The Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seaf by pengtt


									The Monterey Bay Aquarium’s
  Seafood Watch Program
  Edward R. Cassano
  Senior Director
  Conservation Outreach

                 November, 2nd, 2009
                 China Seafood Show
What is Seafood Watch?
A program of Monterey Bay Aquarium
empowering consumers and businesses
to make choices for healthy oceans.

•Build awareness (Why should I care?)

•Provide the knowledge (What are the
environmentally preferable choices?)

•Encourage action (What can I do?)
               How It All Started
Exhibit “Fishing for Solutions” (1997-1999)
 • Food service menu changes

 • Husbandry feed changes

 • Members Asked for Consumer Guide
       Seafood Watch - Outreach

The Seafood Watch program works in a variety of
different ways:
  Seafood Watch Pocket Guides
  Major Buyer partnerships
  Monterey Bay Aquarium website
  Mobile applications - iPhone
 Consumer decisions – health
    and the environment
Two-thirds of consumers
have made seafood
purchases motivated by         67%
health concern
Over a third have made                                     31%

seafood purchases driven
                            concerned        concerned     both   neither
by environmental concern       about
                           safety issues      impacts
Seafood Watch Pocket Guides
Mobile applications
 Turning the Tide:
The State of Seafood

   Report can be
   found at……

State of the Worlds Fisheries
        Sustainable Seafood
“From sources, whether fished or farmed, that
  can maintain or increase production without
  jeopardizing the structure and function of
  affected ecosystems”.

  Functioning ecosystem is as important as the
  status of the fish stocks
 Recommendation Categories
Best Choices/Green: Consumers strongly encouraged
to purchase seafood in this category. Fits SFW
definition of “sustainable”.

Good Alternatives/Yellow: Consumers are encouraged
to purchase seafood in this category, as they are better
choices than “Avoid” species. However, some
concerns remain so it does not meet all the qualities of

Avoid/Red: Consumers are encouraged not to
consume these products, and they are considered
unsustainable, at least for now.
 Process of Developing a Seafood
    Watch Recommendation
I      Identify Species to Research and Analyze
II     Talk with Experts/Industry
III    Compile Information, Data, Literature
IV     Run information through Criteria/Methodology
V      Draft detailed Seafood Reports
VI     Internal Review
VII    Scientific Review of Seafood Reports (at least 2)
VIII   Post to Web/Add to Pocket Guide
IX     Monitor and Update
     Seafood Watch Methodology
Transparent and understandable
2 part process
   1) Science - Information (Criteria)
   2) Conservation Ethic - Decision-making (Methodology)
       Weighting factors relative to each other
       “Critical Conservation Concern”: Some concerns
       severe enough to warrant Avoid, regardless of other
       factors (deal breaker)

Goal: accurate, objective, balanced, thoughtful, precautionary
Available at
                           5 Criteria

Capture Fisheries            Aquaculture

  Inherent Vulnerability       Use of Marine Resources
  Stock Status                 Risk of Escapes to Wild Stocks
  Bycatch                      Risk of Disease Transfer to Wild Stocks
  Habitat Effects              Risk of Pollution and Habitat Effects
  Management                   Management
                    Data Sources
Peer-reviewed journal articles

Fishery managers
   NOAA (i.e., NMFS Quarterly Reports)
      Fishery Management Councils
      Regional Science Centers (observer data; stock assessments)
   State fishery managers
   International Management Bodies (e.g., IATTC)
   National fisheries agencies


Industry groups/producers (with independent verification)
                  Seafood Reports
Typically 30-100 pages

Background and context on each on fishery or
farmed species

Market data, including imports/exports

Detailed narrative descriptions of factors and criteria
as basis for recommendation

References for all information sources

Peer reviewed by at least 2 scientific experts

Continuously updated with new information
       What’s not included?
Use of terrestrial/freshwater resources
Energy use/climate impacts
Social and economic concerns
Animal welfare (indirectly)
Food Safety (indirectly)
   Each criteria comprised of several
“Status of Stocks” factors evaluate:
         Government classification status
         Current population abundance relative to BMSY
         Occurrence of overfishing
         Trends in population abundance
         Age, size or sex distribution relative to natural
         Overall degree of uncertainty in status of stock

Factors can be:
   Dependent or independent of the production activity/fishery
   Performance-based or process-based
   Individual or cumulative
Each factor is scored using the ‘traffic light’
    Quantitative thresholds

    Qualitative categories

    Professional Judgment
      Ranking Each Criterion
Based on particular combinations of factor scores

   Depend on the situation at hand and the mechanics of the
   risk involved

   Recognizes interactions between factors

Reflects weighting of various factors relative to each
other, grounded in our conservation ethic
 Example: Capture Fisheries
Habitat and Ecosystem Effects
            Overall Evaluation

Same Decision Rules for Aquaculture
An otherwise Green fishery with 1 substantial issue will not be a “Best Choice”
Major Buyer partners
Is Aquaculture the answer?
            Issues of Concern:
•Use of wild fish for feed
• Spread of disease and parasites to
wild fish
• Use of hormones, antibiotics and
• Pollution (feces, salt water intrusion,
• The impact of escaped fish on wild
populations and ecosystems
• The impacts of farms on sensitive
     Seafood Watch Aquaculture
• Use of marine resources
• Risk of escapes to wild stocks
• Risk of disease and parasite transfer to wild
• Risk of pollution and habitat effects
• Effectiveness of the management regime

       Best Choice        Good alternative        Avoid
 Criterion 1 – Use of Marine Resources

• Feed conversion efficiency
• Use of fishmeal and fish oil
• Conversion efficiency of wild fish to
  farmed fish
• Sustainability of reduction fisheries
• Source of stock
• Use of wild caught brood stock or seed
    Criterion 2 – Risk of Escaped Fish to
                 Wild Stock

•   Evidence that fish regularly escape to the surrounding
•   Status of escaping farmed fish
     • Native or non-native

     • Genetically or ecologically distinct

•   Evidence of establishment in the wild

•   Evidence of negative interactions with wild stocks

•   Stock status of wild populations
     Criterion 3 – Risk of Disease and Parasite
              Transfer to Wild Stocks

•   Risk of disease amplification and retransmission of
    diseases or parasites to wild stocks

•   Risk of introductions or translocations of novel
    disease/parasites to wild stocks

•   Biosafety risks inherent in the operation – e.g. open or
    closed systems

•   Stock status of potentially affected wild stocks
Criterion 4 – Risk of Pollution and Habitat Effects

•   Effluent effects
     • Effluent treatment

     • Evidence of local effects

     • Evidence of regional effects

•   Habitat effects
    • Location – site sensitivity

    • Extent of operations and intensity
        Criterion 5 – Effectiveness of the
              Management Regime

•   Application and effectiveness of federal, state and
    local laws

•   Existence and effectiveness of:

    •   Better Management Practices
    •   Measures to prevent disease and treat outbreaks
    •   Measures for the regulation of chemical use
    •   Policies and incentives utilizing a precautionary
Tilapia Ranking - Regional
Tilapia Ranking - Production
Tilapia Ranking - Production
China Exports by Product Volume (Primary Production)



                                                                               Metric Tons



             Scallops   Tilapia   Shrimp    Yellow   Eels     FW     Catfish
                                           Grouper          Prawns
China Exports by Product Value (Primary Production)



                                                                             USD Millions



           Shrimp   Scallop   Tilapia   Eels   FW Prawn    Yellow Crabmeat
How MBA Rates Chinese Seafood
Imported Farmed and
Wild-Caught Shrimp
Rated “Avoid” by MBA
Bay Scallops rated “Best
Farmed Sea Scallops
from China not rated
     Farmed Freshwater Eel
Worldwide “unagi” rated
“Avoid” by MBA
           Farmed Catfish
Not rated by MBA
  Crabmeat (Swimming Crab)
Not rated by MBA

•   It is challenging for seafood consumers to identify
    seafood products from a well managed sustainable
    farm, or a poorly managed unsustainable one.

•   Certification offers the potential for farm by farm

•   The value of certification depends entirely on the rigor
    of the standard and the inspection audit process

•   We are continually reviewing the development of
    standards and participate in their development.

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