Family Stress and Crises

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					Family Stress and Crises
Introduction to Family Violence
• Our homes- risk of emotional and physical harm
• Families in trouble
• Responding, adapting, and coping with tragedy
  and disaster
Family Stress and Catastrophes
• Family stress
• An imbalance between demands on family and
  family’s capacity to meet demands
• Demands exceeding resources
• ABCX Family Crisis Model
ABCX Family Crisis Model
• “A” Factors:
 ▫   New Members or additions
 ▫   Family Dismemberment
 ▫   Deliberate Change
 ▫   Demoralization
 ▫   Sudden Change
 ▫   Natural Catastrophes
ABCX Family Crisis Model cont…
• “B” Factors
• Family Crisis-Meeting Resources

• Family Integration-

• Family Adaptability-
The C Factor
• The Family Definition of Crisis Event
• Overestimation and underestimation of the
• Y2K Computer problem
• The 2006 summer storm of North Bay
Family Crisis etc…
•   Ability to cope depends on several factors
•   Changes in family result in other stressors
•   Strongly integrated families
•   Weakly integrated families
•   Social support
Abuse Within the Family
• Family as the primary source for social support
  and comfort
• Is this always the case?
• Why is there abuse within the family?
• Feminist Theory
 ▫ Patriarchy within society
 ▫ Women dominated by men
 ▫ The assertion of patriarchy
Theoretical Perspectives cont…
• Gender socialization
• Social Stratification
  ▫ Domestic violence is more common among lower-
    income families
  ▫ The poor provide an obvious explanation
  ▫ Social class socialization
  ▫ The norms salient in society and their importance
Social Exchange Theory
• Will be violent is benefits outweigh the costs
• No negative sanctions for battering spouse
• Social isolation and privacy allows for much of
  the abuse
• Individuals were abused as a child
Dating and Courtship Violence
• Dating as a fertile ground for dating violence
• New arena to exercise power
• Violent acts as a normal part of the dating
• Dating violence as a predictor
• Date rape
• Gang Rape
Sources of Dating Violence
• Still heavily debated
• Psychological factors and the omission of macro
  sociological factors
• Social construction of masculinity
• Gender stratification
• Childhood exposure to violence
• Sexual abuse any physical abuse
Spousal and Partner Physical Abuse
•   Interpartner violence and the matter of power.
•   Patriarchal ideologies
•   Violence as an ego booster
•   Batterers as pathological or are they?
•   Gottman’s experimental laboratory
•   Three types of violent men
Range of Violent Acts
• A Range of acts:
 ▫   Throwing something at a spouse
 ▫   Pushed, grabbed
 ▫   Slapped
 ▫   Kicked or hit with a fist
 ▫   Hit or tried hitting with something
 ▫   Beat up
 ▫   Choked
 ▫   Threatened with a knife or gun
 ▫   Used knife or gun
Acts of Violence Cont…
• The percent of women compared to the percent
  of men
• Women who abuse forcefully still the exception
• Less force, less muscular, heavy, tall, strong, etc.
• Men are far more lethal
• Rape as part of spousal violence
Factors Related to Spousal Abuse
• Facilitated by our culture of violence and
• Other factors within the broad cultural context
• Alcohol and drugs
• Cohabiting couples
• Very low-income couples
Effects of Abuse on Women
•   Battered woman syndrome
•   ¼ of abused women turn to alcohol and drugs
•   Learned helplessness as a learned behaviour
•   Some learn it in childhood while others in adults
Learned Helplessness
• Why do they stay? Why do they take it?
• There is no simple answer
• May involve more fear of leaving and being on
  their own
• Women may be completely controlled
Cycle of Violence Theory
• 3 distinct phases:
  ▫   1. Tension Building
  ▫   2.Uncontrollable Discharge of Aggression
  ▫   3. Loving Contrition
  ▫   Lots of data to support this theory
The Role of Alcohol
• Relationship between alcohol and abuse is well
• Chronic alcohol use causes pharmacological
• Batterers drank greater amounts and more often
• Alcohol as a disinhibitor
Alcohol use among women
• Women use alcohol in abusive relationships
• Usually after the abusive occurrence
• Alcohol serves as an excuse
Husband Abuse
• Husbands are sometimes the victims of abuse
• Wife-to-husband assault is more prevalent and
• Psychological abuse is also more prevalent
• May be in defence or regaining of power
Spousal Murder
• Spousal murder is the most common type of
  murder in Canada.
Francine Hughes
• On March 9, 1977, in Danville Michigan, Francine Hughes, aged 30,
  poured gasoline around the bed in which her husband slept and set
  it on fire. Then she went to the office of the County Sheriff with her
  three children and turned herself in. she was charged with first-
  degree murder. But during the trial the hury heard about her 12
  years of brutalization by her husband. One the day when she finally
  killed him, he had repeatedly beaten Francine, terrorized the
  children, forced her to clean up good and garbage he deliberately
  dumped out, smeared food on her face and hair, torn up her college
  course books, threatened to wreck her car to stop her from attending
  classes, and finally raped her before falling asleep, half drunk. The
  jury heard of her repeated, unsuccessful attempted to get help from
  welfare agencies and the police- and decided that she was not guilty
Domestic Violence Amongst
• There was a belief that these unions are less
  violent- not the case!
• Estimated between 22 and 46 percent of all
• Similar reasons as heterosexual unions
• Stay in the relationships for the same reasons
Child Neglect and Abuse
• Children are potentially most at risk
• Child neglect involves a broad range of parental
• Interaction is generally withdrawn and
• Likely to be extremely poor, single-parents,
  young parents, and female.
Child Neglect
• Alcohol does play a factor in this case
• Children suffer psychologically, socially and
• Physical and verbal abuse the most common
• Verbal abuse can leave a child scarred for life.
Physical and Verbal Abuse
•   Definition of physical abuse
•   Severe physical abuse leaves lasting trauma
•   Those who have witness abuse
•   Often leads children to become abusive parents
Sexual Abuse
• Different forms of sexual abuse: incest, rape,
  touching, fondling
• Distinction between contact and noncontact
  forms of sexual abuse
• Researchers agree on three things:
Short-Term Effects of Abuse
• All have devastating effects on a child
• Short-term effects occur within the first 2 years
  after abuse occurs
• Includes fear, anger, hostility
• Has varying effects on victims and they develop
  coping mechanisms
Four Destructive Coping
• 1. Traumatic Sexualization- children are
  rewarded with affection for sexual behaviour
• 2. Betrayal- experience betrayal of a loved one
• 3. Powerlessness- Disempowerment
• 4. Stigmatization- incorporated into child’s self-
Short-Term effects cont…
• More symptoms of distorted development
• Significant self-blame and externalizing
• Females more than males
Long-Term Effects
• Psychosocial adjustment
• Impairment in functioning, depression, anxiety,
  psychiatric disorders
• Lower levels of tolerance
• Difficulty in forming interpersonal relationships
• Internalization of problems