Grid Interconnection and Power Quality assessment of Distributed

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					 Grid Interconnection and
Power Quality Assessment
 of Distributed Resources
            Farid Katiraei
           Ph.D. Candidate
   Department of Electrical and Computer
               Engineering
          University of Toronto
                        Wind Power Generation Symposium
                                 Feb. 20, 2004
Outline
      •   DR connection process
      •   Utility impact assessment
      •   Interconnection requirements
      •   Power quality issues
      •   Case studies: A Hybrid system
Decentralized Power System
Standards and Regulations
   • “IEEE Std. 1547, for interconnecting
     Distributed Resources with Electric Power
     System”, IEEE Standards, July 2003
   • CSA Standard CAN3-C235, C325, C107.1
   • “MicroPower Connect Interconnection
     Guideline”, July 2003
   • Ontario Electrical Safety Code (OESC)
   • Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 ( sec. 27.1)
   • Electric Safety Authority (ESA)
DR Connection Process
      • Step 1: Basic planning
             - Data collection and Plan development,
             - Environmental assessment
      • Step 2: Feasibility study
             - Utility impact assessment,
             - Electrical inspection requirements (ESA)
      • Step 3: Implementation
             - Detailed design and review,
             - Basic interfacing equipments,
             - ESA plan approval
      • Step 4: Commissioning & Authorization of
        the connection
      • Step 5: Operation & Maintenance
Utility Impact Assessment
 • Power quality assessment
 • Interconnection requirements
   – line/equipment upgrades
   – Grounding
   – Power flow
 • System protection modification
   – Fault currents, re-coordination
 • Synchronization
Power Quality Issues
    – Voltage regulation        (Load dependent)

    – Voltage fluctuation (not greater than 5%)
    – Flicker            (No objectionable flicker)

    – Voltage Unbalance
    – Harmonic injection         (TDD,THD < 5%)

    – DC injection                   (< 0.5% of In)

    – Reactive power requirements
                    (Preferred pf. : 0.9 lag  0.95 lead)

    – Surge withstand performance
                        ( up to 220% of the rated voltage)
Study system
 • Impact assessments of a Hybrid system:
 DG1: 2 MVA gas-fired diesel generator
 DG2: 2.5 MVA electronically-interfaced
 DG3: 1.5 MW wind turbine
    (Rotor diameter 76m, Wind speed: 5-25 m/s, Hub height: 64m)
 Load demand: Sensitive load, Industrial/Residential load

 • Case I: Wind turbine start up
               » Scenario 1: Grid interconnected system
               » Scenario 2: Stand-alone system
 • Case II: Short circuit analysis
               » Line-Ground fault on the Utility side, Fault clearing
Wind turbine start up
     • Direct connected generators:
       – Speeding up with the wind, connection
         at 85% of synchronous speed
       – Soft starter, limit start up current
       – Second winding (two speed turbines)
     • Electronically interfaced:
       – Synchronization
     • Wind farm:
       – Sequential start up
I-1: Grid Connected System

• Bus
  voltages
- Startup @
  t=2.0 s
 I-1: Grid Connected System

• Power
  variation
- Startup @
  t=2.0 s
I-2: Stand-alone System

• Bus
  voltages
- Startup @
  t=2.0 s
I-2: Stand- alone System

• Power
  variation
- Startup @
  t=2.0 s
  Case II: Fault Analysis

• Voltage
  fluctuation

- Fault @
    t=0.5 s
- Clear @
   t=0.58 s
 Case II: Fault Analysis
• Freq.
  variation

-Fault @
   t=0.5 s
-Clear @
  t=0.58 s
-Reconnect
@ t=1.08s
Conclusion
 • Comprehensive study of the system
   – Steady-state analysis
   – Dynamic Analysis
 • Appling uniform interconnection
   Standards
Thank You

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posted:4/9/2010
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