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Emergency Action

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					Emergency
  Action
DR ABC

• It has been designed to keep the
  person breathing until an ambulance
  arrives.
• Without oxygen, the brain is
  damaged within just 3 or 4 minutes
  and dead within 10.
D = Danger
• Check the area for danger such as
  electricity.
• If you find danger, do not put
  yourself at risk or else you could also
  become a casualty. Your safety
  comes first! Shout or phone for help.
• If there is no danger clear the area
  around the casualty. This could be as
  simple as stopping the game.
R = Response
• Shake the casualty by the shoulders and
    shout „Can you hear me?‟
•   If there is a response they are conscious
    and this can tell you how weak they are.
•   You can also find out where they are in
    pain (bleeding, broken bones) and stop it
    from getting worse and phone an
    ambulance.
•   If there is no response the casualty is
    unconscious. This is very serious. Move
    on to resuscitation (A, B and C).
A = Airway
• When a person in unconscious their
    tongue can block the airway and
    preventing this is very important.
•   Loosen any tight clothing.
•   Raise the chin and tilt the head back to
    open up the airway fully.
•   Remove any obvious obstruction such as a
    gum shield.
•   Use a tissue round your fingers to scrape
    away vomit.
B = Breathing
• Is the casualty breathing?
• Look for the chest rising and falling and
    listen for breathing sounds.
•   You can also moisten your cheek and put it
    near their mouth to feel any breath.
•   If they are breathing stop any severe
    bleeding and support any broken bones.
•   You can also place them in the recovery
    position while you get help.
•   But if the casualty shows no signs of
    breathing, move on to C.
C = Circulation
• Feel for the carotid pulse, below the
  ear, at either side of the „Adams
  Apple‟.
• A pulse shows the heart is beating
  and blood is circulating, so you need
  to give mouth to mouth (kiss of life)
  to restore breathing.
• If there is no pulse you need to give
  both cardiac massage and mouth-to-
  mouth ventilation, to restore
Calling for Help

• Dial 999 and the operator will ask
  you “Which service do you require?,
  What your phone number is?”, in
  case you get cut off.
• Do not hang up!!!
• When you finally get through, be
  ready to explain exactly where the
  casualty is and the nature of the
  injury/ies.
Mouth-to-mouth Ventilation
• Make sure the casualty‟s mouth is
  fully open.
• Pinch the casualty‟s nostrils closed
  with your thumb and first finger.
• Take a deep breath and seal your
  lips firmly around the casualty‟s
  open mouth.
• Breathe out smoothly and firmly
  until you see the casualty‟s chest
  rise.

				
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