LANDMARK SUPREME COURT CASES by rt3463df

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									    LANDMARK
SUPREME COURT CASES

     Elizabeth Benavides
     Mariya Gershkovich
   Marbury Vs. Madison (1803)
• After president Adams lost the election of 1800s he
  appointed many federalist to the courts including
  William Marbury
• James Madison, secretary of state refused to deliver
  these commissions which upset Marbury.
• After which Marbury applied to the supreme court to
  enforce the delivery of his commission under the
  Judiciary Act of 1789
• Court refused Marbury’s request because they felt
  that issues with the Judiciary Act was conflicting
  with the Constitution
• Chief Justice Marshall established the concept of
  judicial review.
 Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1857)
• Property Rights vs. Human
  Rights
• Dred was fighting for his
  “free man’s” rights since he
  traveled through “free soil”
• The government was
  decided the free soil federal
  laws and Missouri
  Compromise were
  unconstitutional it deprived
  slave owners of the rights of
  his property.
• Decision made by Roger B
  Taney, state rights advocate
      Gibson vs. Ogden (1824)
• Decision involved examination of the power that
  Congress had to regulate interstate commerce.
• Ogden had a ferry license, gave him right to operate
  steam boats to and from N.Y argued Gibson’s federal
  “coasting license” didn’t include “landing rights” in
  N.Y
• Court invalidated the New York Licensing
  regulations saying that federal regulation should
  take precedence under the Supremacy Clause.
• Decision strengthened the power of the U.S to
  regulate any interstate business relationship.
  Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)

• A Louisiana law had separate seating for
  whites and blacks on public railroads.
• Plessy argued his “equal protection of the
  laws” was violated.
• Court thought segregation was okay if
  facilities were equal, so they interpreted 14th
  Amendment to only give blacks political and
  civil equality
• Louisiana Law was seen as “reasonable
  exercise of police power.”
    Brown vs. Board of Education
               (1954)
• Linda Brown wasn’t         • Court said “ in the
  permitted to attend her      field of public
  neighborhood school          education the
  because of her ethnicity     doctrine of separate
• Court heard arguments        but equal has no
  whether segregation          place”
  was a violation of the     • Decision overturn
  equal protection clause      Plessy Vs. Ferguson
  and found that it was.
        Mapp vs. Ohio (1961)
• When the Cleveland Police received news that
  Ms. Dollree Mapp and her daughter were
  harboring a suspected bombing fugitive they
  immediately went to her house and demanded
  entrance
• U.S criminal procedure, in which the United
  States Supreme Court decided that the Fourth
  Amendment protection against "unreasonable
  searches and seizures" must be extended to
  states as well as the federal government.
Gideon vs. Wainwright (1963)
• In 1961, Clarence Earl Gideon had been accused of
  breaking into a pool hall in Bay County, Florida and
  taking money from the vending machines. He
  appeared in court too poor to afford counsel, and
  was refused to have a counsel
• Gideon was forced to defend himself and was
  proclaimed guilty for five years
• Decided to appeal to the Supreme Court
• Where it was finally concluded that Constitutional
  law made by the Supreme Court in applying the Sixth
  Amendment ( the right to Counsel) and the
  Fourteenth Amendment (no person shall be deprived
  of life, liberty, or property without due process of
  law) to all citizens, applied to this case.
         Roe vs. Wade (1973)
• Jane Row (Norma McCorvey) was asking courts to
  have her abortion in the state of Texas, where it was
  illegal to have an abortion, since she couldn’t afford
  to travel to another state where it was legal.
• The big question that the Supreme court tried to
  reason was does the Constitution embrace a
  woman's right to terminate her pregnancy by
  abortion?
• The Court held that a woman's right to an abortion
  fell within the right to privacy (recognized in
  Griswold v. Connecticut) protected by the
  Fourteenth Amendment. The decision gave a woman
  total autonomy over the pregnancy during the first
  trimester

								
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