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Knowledge Mobilization


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									Regional Governance:
 Opportunities for Development
and Rural-Urban Interaction in
     Functional Regions
 Project components
1) Identify and map (GIS) linkages between
   communities in “regions”, particularly urban and
   rural relationships
2) Assess governance mechanisms used to
   manage these relationships, identify gaps,
   investigate alternatives
3) Assess the contribution of community linkages to
   local and regional sustainability and create a
   “regional economic capacity index”
4) Knowledge mobilization: collaboration,
   communication, application
Regional governance
1) Active labour market strategies
  (discussion paper, Lysenko thesis)
2) Regional governance background paper
       3) Pilot region data collection and
       relationship mapping („08/‟09)
       4) Assessing strategic plans and processes –
       provincial + pilot regions (summer /fall„09)

                  5) Options and suggested applications
  Active Labour Market
       Policy Paper
       By Dr. David Freshwater

• Efforts by government to alter workings of
 labour markets vs. income replacement, market adjustment
  alone. Addresses structural unemployment problems by:
      • Modifying supply of labour
      • Increasing demand for labour
      • Improve functioning of labour market

        Examples: job matching, training, subsidies

          “locally oriented ALMP may be a useful component
                  of regional development strategies”
The Norwegian Experience
• Locally designed ALMPs allows for an
  individualized approach
• With unemployment insurance/benefit
  restrictions, and activation programmes
                Local agency, government,
                 private sector collaboration
Regional Governance in NL
• Nearly 160 identified regional entities
• 46% formed since 1990 - RDAs, Chamber 50s/60s
• More than 20 ways “regions” are defined

          Survey of Regional Organizations
                        • Literature review
                        • Questionnaires
                        • Interviews
Regional Governance in NL
 • 35 of 71 organizations have a mandate for labour
   market development activities, 38 are involved

 • Organizational challenges: $, HR, cooperation

        •   Challenges facing their regions: outmigration,
            demographics and labour shortages

        • Mixed degrees of cooperation – key for the future
                             Pop 3088
      “Pilot”                including
      regions                Blanc
-Includes one each of:        “Rural
urban-adjacent, non-          remote”
adjacent, and remote rural
regions                                             Pop
-Defined according to                                “Non-
existing governance                                  adjacent”

2006 pop. figures from NL
Community Accounts
                                         “Adjacent” Pop.
Pilot Regions
• Regional profiles and asset mapping
• Regional meetings
• Questionnaires:
          T-NWI (41): 19 businesses, 17 community, 5
          regional NGOs
          Labrador Straits (43):18 NGOs, 18 community, 7
          regional NGOs
          Irish Loop (48): 33 businesses, 7 community
          NGOs, 5 regional
 Pilot Regions
• Economies in transition
• Sense of community optimism (business):
  IL - 72% , T-NWI – 68%, LS - 67%,
• Why?: growth, development of new roadways,
  housing (IL) vs. tourism, quality of life (T-NWI)
         • Lack of optimism - mainly because of
           outmigration, lack of young people and an
           aging population, lack of jobs/industry
Challenges and Strategies
• decreasing populations (outmigration
  and lack of youth), rising prices/costs, lack
  of skilled, experienced, motivated employees

                • Strategies include increasing
                  wages and benefits, training,
                  advertising, working harder (by
                  business owners)
–Regional collaboration
 extremely important but only
 present to some degree

–limited on labour market
 development, capacity
 constraints but also
 opportunities for partnership
  Mapping Community
Development Relationships
  Businesses, Local NGO and Regional
          NGO Respondents
                                  Business support - other
                              •    ACOA (5)
Relationships                 •    Service Canada/HRSDC
                              •    BDC
 (Irish Loop)                 •    NLOWE          Urban-
                              •    SWASP          centred
                              •    ENL            supports
 Labour force support         •    HNL
• Student services (1)        •    Natural Resources
                              •    Province – misc
• Fed’l and prov’l $ for work
                              •    Destination St. John’s
   terms , employment
                              •    City of St. John’s
   progams (2)
                              •    CBDC (3)
• CBDC – pilot HR project (1) •    Local tourism assoc. (2)
                              •    ILDB
                              •    Irish Loop Chamber
                              •    Financial institutions
Labour Market
Labour Market

Business support (18), Employee Support (5), Job matching (4), Direct
employment /wage subsidy (4), Indirect – community development (2),
Policy & planning (1), Job training?
               Irish Loop
           Relationship Maps
                    Local NGOs

Results were calculated from 10 local NGO´s:
       •   4 Public services
       •   3 Service groups/clubs
       •   2 Development organizations
       •   1 Church group
Labour Market

 Indirect – Community Development (17), Policy & planning (4), Job
 training (1), Direct employment/wage subsidy (1), Job matching?
  Note: Many unspecified
                 Some Key Points
• Identification of “players” and links in development
  networks - also who and what links are missing?
• Rural urban linkages in community & econ. development
• Significant business-to-business relationships (50-55%),
  particularly in tourism, retail - referrals
• Regional differences: ACOA IL, vs. INTRD in LS (15-17%)
• NGOs as “indirect” labour market support – role in ALMP?
• NGOs - citizen collaboration + municipal
• Gaps in labour market development (training, planning)
Rural-Urban Linkages …
     are multiple and complex
     •   Functional integration
     •   Trade and commerce
     •   Institutions and governance
     •   Common environments
     •   Common identities
                           (B. Reimer)

• Regional sense of place often differs
  from administrative boundaries and is
• Irish Loop vs. Lab Straits
• T-NWI –Twillingate New World Island
  (5/19), Notre Dame Bay (4), Central
  (3), Kittiwake (0)
 Interdependencies differ
     within provinces
• Rural remote – 1st order urban (policy, some
  financial) vs. 2nd order urban (shopping, services)
• Rural non-adjacent – 2nd/3rd order urban
  (shopping, services, policy and planning, some
  labour flows)

                          And between them …
Rural-urban interactions
    Culture, ideas, sense of region
         Ecosystem services
         Food and natural


  Infrastructure and public services
   Jobs, shopping , tourism, trade
                                       Adapted from K. Lynch (2005)
Next Steps
• Reports on pilot regions and regional
  governance questionnaires
• Assessment strategic plans and labour
  market activities
     • Discussions with pilot regions and other
       stakeholders on future options

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