted, “We can not continue to let staff take them home. They could be broken, stolen, or used to play games in the evening.” Questions for critical reflection How do you think the staff reacted to this change? Explain why they reacted as you describe? Did the VP act primarily as a leader or as a manger? Explain your choice What alternative procedure might be implemented to protect the laptops?
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