; Growth and Development During Infancy
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Growth and Development During Infancy


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									  Health Promotion and the

Valerie Arsenault
Colleen Cormier
Haven Brown
 Skin of newborn is pink and look healthy.
 Newborn will have fine textured hair.
 80% of newborn may have physiological jaundice
  (yellow skin)
Growth and Development
During Infancy

 One Month
 -Follows and fixes on bright objects with eyes when it
 moves within field of vision.
 -Turns head when prone, but unable to support.
 -Holds hands in fists.
 -Grows 1 inch monthly for 6 months.
 -Cries when hungry or uncomfortable.
 -Makes small, throaty sounds.
Two Months
-Has closed posterior fontanel.
-Listens actively to sounds.
-Lifts head almost 45 degrees off table when prone.
-Follows moving objects with eyes.
-Recognizes family faces.
Piaget’s Five Stages of Infant
 Stage 1: Birth to 1 month
    -Modification of reflexes
 Infant practices and perfects reflexes present at birth.
 Sucking reflex becomes more refined and voluntary.
Eriksons stage of
  Trust vs Mistrust
  Birth to one year
  Develop a healthy personality
Apgar Score

 Permits rapid assessment of the newborn’s transition to
     extrauterine existence based on five signs that
     indicate the physiologic state of the newborn:
 (1) Heart Rate
 (2) Respiratory Rate                  A- Activity
 (3) Muscle Tone                      P- Pulse
 (4) Reflex irritability              G- Grimace
 (5) Color                            A- Appearance
                                      R- Respiration

 36-48 Hr to Discharge:
 A breast feeding and formula feeding mom
   should be feeding successfully 8-10 times/day.
Advantages of Breast Feeding

 The correct balance of all essential nutrients for infants.

 Full of immunological agents to protect against disease.

 Easier to digest than formula.

 Contains anti-inflammatory properties.

 Promotes growth of Lactobacillus bifidus.
   Skin to Skin Contact

 It is helpful to place the infant on the
  mothers abdomen soon after birth.
 It helps with spontaneous breastfeeding
  and allows for bonding.
        Kangaroo Care

 The infant is placed on the mothers bare
  chest and is only wearing a diaper.
 It is used for both full term and preterm
 Benefits……
Normal Sleep Patterns

  2-3 Months
 Low: 10 hours of sleep in 24-Hour period

 Average: 16 ½ hours of sleep in 24-Hour period

 High: 23 hours of sleep in 24-Hour period (2 to 4 naps)
    Bathing a Newborn

 Benefits of bathing
 - complete cleaning of infant.
 - observer infants condition.
 - promote comfort and bonding time
Bathing a newborn...

    Temperatures
    Gather supplies needed
    Bathing
    Cleansing hands and feet
    Cleansing genitals
Umbilical Cord Care

  The umbilical cord stump is an excellent medium for bacterial
   growth and can easily become infected.
  Common methods of care include use of an antimicrobial agent
   such as bacitracin or triple dye. Also, use of soap and water or
   sterile water alone are used.
  Current recommendations for cord care include cleaning the cord
   with sterile water or a neutral pH cleanser.
  The stump and base should be assessed for edema, erythema,
   and drainage with each diaper change.
  The stump deteriorates and average seperation time is 10 to 14
     Bowel Movements

 Meconium

 Transitional Stools

 Milk Stool

  Good reflexes indicate a healthy nervous

  Reflexes are developed for survival

  Newborn exhibits many reflexes.
Palmer Reflex
Babinski Reflex
Stepping Reflex
MORO Reflex
Tonic Neck
Normal development of hearing

 After the amniotic fluid drains from the middle ear several
    days after birth, the infant’s hearing becomes acute.
    Hearing is one of the better-developed senses in the
    infant; the fetus can hear in utero and responds to loud

 The ability to listen and discriminate among sounds is an
   important task during infancy. The closer the infant is to
   the sound, the easier the sound can be discriminated.

  The newborn is responsive to touch on
   all parts of the body. The face (especially
   the mouth), hands, and soles of the feet
   seem to be most sensitive.

  The newborn can distinguish between tastes,
   and various types of solution elicit different
   facial expressions.

  Newborns react to strong odors such as
   alcohol or vinegar by turning their heads away.
   Breastfed infants are able to smell breast milk
   and can differentiate their mother from other
   lactating women by the smell.

 If the infant is born to an infected mother or to a mother
  who is a chronic carrier, hepatitis vaccine and hepatitis
  B immune globulin (HBIG) should be given within 12
  hours of birth.
 For infants born to a hepatitis B-negative woman, the
  first dose of the vaccine may be given at birth or at 1 or
  2 months of age (depending on province of residence).
Motor Vehicle Safety

 A variety of car seats is available; for infants up to 20 lbs, the
    recommended type is rear-facing, molded plastic shell seat, which
    includes a shoulder restraint and employs the adult seat belt.

 -Never leave a child unattended in a parked car.
 -Never hold a child on laps in the front seat.
 -Always use infant car seat that is properly installed.
 -Keep car doors locked.
 -Do not be distracted by an infant while driving.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

 SIDS is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant
   younger than 1 year of age.

 Sleeping positions for the infant.
  -Infant on its back.
  -Infant on its belly when you are around.
  -Avoid soft pillows, mattresses, etc.

 Circumcision is a matter of personal choice. Parents
    usually decide to have their newborn circumcised
    based on one of more of the following factors:
  Hygiene
  Religious conviction
  Tradition
  Culture
  Social norms
Circumcision continued…

  Circumcision involves removing the prepuce (foreskin)
   of the glans. The procedure is usually not done
   immediately after birth because of danger of cold
   stress and decreased clotting factors.
  The circumcision of the Jewish male is performed on
   the eighth day after birth and is done at home in a
  It is recommended that if circumcision is performed,
   analgesia should be used.
Family Assessment Process

 Do the parents and infant have eye to eye contact frequently?

 How much body contact is present?

 Does vocalization by the parents evoke a smile from the infant?

 How much does the infant cry? What is the mother’s reaction? What is the
   father’s reaction?

 How does the mother describe the infant’s feeding and sleeping patterns?

 Does the mother describe the infant’s tasks positively or negatively?
Nursing Interventions

 Improve family interactions and relationships.

 Improve family’s ability to cope with stress from the new addition to their family.

 Praise positive parenting behaviors.

 Provide adequate nutrition to malnourished infant.

 Allow parents to vent their feelings about the infant.

 Refer to appropriate agency for financial, social, or other family needs.
        PHC Principles

 Accessibility

 Intersectoral Collaboration:
 “It takes a whole community to raise a
Determinants of Health




   Appearance of Newborn
   Sleeping, eating, and elimination patterns
   Reflexes
   SIDS
   Car seats
   Bathing Process

 Edelman, C. L. and Mandle C. L. (2002).
  Health promotion throughout the
  lifespan. St. Louis: Mosby
Wong, D. L., Perry, S. E., Hockenbery,
  M.J., Lowdermilk, D. L., & Wilson D.
  (2006). Maternal Child Nursing Care (3rd
  ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

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