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Mid-Term Review of the Brussels

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					                                                                         FOR PARTICIPANTS ONLY

                                                                                         14 March 2006

                                                                                      ENGLISH ONLY


ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Regional Review of the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed
Countries for the Decade 2001-2010

14-15 March 2006
Bangkok



DRAFT REPORT

MID-TERM REVIEW OF THE BRUSSELS PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR ASIA AND THE
PACIFIC LDCs

(KIRIBATI, MALDIVES, SOLOMON ISLANDS, TIMOR-LESTE, TIVALU AND VANUATU)




_____________

    This Paper has been reproduced as submitted. A limited number of copies have been issued for
use only by participants

    This paper was prepared by Mr. Epa Tuioti, Co-Managing Director, KVA Consult and former
financial Secretary, Apia, Samoa. The views expressed in the paper are those of the author and do
not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of
any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any
countries, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers
or boundaries.
DRAFT REPORT




Mid-Term Review of the Brussels
Programme of Action for Asia and
the Pacific LDCs


(Kiribati, Maldives, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste,
Tuvalu and Vanuatu)


March 2006
                                                                                Table of Contents
1    Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................... 1
2    Progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals through Commitments made in the
Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2001 – 2010 Goals .......................................... 3
  2.1 Summary of the Economic and Social Developments during the period 2001 – 2005 ......................................... 3
  2.2 Progress of 7 LDCs towards achievement of their MDGs during the period 2001 – 2005 .................................. 8
3    Implementation of Regional Support Measures ...................................................................................................... 23
  3.1 Official Development Assistance and Debt Relief ............................................................................................. 23
  3.2 Investment .......................................................................................................................................................... 30
  3.3 Trade .................................................................................................................................................................. 33
  3.4 Migration ............................................................................................................................................................ 35
  3.5 Environment ....................................................................................................................................................... 36
  3.6 Conflict Prevention............................................................................................................................................. 38
  3.7 Technology Transfer .......................................................................................................................................... 39
4    Recommendations ................................................................................................................................................... 42
  4.1 Official development Assistance and Debt Relief .............................................................................................. 42
  4.2 Trade and Investment ......................................................................................................................................... 43
  4.3 Migration ............................................................................................................................................................ 43
  4.4 Environment ....................................................................................................................................................... 43
  4.5 Security............................................................................................................................................................... 44
  4.6 Technology Transfer .......................................................................................................................................... 44
  4.7 Mainstreaming “Millennium Development Goals” into National development Plans........................................ 44



                                                                                    List of Tables



Table 1: Gross Domestic Product, Population, Inflation and Sector Growths, 2001-2004................................................. 4
Table 2: Structural Change in GDP in the Selected LDCs, 1990, 2000 and 2004 .............................................................. 5
Table 3: Inflation Rates 1993, 1995, 2000-2004 for the selected LDCs............................................................................. 5
Table 4: Budget Balance, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2004 ....................................................................................................... 6
Table 5: Human Development Index 2003 ......................................................................................................................... 7
Table 6: Level of Achievements of MDGs ......................................................................................................................... 8
Table 7: Gender Disparities at all levels of education for selected LDCs ........................................................................ 12
Table 8: Infant Mortality Rates for Selected LDCs .......................................................................................................... 13
Table 9: Under-Five Mortality Rates for Selected LDCs ................................................................................................. 14
Table 10: Net Official Development Assistance Receipts for 7 Selected LDCs 2000-2004 ............................................ 23
Table 11: ODA for the 7 Selected LDCs, 2003 ................................................................................................................ 24
Table 12: External Debt (in USD) and Debt Service 1995, 1999-2003 ........................................................................... 30
Table 13: Net Private Flows in the selected least developed countries, 1993-2004 ......................................................... 31
Table 14: Trade Balances for LDCs, 1990, 2003 and 2004 ............................................................................................. 33
Table 15: Use of Information and Communication Technologies in the Selected LDCs ................................................. 41
Table 16: Gross Domestic Product Growth Rates and Sector Growth Rates, 2000-2004 ................................................ 45
Table 17: Inflation Rates 2000-2005 ................................................................................................................................ 46
Table 18: Population Growth Rates .................................................................................................................................. 47
Table 19: Gross domestic savings, gross domestic investment, and resource gaps in selected least developed countries,
    1990, 2000 and 2004 ................................................................................................................................................ 48
Table 20: Millennium Development Goal 1 ..................................................................................................................... 49
Table 21: Millennium Development Goal 2 ..................................................................................................................... 50
Table 22: Millennium Development Goal 3 ..................................................................................................................... 51
Table 23: Millennium Development Goal 4 ..................................................................................................................... 52
Table 24: Millennium Development Goal 5 ..................................................................................................................... 53
Table 25: Millennium Development Goal 6 ..................................................................................................................... 54
Table 26: Millennium Development Goal 7 ..................................................................................................................... 55
Table 27: Millennium Development Goal 8 ..................................................................................................................... 56
Table 28: Official Development Assistance from All Sources to the Selected Countries, 1993-2003 ............................. 57
Table 29: Foreign Direct Investment 1993-2003 .............................................................................................................. 58
Table 30: Direction of Exports, 1990 and 2004 ............................................................................................................... 59
Table 31: Direction of Imports, 1990 and 2004 ............................................................................................................... 60
Table 32: Trade Balances, 1990, 2003 and 2004 ............................................................................................................. 61
Table 33: Environmental Statistics ................................................................................................................................... 62
                                                                      Draft Report
                                                                      March 2006



1   Introduction

    The Brussels Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries is based

    on the seven commitments made by the LDCs and their development

    partners of fostering a people-centred policy framework, good governance at

    national and international levels, building human and institutional capacities,

    building productive capacities to make globalisation work for LDCs,

    enhancing the role of trade in development, reducing vulnerability and

    protecting the environment and mobilising financial resources.



    This report is a sub-regional review of

    (i)    The progress made by Kiribati, Maldives, Samoa, Solomon Islands,

           Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vanuatu towards achievement of the

           Millennium Development Goals through the commitments made in

           the Brussels Programme of Action – and identify the constraints

           which affect their progress towards sustainable development;



    (ii)   Implementation of the regional support measures in the areas of

           (a)     ODA and debt relief

           (b)     Investment

           (c)     Trade

           (d)     Migration

           (e)     Environment

           (f)     Security, and

           (g)     Technology Transfer; and



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(iii)   How coherent national, regional and international measures could

        enable    these   countries   to    attain   the   internationally   agreed

        development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals.



This review focuses on the performance of the seven LDCs from 2001 to 2005.

All are by global standards, small, remote and vulnerable to natural disasters.

These LDCs are widely dispersed over large geographic areas and differ

significantly    in   size,   population,    endowments,       opportunities    and

development constraints.




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2     Progress towards achievement of the Millennium
      Development Goals through Commitments made in the
      Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries
      for the Decade 2001 – 2010 Goals

2.1   Summary of the Economic and Social Developments during the
      period 2001 – 2005
      The economic performance of the selected LDCs in the first half of 2000’s

      varied considerably from country to country. Maldives achieved an average

      annual GDP growth rate during the period 2001 – 2004 of approximately 7

      percent. Samoa, Timor Leste and Tuvalu attained average growth rates of

      between 3 and 4 percent, Kiribati 2.2 percent while the Solomon Islands and

      Vanuatu showed negative growth.



      Maldives’ strong growth performance has been fuelled by good performances

      by its tourism and fisheries sectors. The vulnerability of the small island

      economies to natural disasters was demonstrated by the 2005 tsunami disaster

      which resulted in damages to the country’s two key sectors and would

      adversely impact on GDP growth for the next couple of years.



      GDP growth in Kiribati and Tuvalu are driven mainly by public sector

      spending, external assistance, fishing licence fees, trust fund revenues and

      remittances.



      Civil unrest in the Solomon Islands over the 1999 – 2002 period was mainly

      responsible for the considerable decline in economic growth in that period.

      The restoration of law and order in 2003 has seen real GDP growth rebound




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        to about 5.5 percent with contributions from growth in primary production,

        rising export levels and robust construction activity.                 Vanuatu has

        experienced political instability in recent years. The economy picked up again

        in 2003 – 2004 after two years of negative growth supported by an improved

        export performance and higher tourist arrivals.



Table 1: Gross Domestic Product, Population, Inflation and Sector Growths, 2001-2004

                   Population     Population                        GDP per
                 (thousands) in Growth 2000-      GDP Growth        Capita 2003
LDCs                  2004        2004            2001-2004         in USD$
Maldives                    289.5            1.6%              6.8%      2,441.00
Kiribati                     89.7            1.5%              2.2%       …
Samoa                       180.9            1.5%              3.8%      1,505.00
Solomon Islands             521.0            3.2%             -0.1%        553.00
Timor-Leste                 925.0            6.4%              3.8%        389.00
Tuvalu                       11.2            1.7%              3.0%       …
Vanuatu                     213.3            2.7%             -1.6%      1,348.00
Sources:        Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 and UNDP
                Human Development Report 2005
        In terms of structural changes, the services sector mainly tourism in the

        Maldives, Samoa and Vanuatu and public services in the rest of the group

        dominates. The declining share of agriculture as a percentage of GDP is a

        result of deficient investment in the sector, inadequate and inefficient input

        support and output marketing, depressed world market prices for export

        commodities as well as declining revenues from fishing licence fees.

        Agriculture however remains important to all the selected LDCs as a major

        source of employment and for providing food security.                 Fisheries are

        important for all the seven countries but particularly for Kiribati and Tuvalu.




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Table 2: Structural Change in GDP in the Selected LDCs, 1990, 2000 and 2004
Shares of Major Sectors in GDP a
                  (percent)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
                                          Agriculture                                               Industry                                            Services
                                                                                     All                        Manufacturing only
   LDCs                         1990 b          2000      2004 c      1990 b         2000      2004 c       1990 b     2000       2004 c     1990   b
                                                                                                                                                           2000      2004   c


   Maldives e                       4.2           2.8         2.8          …             …         …           9.2       8.0          …          …            …          …
   Kiribati d                      18.6           6.9         9.7         7.6          9.5       12.4          1.2       0.8         0.9       73.8         83.6       77.9
   Samoa                           23.0          16.8        13.8        28.9         26.0       27.4         19.6      14.8        14.8       48.7         58.5       60.3
   Solomon Islands d               45.5            ...          ...       7.9            ...        ...        3.7        …           …        46.6           ...        ...
   Timor-Leste                     29.8          25.9 *      30.5 *      25.5         18.8 *     21.7 *        2.9       2.7 *       3.2 *     44.8         55.3 *     47.9 *
   Tuvalu d                        25.6          18.0        16.6        14.5         13.6       13.9          3.1       3.3         3.7       59.9         72.5       73.4
   Vanuatu                         20.7          15.6        15.0        12.3          8.8        8.2          5.5       4.4         3.6       67.0         75.7       76.8
a Unless otherwise indicated, GDP data are at current market prices.
b For year heading 1990, data
c for Samoa refer to 1994; data for Tuvalu refer to 2002; data for Timor-Leste, Maldives and Vanuatu refer to 2003.
        For year heading 2004,
d Data are based on GDP at current factor cost.
e National data
Sources: Country sources.


               On the inflation front, the selected LDCs managed to maintain their inflation

               rates within reasonable levels except for the Solomon Islands which had high

               rates of between 7 and 10 percent.



Table 3: Inflation Rates 1993, 1995, 2000-2004 for the selected LDCs
                                            a
Inflation Rate
                                (percent)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
   LDCs                   1993       1995       2000    2001       2002                                                                      2003                  2004
   Maldives                   20.2        5.5      -1.2     0.7         0.9                                                                     -2.9                   6.4
   Kiribati b, e               5.8        4.1       0.9     7.0         1.6                                                                      2.6                  -1.9
   Samoa                       1.7       -2.9       0.9     3.8         8.1                                                                      0.1                 3.0 *
   Solomon Islands b           9.2        9.6       7.1     7.7         9.3                                                                    10.0                    7.1
   Timor-Leste                  …          …         …      3.6         4.8                                                                      7.0                   3.0
   Tuvalu b                    2.3        5.6       3.9     1.4         5.0                                                                      3.3                   2.8
               b
   Vanuatu                     4.2        1.8       2.5     3.4         2.2                                                                      3.1                   1.6
    Unless otherwise indicated, data refer to the rate of change of annual average consumer prices
a                                             for the country.
b Data refer to capital city.
c Data refer to urban areas/selected cities only.
d Data refer to the rate of change of period averages for the fiscal year.
e Data refer to the rate of change of retail price index.
Sources:
   Country sources.




               The Pacific LDCs have had difficulties with public expenditure management

               often resulting in a mismatch between strategic priorities and resource

               allocation.




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          Concentrated effort by most of the seven LDCs as evidenced in Table 4

          resulted in a reduction to their high budget deficits of the late 1990s.

          However, there is still concern about the risk of having future unsustainable

          deficits because of the high cost of large public sectors and ongoing funding

          support for state owned enterprises.



          Private sector development has been disappointing in the Pacific LDCs due to

          the dominant role of Governments in the economies, the cost disadvantages

          due to remoteness, small markets, and limited economies of scale, lack of

          effective secured transactions frameworks and lack of access to secured land

          titles.



Table 4: Budget Balance, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2004

Government Finance Indicators a
      (percent of GDP)
                                          Total Revenue      Total Expenditure                             Fiscal Balance b
           LDCs                  1990       1995    2000    2004      1990    1995     2000    2004    1990 1995 2000 2004
Maldives                            …        25.8    30.0     34.4       …     36.6     37.3    39.0      … -6.4 -4.4       -1.8
Kiribati                          94.9     107.3 107.4         ...   139.9 112.6      112.0      ...    26.2 16.2 18.7       ...
Samoa d                           48.5       29.3    25.5     23.7     70.0    39.6     31.1    27.9    -3.7 -7.0 -0.7      -0.9
Solomon Islands                   23.9       27.7    21.6     29.9     31.8    32.3     31.6    35.7    -4.7 -4.6 -0.6        6.0
Timor-Leste d                       …          …      7.0     18.1       …       …      13.2    22.6      …      …     1.9    6.3
Tuvalu                              ...    146.7 243.2      151.6        ... 150.5    210.2     97.2      ... -92.9 -2.2    33.7
Vanuatu                           27.7       24.2    20.9     19.8     37.6    29.3     29.0    22.7    -8.2 -2.7 -7.0      -1.8

Source: Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
a                           Unless otherwise indicated, reference period is calendar year.
b                           Includes grants and net lending whenever available.
d                           Reference period is fiscal year for all years.




          In terms of social indicators in the Pacific LDCs, there has been improvement

          due to past investments in basic health and nutrition and in education plus

          the strong traditional community based cultural practices that have provided

          an effective social safety net.




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           The ranking of the seven selected LDCs according to the Human

           Development Index in the Human Development Report 2005 is presented in

           Table 5. Most of the Pacific LDCs still struggle with poor social and poverty

           indicators. High population increases have restricted per capita growth in

           GDP in the Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu. Related to these high

           population increases are the important issues associated with high youth

           demographics, unemployment and poverty.



           The countries that are struggling to maintain real per capita income levels

           above population growth rates are more likely to experience major social

           problems including increasing levels of poverty. There is not much available

           data on poverty for the selected LDCs.        However recent participatory

           assessments of poverty conducted by the ADB in some of its Pacific

           developing member countries have revealed that poverty is now a growing

           issue.



Table 5: Human Development Index 2003
Country                          Rank                          Score
Samoa                            74                            0.776
Maldives                         96                            0.745
Vanuatu                          118                           0.659
Solomon Islands                  128                           0.594
Timor-Leste                      140                           0.513
Kiribati                         …                             …
Tuvalu                           …                             …

Source: UNDP Human Development Report, 2005


           Conflict, insecurity and political instability have impacted on the economic

           and social performance of the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.




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2.2        Progress of 7 LDCs towards achievement of their MDGs during
           the period 2001 – 2005
           There is a marked variation in the achievements of MDGs across developing

           countries and LDCs in Asia and the Pacific. This is a reflection of the different

           capacities, priorities, and level of commitment accorded by individual

           countries to addressing MDGs. In some countries, ethnic conflicts have

           hindered their development. The level of performance of the 7 LDCs in the

           achievement of MDGs as shown in country assessment report, the Human

           Development Report 2005 and other sources including from ADB and the

           World Bank are categorised as follows:



           1 = Has already met the target;
           2 = Expected to hit the target by 2015;
           3 = Expected to hit the target, but after 2015;
           4 = Slipping backwards, or stagnating;


Table 6: Level of Achievements of MDGs
Goals                              1                                                      2                                                        3                                      4                        5                                   6                                   7                           8
                                                                                                             Primary Completion
                                                                      Primary Enrolment




                                                                                                                                                   Gender Secondary




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Maternal Mortality
                                                                                          Reaching Grade 5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sanitation, urban
                                                                                                                                                                      Under 5 Mortality
                                  Poverty Nat Line
                                                     Malnourishment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sanitation, rural
                                                                                                                                  Gender Primary


                                                                                                                                                   Gender Tertiary




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ODP CFC cons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CO2 Emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HIV prevalence
                                                                                                                                                                                              Infant Mortality




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Protected Area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       TB prevalence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       TB death rate




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Water, urban
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Forest cover




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Water, rural
                     Poverty $1




Indicators
Maldives            … … …                                                     1 … …                                                     1              1 …                    3                      3                   1 …                                 1               1         2 … 4 1 1             4                     1 …
Kiribati            … … … … … … …                                                                                                                  … …                        3                      3 … …                                                   1               1         2 1 4 1 3             2                     2                   3
Samoa               … … …                                                     2                  2                   4                  1              1 4                    1                      1                   4 …                                 1               1 …          1 1 1 4            4                     1                   1
Solomon Islands     … … … … … … …                                                                                                                  … …                        1                      1                   4 …                                 1               1         4 1 1 1 … …                                 1 …
Timor Leste         … … … … … … …                                                                                                                  … …                        3                      3                   3 …                                 1               1         4 … … … … … … …
Tuvalu              … … … … … … …                                                                                                                  … …                        3                      2 … …                                                   1               1 …          1 … 2 2            2                     1                   2
Vanuatu             … … …           2 …     2    1 1 … 1         1 4 …         1 4 1 1 … … 4 4 … …
                    A future within reach, Reshaping institutions in a region of disparities to meet the MDGs in
Source                                Asia and the Pacific, ADB, UNDP and UNESCAP, 2005


Key
Early achiever           1
On track                 2
Slow                     3
Regressing               4




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       The performance of each LDC in progressing to achieve the 30 targets under

       the 7 commitments in the Brussel’s Programme of Action during the period

       2001 - 2005 based on the latest data available is provided in the annexes.



Commitment 1: Fostering a people centred policy framework

Goal 1: Attain a GDP growth rate of at least 7% per annum (see

Table 15)

Maldives has consistently attained high growth rates in the period under

review, registering 4.8% in 2000, 3.5% in 2001, 6.5% in 2002, 8.4% in 2003 and

7.8% at the end of 2004. Kiribati achieved growth rates of 3.5% in 2003 and

2004 after negative growth in 2000 and 2002. Samoa achieved positive growth

rates of 6-7% in 2000 and 2001 reducing to 3.7% in 2004 and an average annual

growth rate of above 4% for the period under review.


The economy of the Solomon Islands suffered considerable decline over the

period 1999 – 2002 as a result of civil unrest but rebounded to attain a 5.5%

GDP growth rate in both 2003 and 2004 following the restoration of law and

order in 2003. Tuvalu maintained positive but relatively weak growth rates

during the period 2001-2004.


Timor Leste is still in the process of restructuring following turmoil in 1999

but is expected to benefit from the commercial development of its huge oil

and gas resources in the years ahead. Vanuatu has experienced considerable

political instability in recent years and averaged a negative 1.6% growth over

the period 2001-2004.



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Goal 2: Increase the ratio of investment to GDP to 25% per annum (see Table 18)

Maldives has achieved this goal having consistently reported the ratio of

investment to GDP above the 25% per annum for the past 10 years. The

reported ratio for 2004 is 39%. The ratio of investment to GDP for Timor

Leste declined from 32.9% in 2000 to 24.0% in 2004. While the data available

for Vanuatu showed a ratio of 34.9% of investment to GDP in 1990, this ratio

has since declined to about 20% in 2004.            Samoa and Solomon Islands

recorded investment to GDP ratios of 31.5% and 20.1% respectively in 1990,

but since then provided no further statistics. Kiribati and Tuvalu did not

report on this indicator.


Goal 3: Halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2005

There are no data available for this goal; however, according to information

provided through country assessment reports Maldives has already achieved

the target since the proportion of people with income less than USD$1 dollar a

day in 1997 of 3% was reduced to 1% in 2004. Samoa reported that the

number of households living on less than US$1 dropped from 48% in 1997 to

20% in 2002. Tuvalu and Kiribati reported approximately 20% and 38% of

households living on less than US$1 a day in 1994 and 1996 respectively.


Goal 4: Make substantial progress towards halving the proportion of people from

hunger by 2015 (see Table 19)

Little or no data is available to track progress on this goal. However, the

country reports submitted for this review revealed that the proportion of




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children under 5 years with prevalence of underweight in Maldives fell from

45% in 1997 to 30% and 27% in 2001 and 2004 respectively. Samoa reported

proportions of children under 5 years with prevalence of underweight of 2%

in 1997 compared to 6% in 1990. Timor Leste showed that 4.3% of children

under 5 years were suffering from malnutrition.


Commitment 2: Good Governance at National and International Levels

N/A


Commitment 3: Building Human and Institutional Capacity

Goal 5: Make accessible reproductive health to all as soon as possible and no later than

2015

Goal 6: Make available …safe, effective, affordable and acceptable family planning and

contraceptive methods (see Table 25)

Available statistics as presented in Table: MDG 6 reveal that Maldives had a

42% level of condom use to overall contraceptive use for the proportion of

married women 15-49 years in 1999. Tuvalu, Samoa, Vanuatu and Kiribati

reported rates of between 28 and 30% while the Solomon Islands and Timor

Leste reported low rates of 7% and 6% respectively.


Goal 7: Ensuring that by 2015 all children have access to free compulsory primary

education of good quality

Goal 8: Achieve 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy and equitable access to

basic education and continuing education for all adults

Goal 9: Eliminate gender disparities at all levels of education by 2005



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Samoa reported that their primary education is compulsory but no free.

Tuvalu reported that they have met this target in 1993 by registering 96%,

however, they are cautious as the fact that children might enrol but not

attend. Maldives registered 100% of children enrolling and completing grade

1 to grade 5 since 2002 to 2004.


In terms of eliminating gender disparities at all levels of education by 2005,

available statistics on this goal suggest that gender parity exist in all these

LDCs. Data on the tertiary level is only available for Samoa.



Table 7: Gender Disparities at all levels of education for selected LDCs
                 Girls to boys ratio Primary Girls to boys ratio Secondary    Girls to boys ratio Tertiary
                      Level Enrolment               Level Enrolment                Level Enrolment

                 Ealiest Value Latest Value Ealiest Value Latest Value      Ealiest Value Latest Value
LDCs             1990..1995 1996..2004        1990..1995 1996..2004         1990..1995     1996..2004
Maldives                  0.97           0.99          1.02            1.07       …               …
Kiribati               …                 1.02       …            …                …               …
Samoa                     1.09           0.98          1.22            1.11           1.00            0.90
Solomon Islands           0.86       …                 0.63      …                …               …
Timor Leste            …             …              …            …                …               …
Tuvalu                 …                 0.96       …                  0.88       …               …
Vanuatu                   0.98           0.99          0.79            1.03       …               …
Source : UNDP, A Future Within Reach
Country sources.


Goal 10: Reduce infant mortality below 35 per 1000 births by 2015

Maldives had reported in its national assessment report that they have

reduced infant mortality from 48 per 100 live births in 1990 to 22 per 1000 live

births in 2004. Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu have also met the target

with Tuvalu on the border line with 37 cases per 1,000 live births. Timor Leste

reported a rate that is more than double the minimum target. These results

are presented in Table 8.




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Table 8: Infant Mortality Rates for Selected LDCs
                             Reduce Child Mortality
    Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
                                                Infant Mortality Rate
                                               (per 1,000 live births)
                                                    Ealiest Value         Latest Value
LDCs                                                 1990..1995            1996..2004
Maldives                                                             80                  55
Kiribati                                                             65                  49
Samoa                                                                33                  19
Solomon Islands                                                      29                  19
Timor Leste                                                         110                  87
Tuvalu                                                               40                  37
Vanuatu                                                              52                  31
Source : UNDP, A Future Within Reach
Country sources.




Goal 11: Reduce under 5 mortality below 45 per 1000 births by 2015

In terms of under five mortality target, only Samoa, Solomon Islands and

Vanuatu had met the target with Tuvalu again on the border line with 51

cases of 1000 live births. All the other LDCs were all above this threshold

especially Timor Leste with more than double the minimum infant mortality

target. These results are presented in Table 9. Maldives also reported that they

had reduced this target from 34 in 1990 to 15 per 1000 live births in 2004.




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Table 9: Under-Five Mortality Rates for Selected LDCs

                           Reduce Child Mortality
    Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
                                                    Under-Five Mortality Rate
                                                     (per 1,000 live births)
                                                Ealiest Value         Latest Value
LDCs                                              1990..1995          1996..2004
Maldives                                                        115                  72
Kiribati                                                         88                  66
Samoa                                                            42                  24
Solomon Islands                                                  36                  22
Timor Leste                                                     160                124
Tuvalu                                                           56                 51
Vanuatu                                                          70                 38
Source : UNDP, A Future Within Reach
Country sources.




Goal 12: Reducing maternal mortality by 75% of current rate by 2015 (see Table 24)

Based on available data, Vanuatu and Timor Leste are the only countries that

have reduced their maternal mortality ratio from 280 and 850 in 1990 to 130

and 660 per 100,000 live births in 2000. Kiribati, Samoa and Solomon Islands

all registered increases from 10 to 56, 35 to 130 and 60 to 130 maternal

mortality per 100,000 live births respectively. Maldives registered 115

maternal mortalities in 1990, however, through its report revealed that

Maldives had met this target ahead of time given a drop from 500 cases per

100,000 in 1991 to 73 cases per 100,000 in 2004. For reference, this target is

presented in Appendix MDG 5.


Goal 14: Reduce by half the proportion of people who are unable to reach safe drinking

water by 2015(see Table 26)

The proportion of the population who were able to access safe drinking water

increased for all LDCs. The Maldives, Samoa and Vanuatu had very high




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proportions relating to access to safe drinking water but now are experiencing

some decline for both urban and rural areas. Timor Leste reported that the

proportion of people with access to safe drinking water has increased from

47% to 73% in urban areas and from 11% to 51% in rural areas. The details for

this target are presented in Appendix MDG 7.


Goal 15: Reduce HIV infection rates by 2005

Despite the lack of data for this target, it had been consistently reported that

there had been high rates of awareness in terms of the catastrophic impact of

HIV/AIDS on people.


Goal 16: Increase the number of women receiving maternal and prenatal care by 60%

(see Table 24)

The proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel in these LDCs

improved from 1990 to 2000 or later as latest figures suggested. Maldives

registered 55% in 1990 and improved to 70% in 2001. There was further

improvement reported by Maldives with 86% in 2004. Kiribati, Samoa, Tuvalu

and Vanuatu improved from 60%, 76%, 95% and 79% in 1990 to 85%, 100%,

99% and 88% in 2000 respectively. Latest figure for 2002 showed that Tuvalu

has reached 100%. Timor Leste has improved but not by much as its

proportion attended by skilled health personnel increased from 16% in 1990

to 24% in 2000.


Goal 18: Substantially reduce infection rates from malaria and TB (see Table 25)




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This goal has been achieved in Maldives. Malaria has been eradicated since

1984. The number of TB cases under treatment declined from more than 600 in

1991 to only 82 cases in 2003. The death rate associated with TB declined from

34 cases in 1990 to only 11 in 2003.


The prevalence of the malaria disease in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu

revealed both had some of the highest rates per 100,000 people; however, the

associated deaths had been very low. On the TB disease, the prevalence of TB

per 100,000 people and deaths associated with TB all significantly reduced

hence the achievement of the target ahead of time. The proportion of TB cases

under DOTS also showed improvement in the number of cases detected and

also cured when compared to 1990. Details for these indicators are presented

in MDG 6 Appendix.


Goal 19: Promoting child health and survival

Goal 20: Improving the health and nutritional status of infants and children

Goal 21: Promoting breastfeeding in universal in all the seven selected LDCs as a

child survival strategy

N/A


Commitment 4: Building Productive Capacities to Make Globalisation

Work for LDCs

Goal 22: Increase road networks or connections in LDCs to the current level of other

LDCs and urban road capacities, including sewerage and other related facilities by

2010



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Goal 23: Modernise and expand ports and airports and ancillary facilities to enhance

their capacities by 2010

Maldives reported that 31% of the budget was allocated to the development

of communication and transport infrastructure in 2004 but was reduced to

16% in 2005. Samoa reported substantial investments into the development of

roads and bridges, seaport, airport, and water and telecommunications

facilities, but no indication of the magnitude of figures or the additional road

extensions or sanitation facilities were given. Kiribati reported water and

sanitation development but also no figures or extensions made were given.


 Goal    25:    Increase   communications      networks    including     postal   and

telecommunications and improving postal services and improving access of the poor

to such services in urban and rural areas

N/A


Goal 26: Increase computer literacy among students by 50% by 2015

Goal 27: Increase average telephone density to 5 main lines per 100 inhabitants and

internet connections to 10 users per 100 inhabitants by the year 2010(see Table 27)

In terms of telephone subscribers, use of personal computers and internet

users, all LDCs showed increasing trends, hence an indication of improved

networking and communication facilities. While the Solomon Islands reported

only 1.62 telephone lines per 100 people, the other LDCs that provided

statistics registered ratios of 5 or higher per 100 population.




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Commitment 5: Enhancing the role of Trade in Development

N/A


Commitment 6: Reducing Vulnerability and Protecting the Environment

N/A


Commitment 7: Mobilizing financial resources

N/A


2.3   Relationship between the Progress towards achievement of the MDGs and

      the Commitments made in Programme of Action for LDCs by LDCs and their

      Development Partners for the Decade 2001 – 2010


      The country reports provide a good indication of the close linkages between

      the actions taken by LDCs and their development partners under the seven

      commitments in the Programme of Action and the progress toward

      achievement of Millennium Development Goals.



      The considerable progress made by the Maldives and Samoa under most

      MDGs could be attributed to the economic and public sector reforms

      undertaken in the 1990s. For Samoa the economic reforms which included

      major tariff and tax restructures, the introduction of value added goods and

      services tax (VAGST), the liberalisation of the financial sector, reform of the

      public service and the establishment of a public-private partnership in

      development have contributed to good performance and good progress

      towards attaining MDGs.




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The effect of ethnic tension and civil unrest in the Solomon Islands, political

instability in Vanuatu in recent years and civil unrest in the years prior to

Timor-Leste’s independence have seriously affected economic performance

and have contributed to a general worsening of social indicators in these

countries.



A review of recent national development plans and strategies of some Pacific

LDCs have shown a clear commitment to mainstream MDGs into the national

planning and resource allocation processes. This is a positive step towards

directing national attention to the implementation of actions required of LDCs

under the Programme of Action which with the support of their development

partners will facilitate greater progress towards to achievement of MDGs.



The Development Partners have been extremely supportive of the Pacific

LDCs’ development in the past two decades. While disappointed that despite

large aid inflows, economic growth has been consistently below expectations

and improvements in social services have not been commensurate with the

level of assistance provided, the development partners are committed to

continue this assistance in more innovative and flexible ways to meet the

emerging needs of LDCS.        The regional and country strategies of the

development partners relevant to the seven LDCs have clearly focussed on

improving aid effectiveness through engaging in more effective and deeper

policy dialogue with these countries to ensure the development priorities and

performance targets reflected in the MDGs are achieved.




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2.4   Constraints which affect fulfilment of the Commitment of the Programme of

      Action and the Progress of the LDCs toward attainment of the MDGs.


      The main constraints identified in this review and from country reports on

      implementation of the Action Programme are summarised below:



            Weak national capacities to implement sound and coherent whole of

             Government domestic policies. There are serious weaknesses in policy

             development and in decision making capacity and processes often

             leading to Governments making decisions that are inconsistent with

             strategic directions and policy priorities already put in place. The

             ineffective performance of central agencies of Government can

             seriously affect policy settings, strategic direction, prioritised resource

             allocation and the overall coherence and cohesion of Government

             decision making.



            The management of public finances continues to be a major issue in

             the Pacific LDCs. Poor public expenditure management impacts on

             the quality and distribution of key services and the sustainable use of

             natural resources.



            Private sector development remains a difficult challenge for the Pacific

             LDCs. The inherent cost disadvantages resulting from small markets,

             remoteness and limited economies of scale are a disincentive to

             investment. Even where genuine investment opportunities do exist

             there is often uncertainty about the perceived volatility of the political



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    scene in some countries and the relatively high level of vulnerability to

    natural disasters. There are also disincentives because of weaknesses

    in the enabling macroeconomic environment such as lack of adequate

    legal and regulatory frameworks to resolve disputes, facilitate efficient

    transactions and protect property rights.



   Administrative barriers to investment are common in the Pacific LDCs

    which often deter investment and cause frustration in the private

    sector.    These barriers include Government actions that are

    inconsistent with announced policy, excessive bureaucratic or less

    than transparent regulations on which discretionary procedures have

    been built – often without the administrative capacity to execute them.

    The difficulty of accessing and obtaining security of tenure of land is

    also a major barrier to investment in all the Pacific LDCs.



   Ethnic tensions and conflicts



   The high vulnerability of the selected LDCs to natural disasters makes

    development even more difficult for these countries.          Even where

    Governments have undertaken the necessary reforms to strengthen

    their economies, they are still liable to setbacks caused by natural

    disasters. The high rehabilitation costs of the recent tsunami which

    affected the Maldives and cyclone damage in Samoa have

    demonstrated how these events could in a relatively short period

    seriously impact on the economies of the smaller LDCs.            Climate



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    change and the expected rise in sea levels will affect the development

    of low lying islands like Kiribati, Maldives and Tuvalu.       Climate

    related disasters set back development especially when limited

    national resources are redirected from development projects to

    disaster recovery efforts.



   There is generally poor quality data to support effective monitoring of

    MDG targets.     In fact the overall range, quality and timeliness of

    official statistics in the selected LDCs with the exception of the

    Maldives and Samoa, falls far short of what is required for effective

    and meaningful analyses and policy formulation.




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3        Implementation of Regional Support Measures

         3.1      Official Development Assistance and Debt Relief

         3.1.1 Quantity of Official Development Assistance


        The total value of ODA to LDCs increased from US$12.7 billion in 2000 to

        US$24.9 billion in 2004. The total ODA for the 7 selected LDCs for the same

        period decreased from USD$416.0 million to USD$396.0 million.



Table 10: Net Official Development Assistance Receipts for 7 Selected LDCs 2000-2004

                                                       Net ODA Receipts (USD million)

                                  2000             2001          2002          2003            2004
LDCs
Maldives                                     19            25             27              21              28
Timor-Leste                                 233           195            220             155             153
Kiribati                                     18            12             21              18              17
Samoa                                        27            43             37              33              31
Solomon Islands                              68            59             26              60             122
Tuvalu                                        4            10             12               6               8
Vanuatu                                      46            32             28              32              38
7 selected LDCs                             416           375            371             326             396
Source: World Bank, Forum Secretariat estimates. Group totals and averages are calculated on available data only.




        The decrease in ODA share for the 7 selected countries was caused by the

        decrease in ODA receipts for Timor-Leste as a result of the phasing out of

        donors’ pre-independence development assistance. ODA to the Solomon

        Islands declined in 2002 largely as a result of the ethnic conflict but increased

        dramatically following international intervention and funding support

        through the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands. The ODA

        shares of the other selected countries were relatively stable.




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             However, according to the ODA per capita figures in Table 11 of the 5 LDCs

             for which data is available, Timor Leste’s ODA per capita of USD$61.30 was

             relatively compared to the per capita figures for the other four LDCs. The

             ODA per capita figures for Kiribati and Tuvalu were not available.


Table 11: ODA for the 7 Selected LDCs, 2003


USD$                              ODA Volumes ($' millions)                  ODA per capita ($)
Selected Countries                           2003                                  2003
                 c
    Maldives                                                 18.0                                  61.30
    Kiribati                                                   …                                      …
    Samoa                                                    33.0                                 185.60
    Solomon Islands                                          60.2                                 131.80
    Timor-Leste                                             150.8                                 186.10
    Tuvalu                                                     …                                      …
    Vanuatu                                                  32.4                                 154.40
c                             Data are from the balance of payment statistics.
      Sources: Country source and Asian Development Bank
       (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)




               3.1.2 Quality of Official Development Assistance
             The quality of ODA depends on the effectiveness and efficiency of the

             distribution of these funds in meeting the developmental outcomes for

             funded projects and programmes agreed to by the recipient countries and

             donors. Achieving these outcomes including long-term sustainability after

             aid resources have been utilised is the best indication of the effectiveness of

             these ODA.



             The generally poor development record of the selected LDCs (except

             Maldives and Samoa) in recent years, despite the consistently high level of

             aid inflows received in the past have raised legitimate concerns about aid

             effectiveness.




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Most donors now acknowledge the need to address aid effectiveness issues

and have paid greater attention to lessons learned from past involvement to

ensure aid resources are effective in addressing the priority needs in

recipient countries on a sustainable basis. Key lessons from past assistance

include failure to take adequate account of the importance of broad

consultation and strong political ownership of reform, the need for more

effective capacity development underpinned by improved availability of data

on and analyses of key development issues.          According to the Asian

Development Bank, a message that emerged from consultations was that in a

heavily aid dependent regional all development partners should provide

assistance in a manner that does not distort the incentives for good financial

management. Clearly both the LDCs and development partners have mutual

obligations to ensure the development objectives and outcomes that have

been mutually agreed to by the donor and recipient country for particular

programmes are achieved.



Emphasis on national consultations to determine strategic directions and

priorities of development frameworks, improved co-ordination led by aid

recipients, and increased harmonisation among development partners had

been identified as the common issues to be addressed to improve the quality

and effectiveness of aid.




3.1.3 Untying of Aid
Much of the aid given in the past was tied to the procurement of goods and




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services from the aid giving countries. The 2001 DAC Recommendation of

Untying Official Development Assistance to the LDCs came into force on 1

January 2001.    The 2005 Progress Report on the implementation of this

Recommendation was proceeding well. One of the conclusions drawn from

2003 date was that ‚The DAC average bilateral LDC ODA untying ratio

increased from the 1999 – 2001 baseline of 0.53 to 0.60 in 2002 and 0.7 in 2003,

which is significantly above the 0.6 reference point. The main reasons for

this increase in 2003 are that eight DAC members have either fully untied or

almost fully untied their LDC bilateral aid programmes. In addition, nine

other members (including Australia who is a major donor in the selected

LDCs) significantly increased their untying ratios‛.



Improving governance performance in the LDCs, including in the important

area of procurement policies and systems, will encourage further untying of

aid and also help bring about additional benefits to the untied aid they

receive.




3.1.4 Good Governance
There is widespread belief that governance problems lie at the heart of the

difficulties that many Pacific Island Countries are experiencing. According

to the ADB report ‚Governance in the Pacific – Focus on Action 2005 – 2009,

2004‛ economic growth has been consistently below expectations in the past

20 years, and improvements in social services are not commensurate with the

level of assistance provided.       One of the key factors in this failure is




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perceived to be poor governance.‛ Some governance issues highlighted in

the report included:



      Lack of meaningful or effective oversight by the legislative branch of

       the executive.



      Serious weaknesses in Government policy development and in

       decision making capacity and procedures, especially at the Cabinet

       level.



      Weaknesses in policy formulation are evident in all PDMCs but

       inadequate policy implementation skills are of even more concern, as

       these often lead to inconsistent application of approved policies.



      Inadequate capacity building coupled with the loss of senior staff who

       have management and technical skills.



      The stop/start, piecemeal approach to public financial management is

       due mainly to a lack of policy formulation and analysis skills in

       central agencies and sector departments, to ensure that programmes

       and actions contribute to coherent strategies and consistent policy

       priorities.



      Insufficient effort has been directed to establishing effective processes

       to link national strategic priorities, resource allocation decisions, aid

       budget execution and monitoring functions.




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   The financial reform programmes in the 1990s were seen as aid

    provider and consultant driven, causing lack of ‘ownership’ and

    commitment.



   All Pacific Island Governments in 2002 adopted the MDGs which

    must be mainstreamed into the process of national planning, resource

    allocation and implementation at all levels of government if they are

    to be achieved by 2015.



    Donors have clearly recognised the importance of good governance

    and committed themselves to working closely with aid recipients to

    improve government financial management, improve the efficiency

    and productivity of public enterprises, and improve the enabling

    environment for private sector development and to strengthen the

    participation of civil society organisations in national development

    processes.



    The selected LDCs have progressively taken concrete action to

    address governance issues raised by the donor community.           The

    Pacific LDCs are parties to the recently approved Pacific Plan for

    strengthening regional cooperation and integration. One of the key

    regional initiatives already endorsed for implementation during the

    2006 – 2008 period under the good governance framework include

    strengthening governance institutions such as audit and ombudsman

    offices, leadership codes, anti corruption institutions and departments



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of Attorney General; including through judicial training and

education, regional support to the Forum Principles of Good

Leadership      and    Accountability,      enhancement      of   governance

mechanisms including in resource management; and in the

harmonisation of traditional and modern values and structures,

upgrade and extension of country and regional statistical information

systems and databases across all sectors and ratification and

implementation        of   international    and   regional   human     rights

conventions, covenants and agreement and support for meeting

reporting and other requirements;




3.1.5 Debt and Debt Repayments
In complementing ODA and FDI, the selected LDCs have also

resorted   to    external       borrowing   to    fund   public   investment

programmes.



The total debt for the 7 selected LDCs increased from USD$0.5 billion

in 1993 to USD$0.9 billion in 2003. Debt repayment by the 7 selected

LDCs increased from USD$25 million in 1993 to USD$40 million in

2003.




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Table 12: External Debt (in USD) and Debt Service 1995, 1999-2003


LDCs                            Type                   1995       1999    2000    2001    2002    2003
Maldives               External debt                    155        219     206     235     272      281
                       Debt service/Exports                …        4.0     4.2     4.6     4.4      3.6
                       External debt/GNI                   …       39.2    34.7    40.1    45.0     41.3
Kiribati               External debt                         7       9       8       5       4       …
                       Debt service/Exports                …       11.0    14.5     …       …        …
                       External debt/GNI                   …        9.7     9.2     4.8     4.0      …
Samoa                  External debt                    170        192     197     204     234      365
                       Debt service/Exports                …        5.1     …       …       …        …
                       External debt/GNI                   …       81.9    81.9    87.0    97.3    138.0
Solomon Islands        External debt                    159        165     155     163     180      186
                       Debt service/Exports                …        4.8     …       …       …        …
                       External debt/GNI                   …       46.4    53.8    65.9    75.0     75.1
Timor Leste            External debt                       …        …       …       …       …        …
                       Debt service/Exports                …        …       …       …       …        …
                       External debt/GNI                   …        …       …       …       …        …
Tuvalu                 External debt                        ...      4       4       5       5        ...
                       Debt service/Exports                …        …       …       …       …        …
                       External debt/GNI                   …       29.2    28.6    36.6    33.4       ...
Vanuatu                External debt                       49       66      75      72      91       95
                       Debt service/Exports                …        1.0     1.0     0.9     1.5      1.4
                       External debt/GNI                …          28.7    34.1    33.1    39.1     33.9
Note: External Debt in USD$'millions
Debt service/Exports and External Debt/GNI as percentage
Source: Asian Development Bank - Key Indicators 2005




3.2        Investment
           The Programme of Action encourages LDCs to accelerate their growth in

           financial investment flows. Due to the low gross domestic savings in LDCs,

           reliance on official and non-official financial flows had been the means to

           finance domestic investment. However, these financial flows to LDCs had

           decreased.



           Data available on net private flows revealed that only the Maldives and

           Timor-Leste showed increasing trends in net private flows while Samoa,

           Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu all had decreasing trends. This result

           is not surprising given that the countries with increasing trends in net private

           financial flows had similar FDI trends.



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Table 13: Net Private Flows in the selected least developed countries, 1993-2004
                   (US$ million)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
    Selected Countries                          1993        1994        1995        1996        1997        1998        1999        2000        2001        2002         2003
    Maldives                                      8.8         8.3         8.8        11.6        17.4        22.1        16.6        13.0        12.2        27.0        23.7
                   b
    Kiribati                                      -0.5      -27.1          …           …           …           …          7.6          …          0.3         -0.1         …
    Samoa                                         4.7         2.4         3.4         1.2        20.0         3.0         2.0         -1.5        1.2         -0.1       -0.1
    Solomon Islands                              23.6         0.1         3.8         1.8        30.1         5.3         6.4         -2.1      -15.6         -4.0       -4.6
                       b
    Timor-Leste                                 -11.2          …          8.9          …           …        128.2          …           …         53.5       164.4        53.4
               b
    Tuvalu                                            …       0.3         -0.3        -2.2      -11.1         -0.8        -0.2        -4.3        0.6        25.0        -2.3
    Vanuatu                                      25.8        29.6        30.8        32.6        30.1        20.3        13.3        20.3        18.0        15.0        19.0
    Total Selected Countries                     51.2        13.6        55.4        45.0        86.5       178.1        45.7        25.4        70.2       227.3        89.0
    TOTAL DMCs                               81550.5 100212.7        99058.2 138013.7 127647.9           88455.0     83939.1     56932.8     71601.0     67437.0 119069.8
    TOTAL DEVELOPING                        167604.6 185499.4 194324.8 273659.3 307153.8 290207.0 252442.9 194847.6 198620.5 168697.0 236239.7
                           c
      COUNTRIES
a   Refers to the sum of net foreign direct investment, portfolio equity flows, net flows of long-term public and publicly guaranteed debt from private creditors, and
    net flows of total private non-guaranteed debt.
b   Refers to the sum of direct investment, portfolio investment, and private net exports credits of Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries only.
c   Includes data for all developing countries as reported in the WB, Global Development Finance Online and data from OECD, Geographical Distribution
    of Financial Flows to Aid Recipients for DMCs not covered by WB.
Sources:
    WB, Global Development Finance Online .
    OECD, Statistical Compendium CD-ROM 2005 for Kiribati,Timor-Leste and Tuvalu.




               According to the findings from ADB’s private sector assessments in some

               Pacific Island countries which included three of the selected LDCs namely

               Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, the key private sector impediments in

               the Pacific are:



                          In some Pacific Islands, political uncertainty requiring a risk premium;


                          political instability and inconsistency – preventing long term business

                           planning;


                          ineffective investment regulation – increasing transaction costs for

                           business start up and operation;


                          in efficient and costly infrastructure – increasing business input costs;


                          state-owned enterprises – providing poor and high cost services to

                           businesses and consumers, and crowding out the private sector;


                          inefficient financial markets – preventing access to credit and capital;




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   outdated and inefficient commercial legal framework – impeding

    business setup, operation and exit;


   land issues – preventing Pacific islanders from using their most

    important asset (land) for productive and economic (collateral) purposes;


The assessments also recommended strategies aimed at getting the

fundamental right. These are:


   ensuring sound macroeconomic, financial and sector policies; improved

    public sector efficiency; and improved general and business-related

    education;


   rationalise governments‟ involvement in the provision of commercial

    public goods with the ultimate objective to improve service delivery to

    private sector and consumers;


   reform commercial legal and regulatory frameworks to create a better

    foundation for business transactions;


   develop the financial sector by improving the collateral framework,

    promoting credit bureaus, increasing banking competition, expanding

    rural and microfinance and develop „literacy‟


   clarify and modify land rights with a view to allowing for investment

    (through “home-grown” solutions that adequately consider cultural

    sensitivities;


   improve public – private dialogue;




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3.3            Trade
               The Programme of Action encourages LDCs to accelerate their growth in

               trade.



               With small domestic markets and narrow resource base, the selected LDCs

               are highly dependent on international trade. They provide a relatively

               narrow range of goods and service and are heavily reliant on primary

               commodity exports – mainly copra, cocoa, palm products as well as fish and

               timber. These countries import much more including food resulting in large

               negative trade balances. These imbalances in merchandise trade are

               primarily financed by aid proceeds and remittances.



Table 14: Trade Balances for LDCs, 1990, 2003 and 2004
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
                                      Total Trade                     Trade Balance             Current Account Balance
      Selected Countries       1990        2003       2004    1990         2003        2004        1990      2003         2004
    Maldives                     …         84.5       85.6       …         -51.8          …          …         -4.6       -12.0
    Kiribati                  104.7        90.4         …      -1.0         -1.1          …        -40.5     -26.4           …
    Samoa                      79.8        47.7       48.1    -64.0        -38.4       -41.8        7.7        6.0          2.9
    Solomon Islands            77.7          …          …     -10.1          …            …        -13.3        …            …
    Timor-Leste                  …       106.9 *     76.8 *      …       -23.2 *      -12.3 *        …       12.6 *       12.2 *
    Tuvalu                       …           …          …        …           …            …        21.9         …            …
    Vanuatu                    76.1        47.2         …     -51.1        -27.9          …         -4.1     -10.2           …
Sources: Country sources.


               The Asian countries as a group have increased their relative importance as

               export markets for the Pacific LDCs, followed by Europe and the Oceania

               region (including Australia and New Zealand). Asia and North America are

               the main destinations for exports from Maldives.




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           The imports to the Pacific LDCs are increasingly being supplied by Australia

           and New Zealand, followed by the Asian countries. Asia and Europe remain

           the key suppliers to Maldives.



           In terms of regional trade agreements, the Pacific island countries have been

           the beneficiaries of the South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Co-

           operation Agreement (SPARTECA) and as a result ratified the Pacific

           Agreement on Closer Economic Relations (PACER) and the Pacific Island

           Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA) between the island countries and

           Australia and New Zealand.



           The SPARTECA agreement allowed products originating from Kiribati,

           Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu to be exported to Australia1

           and New Zealand free of duty and unrestricted or concessional access.



           The PICTA (August 2001) regulates the trade of goods within countries of the

           Pacific Islands Forum. PICTA’s objective is to strengthen, expand and

           diversify trade between countries, eliminate tariff and non tariff barriers,

           facilitate commercial, industrial, agricultural and technical co-operation,

           utilisation of Pacific region resources and to harmonise development and

           expansion of world trade in goods and services.




1
    except for sugar



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      In addition, the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) enables a range of

      products from the Pacific LDCs to be exported to the USA, Canada, Japan

      and non-EEC Western European countries at reduced rates of duty.



      Furthermore, the provisions in the Lome Conventions accorded preferential

      access for Kiribati, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Samoa to the

      European Economic Community markets.



      In terms of WTO membership, only Maldives and Solomon Islands became

      members on the 31 May 1995 and 26 July 1996 respectively. Samoa and

      Vanuatu have observer status in WTO and have both undertaken vigorous

      and tedious accession processes to attain full World Trade Organisation

      (WTO) membership.




3.4   Migration
      Reliable data is not available on the migration of natural persons from the

      selected LDCs to other countries within the Pacific Island region or to the

      developed countries especially Australia, New Zealand and the United

      States. For Kiribati and Tuvalu, migration has been mainly of contract labour

      initially to Nauru in the phosphate mines and more recently to work on

      international shipping lines.



      Migration from Samoa has been mainly to New Zealand on a permanent

      basis under the umbrella of a special Treaty of Friendship between the two

      countries.




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      Migration has resulted in remittances playing an important part in the

      economies of Kiribati, Samoa and Tuvalu. In Samoa, remittances as a percent

      of GDP in 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 21.8%, 19.9% and 19.2% respectively.



      Migration has helped to reduce pressure on national governments to provide

      employment opportunities and essential social services especially in

      conditions of high rates of natural population increase and low rates of

      economic growth. On the other hand migration can result in the loss of

      highly skilled people especially in key areas whether these skills would often

      be difficult to replace such as in health, education and engineering. The loss

      of these skills can also affect the delivery of essential services the rural and

      remote communities.




3.5   Environment
      The selected LDCs have a high level of economic and cultural dependence on

      their natural environment. Agriculture, fishing and tourism remain the main

      economic activities and for many communities represent the sole source of

      income and exports. The key issues and challenges faced by the LDCs in the

      area of environment are natural resources conservation, waste management

      and pollution and energy and climate change.



      The natural resources upon which the economics of the selected LDCs are so

      heavily dependent are under increasing pressure from rapid population

      growth    and   unsustainable        natural   resource   management.    Waste

      management and pollution is recognized as a major common concern for



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many of the LDCs with the real potential to cause negative impacts on

national development activities including tourism, food supplies, public

health and the environment.



Many of the selected LDCs are extremely vulnerable to climate change and

sea level rise. The low lying islands like the Kiribati, Maldives and Tuvalu

are particularly vulnerable. The economic disruption could be catastrophic

even to the extent of requiring population relocation to other islands or

increasing the number of people emigrating from the islands.



The conservation of natural resources, the effective management of solid

waste, and the development of appropriate, affordable and cost effective

measures requires ongoing support from the donor community to support

the measures already taken by the LDCs themselves to strengthen national

capacities to deal with issues of environmental protection and sustainable

development.



In rectifying this situation, the World Bank had been instrumental in

assisting Kiribati, which is vulnerable to climate change in mainstreaming

risk management into their national economic planning. The Bank had also

assisted Samoa through the Infrastructure Asset Management Programme

and cyclone recovery. Coastal Management Plans for areas vulnerable to

climate change had been formulated and partly implemented. Consolidation

of these efforts was identified as the Bank’s further engagement.




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      The Asian Development Bank (ADB) regional programme is committed to

      pursue strategies in the area of environmental adaptation to climate change

      and variability, environmental governance, and renewable energy and

      energy efficiency.



      Australia and New Zealand are the main providers of funding support and

      technical assistance to the Pacific LDCs either directly or through the Pacific

      Regional Environment Programme to address the key environment issues

      facing the region.




3.6   Conflict Prevention
      Financial and personnel contributions by regional members to help improve

      the conditions for peace and human development in Timor Leste and the

      Solomon Islands during periods of civil conflict have paid huge dividends in

      these two LDCs.



      In the Solomon Islands private investment and economic growth and human

      development have improved as the major activities disrupted by ethnic

      tensions of 2000-2002 have been restored through the intervention of the

      Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands being led by Australia

      and involving the Pacific Island Forum members.



      The main components of the assistance mission include police presence to

      maintain order and rebuild the Solomon Islands police force, technical

      assistance to support the restoration of budget processes and more efficient




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      and accountable public spending and provision of development assistance to

      underpin peace and reconciliation.




3.7   Technology Transfer
      Technology transfer has occurred in different forms in the selected LDCs but

      mainly through the various external assistance programmes through

      scholarship schemes which allow students from the island countries to study

      in universities overseas and study awards for senior officials from

      Government and the private sector to undertake technical training courses.

      Multilateral institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World

      Bank, Asian Development Bank and regional organisations provide short

      term and long term training courses in a wide range of development areas.



      Foreign investment although relatively small in several of the selected LDCs

      have contributed to technology and knowledge transfer as investors and

      technical personnel brought in to manage these investments bring with them

      new technical skills.



      The movement of natural persons transfers knowledge and skills through the

      provision of services by foreign nationals such as consultants, doctors and

      engineers and academic. Bilateral and Multilateral donors together with

      recipient countries usually encourage the attachment of local counterparts to

      consultants to ensure that knowledge and skills are transferred when the

      consultants had completed their technical assistance roles or services.




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Research and development is critical to the development of LDCs. Regional

organisations such as SOPAC, FAO and FFA are undertaking regional pilot

projects/programmes in renewal energy processing, meat processing, pests

and disease resistant crop hybrids.



Some countries like Samoa are in the process of establishing an Institute for

Research and Development with objectives 1) to research the viability of

agricultural products, 2) to research the viability of diversification of

agricultural products into processed products and 3) to research the viability

of renewable energy and alternative sources to replace fossil fuel (petroleum

products).



The introduction of information and communications technology (ICT) had

contributed immensely in the improvement of access to services in the rural

areas through the development of education, health, social and business

services. All LDCs in



Table 15 increased their access to telephone lines and cellular phones, use of

personal computers and internet access. However, only Maldives (25%) and

Samoa (13%) had managed to record double digits for telephone access.

Accesses to personal computers were 7%, 6% and 4% for Maldives, Tuvalu

and Solomon Islands respectively. The remaining LDCs’ accesses to personal

computer were below 2% of the total population. Internet access was the

highest for Tuvalu (19%), followed by Maldives (5%) and Vanuatu (4%). The

remaining LDCs had percentages lower than 2.5%.



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Table 15: Use of Information and Communication Technologies in the Selected LDCs
                          In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information
                                                                       and communication.

                           47. Telephone Lines and
                                                                   48. Personal Computers In Use                 48. Internet Users
                             Cellular Subscribers
                                                                        (per 100 population)                    (per 100 population)
                             (per 100 population)

Selected
                              1990               2003                  1990                    2003               1995          2003
Countries
Maldives                             2.93             25.11                    1.23                    7.12           -                 5.34
Kiribati                             1.66               5.68                   0.73                    1.14        0.61                 2.28
Samoa                                2.56             13.05                    0.06                    0.67        0.17                 2.22
Solomon Islands                      1.47               1.62                   2.33                    4.05        0.02                 0.52
Timor-Leste                           …                   …                          …                   …           …                   …
Tuvalu                               1.33               6.84                         …                 5.87          …                 18.75
Vanuatu                              1.78               6.90                   0.74                    1.48        0.06                 3.61
                                            a Data for 1990 were not obtained due to very few internet users.
b Refers to 1992.     h Refers to 1998.                        m Refers to 1986.         n Refers to 1988.
c Refers to 1996.     i    Refers to 1999.                     h Refers to 1998.
d Refers to 1989.     j    Refers to 2001.                     i   Refers to 1999.
e Refers to 1995.     k    Refers to 2002.                     j   Refers to 2001.
f   Refers to 1993.   l    Refers to 1991.                     k   Refers to 2002.
g Refers to 1994.     m Refers to 1986.                        l   Refers to 1991.




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4     Recommendations
      The following preliminary recommendations are made. These will need to

      be changed or refined based on the discussions and country presentations at

      the Phnom Penh meeting.




4.1   Official development Assistance and Debt Relief
      4.1.1   LDCs and their development partners reaffirm their commitment to

              implement the actions pledged in the Programme of Action under

              Commitment 7, Mobilising financial resources, with particular

              emphasis on domestic resource mobilisation and improved aid

              effectiveness.



      4.1.2   Development partners continue to support institutional change in

              LDCs, improve coherence and cohesion of Government policies,

              strategic frameworks through effective processes that link national

              strategic priorities, resource allocation decisions, and budget

              execution and monitoring functions.



      4.1.3   Development partners continue funding support for the provision of

              essential physical infrastructure such as transport and communication

              paying close attention to the capacity of LDCs to effectively manage

              these assets.



      4.1.4   Development partners to continue to adopt innovative approaches

              and methods of implementation and flexibility to respond to



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              emerging needs and/or changed circumstances of LDCs.




4.2   Trade and Investment
      4.2.1   The LDCs and their development partners jointly undertake to

              improve the enabling environment for private sector development.



      4.2.2   Development partners provide the necessary technical support to

              LDCs to enable them to benefit fully from the regional and global

              trade arrangements that LDCs are already parties to or are now

              negotiating to join.




4.3   Migration
      The LDCs, either directly or through regional mechanisms, contribute to the

      dialogue with development partners (for the Pacific LDCs, through the

      recently endorsed Pacific Plan initiative) on the possibility of enhancing

      labour mobility and migration of LDC citizens to Australia and New

      Zealand.



4.4   Environment
      The LDCs and their development partners intensify their efforts to meet the

      commitments pledged in the Programme of Action to help LDCs deal

      effectively with the problems of environmental degradation especially waste

      management, climate change and sea level rise and negative impacts of

      unsustainable management of natural resources especially forests and

      fisheries.




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4.5   Security
      4.5.1   LDCs and their development partners commit to ensuring that the

              factors that often contribute to security problems (poverty,

              unemployment, crime, corruption, inequitable distribution of benefits

              of development, ethnic tensions) are addressed in the LDCs

              development frameworks and resources and appropriate technical

              support are allocated to key agencies dealing directly with security

              issues.



      4.5.2   LDCs and their development partners cooperate with regional and

              international efforts to combat influences that undermine the security

              and welfare of their populations.




4.6   Technology Transfer
      LDCs and their development partners commit to funding and strengthening

      research and technology transfer especially in agriculture, fisheries and areas

      where LDCs may have opportunities to develop differentiated products and

      services for export.



4.7   Mainstreaming “Millennium Development Goals” into National
      development Plans
      Within the framework of the Brussels Programme of Action, LDCs need to

      integrate MDGs into their national plans clearly articulating the mutual

      obligations of the LDCs themselves and their development partners to

      achieve MDGs by 2015.




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5            Annex I:

Table 16: Gross Domestic Product Growth Rates and Sector Growth Rates, 2000-2004

                                                    Gross Domestic Product                            Agriculture                                  Industry                                Services
    Selected Countries                      2000      2001    2002   2003      2004 2000      2001       2002       2003     2004 2000     2001      2002     2003     2004 2000    2001     2002      2003     2004
    Maldives b                               4.8        3.5    6.5     8.4      8.8 -0.2        5.0       17.0       1.6      2.6   1.2     8.0       9.9      7.4      9.8   6.1    2.4      4.6       9.5      9.4
               c
    Kiribati                                 -0.7       2.9   -1.2     3.5      3.5 -20.1     13.8         4.8      33.1     11.8 -3.8     21.8       -4.9    -1.1      1.8   1.9   -0.9      0.0      -5.7      3.8
    Samoa                                    6.1        6.8    1.2     3.5      3.9    0.1     -3.9       -6.3      -3.5     -4.9 13.0     12.2       0.1      5.2      4.7   5.2    7.6      3.8       4.5      5.5
    Solomon Islands                        -14.3       -8.7   -2.1     5.7 *    5.5 -16.3      -4.4        5.1        ...      ... -31.7   -39.7      0.5       ...      ... -5.8   -4.5      -9.2       ...      ...
    Timor-Leste                             15.5 * 14.6 *      3.0 * -2.7 *     1.0 -12.4 * 15.2 *         0.7 *    -4.3 *     … 26.4 * 13.4 *        0.9 *   -4.5 *     … 31.2 * 14.7 *      4.7 *    -1.3 *     …
               d
    Tuvalu                                  13.4        5.9    1.2     2.0 *    3.0 -2.0       -2.7       -9.4        ...      ... 13.3    10.3       6.5       ...      ... 19.1    6.4      3.4        ...      ...
    Vanuatu                                  2.7       -2.7   -4.9     2.9         …   6.7     -2.4       -3.3       8.9       …    2.1     -5.1      -6.2    -0.1       …    1.8   -2.5      -5.1      1.7       …
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
a Unless otherwise indicated, figures are based on constant market prices.
b Data for real GDP and sectoral growth rates are based on constant basic prices.
c Data for real GDP are based on constant market prices, while sectoral growth rates are based on constant factor cost.
                                          1.03
d Data for real GDP and sectoral growth rates are based on constant factor cost.
e Data for real GDP and sectoral growth rates are based on constant purchasers' value.




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Table 17: Inflation Rates 2000-2005

    Selected Countries                             2000            2001         2002         2003          2004
    Maldives                                              -1.2            0.7          0.9          -2.9          6.4
               b, e
    Kiribati                                              0.9             7.0          1.6          2.6           -1.9
    Samoa                                                 0.9             3.8          8.1          0.1         3.0 *
                       b
    Solomon Islands                                       7.1             7.7          9.3      10.0              7.1
    Timor-Leste                                            …              3.6          4.8          7.0           3.0
               b
    Tuvalu                                                3.9             1.4          5.0          3.3           2.8
                   b
    Vanuatu                                               2.5             3.4          2.2          3.1           1.6
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
    Unless otherwise indicated, data refer to the rate of change of annual average consumer prices
a                                             for the country.
b Data refer to capital city.
c Data refer to urban areas/selected cities only.
d Data refer to the rate of change of period averages for the fiscal year.
e Data refer to the rate of change of retail price index.
Sources:
   Country sources.




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Table 18: Population Growth Rates
                                                      Population Growth Rates
    Selected Countries        1990-1993             1993-1998              2001-2004
    Maldives                                  2.7                       2.1                        1.6
    Kiribati                                  1.4                       1.7                        1.5
    Samoa                                     0.5                       0.8                        1.5
    Solomon Islands                           3.7                       3.7                        3.2
    Timor-Leste                               2.6                      -3.2                        6.4
    Tuvalu                                    1.0                       1.9                        1.7
    Vanuatu                                   2.7                       2.6                        2.7
                    d
    TOTAL DMCs                                1.6                      1.4                         1.2
    WORLD                                     1.5                      1.5                         1.2
a   Except for Pacific DMCs where units are in thousands.


b     Prior to 1992, data exclude nomads.   Beyond 1993, data are based on UN estimates thereafter.
d   For reporting countries only.
e   Census figure.
f   Refers to 2001.
g   Refers to 2003.
h   Refers to 2000-2003 annual growth.
i   Refers to 2001-2004 annual growth.
j   Refers to 2001-2003 annual growth.

Sources:
   Country sources.
   UN, World Population Prospects, The 2004 Revision, UN Website.
   UN, World Urbanization Prospects, The 2003 Revision, UN Website.




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6      Annex II:

Table 19: Gross domestic savings, gross domestic investment, and resource gaps in selected least developed countries, 1990, 2000 and 2004

    Domestic Saving, Capital Formation, and Resource Gap
                      (percent of GDP)
    Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
                                                                                                                                   a
                                       Gross Domestic Saving                 Gross Capital Formation                Resource Gap
                   LDCs                1990    2000     2004                1990      2000      2004             1990    2000           2004
      Maldives                            …     44.2     47.6                 …        26.3     36.1               …     -17.9          -11.5
      Kiribati                            …      …         …                  …         …         …                …        …              …
               c
      Samoa                             -4.9     …         …                31.5        …         …              36.4       …              …
      Solomon Islands                  11.5      …         …                20.1        …         …               8.6       …              …
                                                    *        *                             *         *                        *              *
      Timor-Leste                        ...   -55.1    -33.6                ...       32.9     24.0               …      88.0           57.6
      Tuvalu                              …      …         …                  …         …         …                …        …              …
                 b
      Vanuatu                            5.7    19.3     14.9               34.9       20.0     19.8             29.2      0.7            5.0
    Sources: Country sources.
    a Derived as gross domestic capital formation less gross domestic savings.
    b Under year heading 2004, data for Vanuatu refer to 2003.
    c Data refer to 1988.




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Table 20: Millennium Development Goal 1
                                                                  Target 1

                          Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than
                                                                                                                                                           Halve, b
                                                              $1 day.


                                                                                 a      2. Poverty Gap Ratio         3. Share of Poorest
                           1. Proportion of Population Below the Poverty Line                                                                                  4. P
                                                                                                                     Quintile in National                  Children
                                $1(PPP) a Day                     National                                           Consumption (%)

    Selected Countries   1990         Latest Year      1990           Latest Year     1990        Latest Year            Latest Year
    Maldives                …           …                   …                …              …        …                   …
    Kiribati                …           …                   …                …              …        …                   …
    Samoa                   …           …                   …                …              …        …                   …
    Solomon Islands         …           …                   …                …              …        …                   …
    Timor-Leste             …           …                   …                …              …        …                   …
    Tuvalu                  …           …                   …                …              …        …                   …
    Vanuatu                 …           …                   …                …              …        …                   …
    Sources
    a Some data in this table may not be the same with those presented in the Regional Table 1, though they are of
      the same indicator. The statistics presented here are from the Millennium Development Goals databases
      of the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) and the World Bank (WB).
    b Country Sources




                                                                                 Target 2

                                Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 day.



                                    4. Prevalence of Underweight                                5. Proportion of Population Below
                                Children Under Five Years of Age (%)                            Minimum Level of Dietary Energy
                                                                                                       Consumption (%)
                                                Latest Year
Selected Countries         Total          Girls            Boys                       1990-1992          1995-1997            2000-2002
Maldives                         30             30              31       (2001)                  …                   …                 …
Kiribati                         13             …                 …      (1999)                  …                   …                 …
Samoa                            17             …                 …      (1999)                  …                   …                 …
Solomon Islands                  21             …                 …      (1999)                  …                   …                 …
Timor-Leste                      43             41              44       (2002)                  …                   …                 …
Tuvalu                           …              …                 …                              …                   …                 …
Vanuatu                          23             …                 …      (1999)                  …                   …                 …
               Sources: UNSD, Millennium Indicators Database Online .
                         World Bank, Millennium Development Goals Website.
                         World Bank, Millennium Development Goals Quick Query Website.
                         UNICEF, Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women Website.




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Table 21: Millennium Development Goal 2
                      Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full
MDG 2                                                 course of primary schooling.


                  6. Net Enrolment Ratio in Primary         7. Proportion of Pupils Starting     8. Literacy Rate of 15-24
Targets                     Education (%)                   Grade 1 who Reach Grade 5 (%)           Year Olds (%) h
                     Total       Girls       Boys           Total       Girls         Boys       Total Female Male
                  1      2    2   1   2   2   1   2   2    1    2   2   1    2   2   1   2   2   1   2    1      2   1   2
                  9      0    0   9   0   0   9   0   0    9    0   0   9    0   0   9   0   0   9   0    9      0   9   0
Selected          9      0    0   9   0   0   9   0   0    9    0   0   9    0   0   9   0   0   9   0    9      0   9   0
Countries         0      0    2   0   0   2   0   0   2    0    0   2   0    0   2   0   0   2   0   0    0      0   0   0
Maldives          87     99   92 87 99 93 87 99 92         … … …        …    … … …       … … 98      98   98     98 98 98
Kiribati          76     94   … … … … … …              … 93 95 … 100 93 … 88 95 … ...                 …    ...   … ... …
Samoa             …      93   98 … 92 96 … 93 99           … 94 94      … 92 91 … 96 96 99 100            99 100 99 99
Solomon Islands   83     …    … 77 … … 89 …            … 85 … …         82   … … 56      … … ...      …    ...   … ... …
Timor-Leste       …      …    … … … … … …              …   … … …        …    … … …       … … ...      …    ...   … ... …
Tuvalu            98     … 100 … … … … …               … 96 … …         …    … … …       … … ...      …    ...   … ... …
Vanuatu           71     89   94 71 89 95 70 90 93 90 95 …              91 97 … 89 93 … ...           …    ...   … ... …
   a For the following countries, Total Net Enrollment Rates are derived from census statistics, using primary
                       school age groupings as defined by the country: Kiribati and Tuvalu
c Data refer to 2000 except for Vanuatu (1999).
d Latest year is the same as for total.




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Table 22: Millennium Development Goal 3
                     Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of
MDG 3                                                      education no later than 2015.
                                                                                               11. Share of
                                                                                 10. Ratio of Women in Wage
                                                                                   Literate   Employment in
                          9. Ratio of Girls to Boys in Education Levels a        Women to        the Non-    12. Proportion
                                                                                Men of 15-24   Agricultural   of Seats Held
     Targets                                                                      Year Olds     Sector (%)     by Women
                          Primary              Secondary          Tertiary
                                    Latest Year




                                                                Latest Year




                                                                                                 Latest Year




                                                                                                                      2000-2004
                                                                                                               1990




                                                                                                                                     1990

                                                                                                                                            2000

                                                                                                                                                   2003

                                                                                                                                                          1990

                                                                                                                                                                 2000

                                                                                                                                                                        2005
Selected
Countries
                      1990

                             2000




                                                  1990
                                                         2000




                                                                                   1990
                                                                                          2000
Maldives                                                                                                       1.00           1.00 31.1 36.7 36.1            6      6   6
Kiribati                                                                                                       1.01           1.01 34.0 38.0         …       0      5   5
Samoa                                                                                                          1.00           1.00 31.0 43.0         …       0      8   6
Solomon Islands                                                                                                   …               … 30.8      …      …       0      2   0
Timor-Leste                                                                                                       …               … 19.0      …      …      …      … 25
Tuvalu                                                                                                         0.96     8     1.00 38.0
                                                                                                                             0 0              … 44.0
Vanuatu                                                                              …        … 38.0 44.0       …       4    0 4
   a The ratio is a gender parity index, measured as the ratio of female-to-male value of the gross enrolment ratios at primary,
                                            secondary, and tertiary level of education
                     b Indicates the starting year of a school year, e.g. 2000 refers to school year 2000/2001.
  c For Pacific DMCs - University of the South Pacific (USP) data ("in-country", for USP Centres data are for scholarship students
   Tuvalu data are for all overseas training (includes scholarships and short-term courses attended by government employees).
                                              Vanuatu are for scholarship students only.




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Table 23: Millennium Development Goal 4
           MDG 4                                      Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
                     13. Under-Five Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live      14. Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live        15. Proportion of 1-Year Old Children
         Targets                       births)                                           births)

Selected Countries       1990            2000              2003           1990           2000            2003             1990           2000          2003

Maldives                        115             80                72             80              59                 55           96             99               96
Kiribati                        88              70                66             65              52                 49           62             80               88
Samoa                           42              26                24             33              21                 19           89             93               99
Solomon Islands                 36              25                22             29              21                 19           76             96               78
Timor Leste                     160             130               124            110             91                 87           …              …                60
Tuvalu                          56              53                51             40              38                 37           63             81               95
Vanuatu                         70              44                38             52              35                 31           63             94               48
a Refers to 1992.    UNICEF, State of the World's Children 2005.
b Refers to 1991.    UNSD, Millennium Indicators Database Online .
c Refers to 1999.    Country sources.




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Table 24: Millennium Development Goal 5

                         Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal
MDG 5                                           mortality ratio.
                         16. Maternal Mortality     17. Proportion of Births Attended by
                                a (per 100,000 live births)
Targets                 Ratio                                  Skilled Health Personnel (%)
Selected
                                  1990                2000     1990     2000      Latest Year
Countries
Maldives                              …                 110     55         …        70        (2001)
Kiribati                             10                   56    60         85       …
Samoa                                35                 130     76       100        …
Solomon Islands                      60                 130     85         85       …
Timor Leste                        850                  660     16         …        24        (2002)
Tuvalu                                …                   …     95         99      100        (2002)
Vanuatu                            280                  130     79         88       …
Sources:
UNSD, Millennium Indicators Database Online .
UNICEF, Global Database Online .
Directorate-
General of Budget,
Accounting and
Statistics,


SPC, The Pacific Islands Regional MDG Report 2004 .
Country sources.




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Table 25: Millennium Development Goal 6
                                                            Have halted by 2015 and begun to
                     Have halted by 2015 and begun to                                               Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria
MDG 6                                                      reverse the incidence of malaria and
                      reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.                                                                  and other major diseases.
                  19. Proportion of                               other major diseases.
                   Condom Use to      19c. Contraceptive                      22. Death Rates                          24. Death Rates        25. Proportion of
                        Overall       Prevalence Rate (% 21. Prevalence of    Associated with       23. Prevalence of Associated with     Tuberculosis Cases Under
                  Contraceptive Use of married women        Malaria (per     Malaria (per 100,000   Tuberculosis (per Tuberculosis (per         DOTS a (%)
Targets             (% of married        15-49 years)     100,000 people)          people)           100,000 people)   100,000 people)
                                                                                                                                           Detected           Cured
Selected                     Latest
                                               Latest Year      2000                2000             1990      2003     1990     2003     1995    2003      1995 2003
Countries                     Year
Maldives             14    (1999)        42    (1999)                    …         3                 542       39        48       2          91    106        97      95
Kiribati             …                   21    (1998)                    …        17                 392       60        30       4          35    419        83      94
Samoa                …                   30    (1995-2003)               …         6                 145       44        11       5          54     51        80      84
Solomon Islands       2    (2001)        7     (2001)               15,172         8                 392       60        30       4          57    107        65      90
Timor-Leste          …                   6     (2001)                    …        …                  1674      753       147      95         …      53        …       81
Tuvalu               …                   32    (2002)                    …        14                 145       59        11       6          …      …         …       …

Vanuatu              …                   28    (1999)                  6,930      11                  392       71       30        8         32       70      88      79


Sources:
UNSD, Millennium Indicators Database Online .
SPC, The Pacific Islands Regional MDG Report 2004 .
Country sources.




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Table 26: Millennium Development Goal 7

                   Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and    Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable
                                           reverse the loss of environmental resources.                                  access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
MDG 7
                                               27. Energy
                                 26. Ratio of
                                Area Protected Use (kg Oil                                        29.
                      25.         to Maintain                                                  Proportion
                  Proportion of    Biological  Equivalent)    28. Carbon     28. Consumption       of
                   Land Area     Diversity to              Dioxide Emissions     of Ozone-     Population 30. Proportion of Population            31. Proportion of Urban
                   Covered by Surface Area per $1 GDP (per capita, metric Depleting CFCs Using Solid with Sustainable Access to an               Population with Access to
Target             Forest (%)         (%)                        tons)       (ODP metric tons) Fuels (%)   Improved Water Source (%)              Improved Sanitation (%)
                                                 (PPP)

                                                                                                                 Urban Rural Urban       Rural Urban Rural      Urban     Rural
Selected
                  1990    2000    1994    2004 1990 2002     1990     2000 2002 1990 2000    2001        2003        1990           2002            1990           2002
Countries
Maldives           3.3      3.3     …       …     …    …        0.7    1.7    3.4   4    5    14            …      100      99     99      78     100      22     100       42
Kiribati           38.4    38.4      1       2    …    …        0.3    0.4    0.3   1   …      …            …        76     33     77      53      33      21      59       22
Samoa              45.9    37.2      1       2    …    …        0.8    0.8    0.8   4    1      2           70       99     89     91      88     100      98     100      100
Solomon Islands    90.3    88.8      -        -   …    …        0.5    0.4    0.4   2    -      1           95       82     58     94      65      98       2      98       18
Timor-Leste        36.6    34.3     …       …     …    …        …       …     …     …   …      …            …        47     11     73      51      49      31      65       30
Tuvalu              …      43.0      -     110    …    …        …       …     …     …    -      -           32       92     89     94      92      83      74      92       83
Vanuatu            36.2    36.7      -        -   …    …        0.5    0.4    0.4   …   …      …            79       93     53     85      52      82      33      78       42
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)




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Table 27: Millennium Development Goal 8

                   Deal comprehensively                                                                                          In cooperation with the private sector, make available the
                                             In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for
MDG 8              with debt problems of                                                                                          benefits of new technologies, especially information and
                                                                  decent and productive work for youth.
                   developing countries.                                                                                                              communication.


                                                                                                                               47. Telephone Lines
                    44. Debt Service as a                                                                                                                 48. Personal      48. Internet Users
                                                                                                                                        and
                   Percentage of Exports                     45. Unemployment Rate of 15 to 24 Year Olds (%)                                            Computers In Use         (per 100
                                                                                                                               Cellular Subscribers
Targets            of Goods and Services                                                                                                               (per 100 population)    population)
                                                                                                                               (per 100 population)
                                                        Total                         Female                    Male
Selected
                      1990    2000   2003     1990    2000   Latest Year   1990 2000 Latest Year 1990 2000 Latest Year         1990    2000    2003    1990    2000    2003    1995    2000 2003
Countries
Maldives                4.0    4.0     3.5       …      …       …            …        …    …          …        …   …            2.93   11.87   25.11    1.23    3.70    7.12       -   2.22   5.34
Kiribati                0.3   14.5      …       3.6    2.4      …           2.5    2.3     …          4.7   2.0    …            1.66    4.31    5.68    0.73    0.94    1.14    0.61   1.77   2.28
Samoa                  10.6    5.8      …        …      …    12.2 (2001)     …        … 15.4 (2001)   …        … 10.6 (2001)    2.56    6.23   13.05    0.06    0.57    0.67    0.17   0.57   2.22
Solomon Islands        11.3    2.5      …        …    46.0      …            …    48.8     …          … 44.4       …            1.47    2.10    1.62    2.33    3.81    4.05    0.02   0.48   0.52
Timor-Leste              …      …       …        …      …       …            …        …    …          …        …   …              …       …       …       …       …      …       …       …     …
Tuvalu                   …      …       …        …      …    31.2 (2002)     …        … 43.3 (2002)   …        … 22.5 (2002)    1.33    6.98    6.84      …       …     5.87     …     5.29 18.75
Vanuatu                 1.6    0.9     1.2       …     3.1      …            …     2.1     …          …     4.0    …            1.78    3.65    6.90    0.74    1.25    1.48    0.06   2.09   3.61
Source: Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)




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7      Annex III:

Table 28: Official Development Assistance from All Sources to the Selected Countries, 1993-2003
                   (US$ million)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
           Selected LDCs                   1993      1994        1995      1996      1997       1998      1999       2000      2001       2002       2003
           Maldives                        42.5       32.8        59.9      31.8      23.5      28.7       26.5      17.3       23.9      27.9       22.5
                          b
           Kiribati                        15.9       15.4        15.4      12.8      15.7      17.3       20.9      17.9       12.4      20.9       18.4
           Samoa                           60.2       51.8        47.6      34.0      28.2      31.8       21.5      25.0       37.0      37.6       31.1
           Solomon Islands                 32.0       43.0        50.1      43.3      38.7      42.3       36.2      70.3       78.4      39.1       80.9
                              b
           Timor-Leste                       0.4         0.2       0.0       0.1       0.4        1.7     152.8     232.8      194.9     219.8      150.8
                      b
           Tuvalu                            4.3         7.4       7.9      10.3      10.1        5.2       6.8        4.0       9.5      11.7        6.2
           Vanuatu                         37.0       42.0        46.7      31.1      27.5      40.9       36.7      46.0       30.2      27.2       32.8
           TOTAL DMCs                   20102.1    18244.0     19832.3   14433.3   20150.3   18537.4    21574.1   14288.4    16303.7    1893.1     2184.0
           TOTAL DEVELOPING             69521.2    63060.8     73999.5   47955.8   50464.9   63292.3    61285.8   49298.5    52612.8   43870.5    51189.7
                                  c
             COUNTRIES

a          Refer to net flows of long-term public and publicly-guaranteed debt from official creditors and grants, including technical cooperation grants.
            Refers to net official development assistance only, i.e., concessional flows to developing countries and multilateral institutions provided by
b                                                                              official

            agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies, administered with the objective of promoting the economic
                              development and welfare of developing countries and containing a grant element of at least 25 percent.
           Includes data for all developing countries as reported in the WB, Global Development Finance Online and data from OECD, Geographical
c                                                                           Distribution
                                                of Financial Flows to Aid Recipients for DMCs not covered by WB.
Sources:
                                                         WB, Global Development Finance Online .
                                                   OECD, Statistical Compendium CD-ROM 2005 for Kiribati;
                                                                        Timor-Leste and Tuvalu.




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8       Annex IV:

Table 29: Foreign Direct Investment 1993-2003
             (US$ million)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
                   Selected Countries         1993      1994       1995      1996      1997      1998   1999   2000   2001    2002   2003   2003
    Maldives                                    6.9          8.7     7.2       9.3      11.4     11.5   12.3   13.0   11.7    12.4     …     13.5
               a
    Kiribati                                   -1.1          0.4     0.1       0.2       0.2      -      -      -       -       …      …      …
    Samoa                                       5.0          3.0     3.4       1.2      20.0      3.0    2.0   -1.5    1.2    -0.1     …     -0.1
    Solomon Islands                            23.4          2.1     2.0       5.9      33.8      8.8    9.9    1.4   -12.1   -1.4     …     -2.0
    Timor-Leste                                  …           …        …         …            …     …      …      …      …       …      …      …
    Tuvalu                                       …           …        …         …            …     …      …      …      …       …      …      …
    Vanuatu                                    26.0      29.8      31.0       32.7      30.2     20.4   13.4   20.3   18.0    15.0     …     19.0
    Total Selected Countries                   60.2      44.0      43.7       49.3      95.6     43.7   37.6   33.2   18.8    25.9    0.0    30.4
    Total DMCs (Reporting)                 41519.1 49106.6 59262.4 61470.4 66406.3 63709.0 73087.8 65639.6 59538.1 54891.8 9983.3 79024.9
a   Refers to direct investment from the balance of payment section of the country tables.
Sources:
    WB, Global Development Finance 2005 Website.
    Country sources for Kiribati.




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9        Annex V:

Table 30: Direction of Exports, 1990 and 2004
           (percent of total exports)
                             To                                                                                      South                                         Rest of the
                                                                          North and Central       Middle East
                                            Asia            Europe            America                               America           Africa        Oceania          World
                From                    1990 2004         1990 2004         1990       2004       1990 2004       1990 2004        1990 2004       1990 2004       1990 2004
    Maldives                             47.0 38.4         26.5 14.3          26.3        42.2      0.0  0.1        0.0  0.0         0.0  4.8        0.2  0.0        0.0   0.0
    Kiribati                             12.7 39.8         77.8 49.0           8.8         9.1      0.0  0.0        0.0  0.0         0.0  0.0        0.0  1.4        0.7   0.7
    Samoa                                12.0 23.8         19.2  3.9           6.5         4.9      0.0  0.0        0.0  0.2         0.1  0.0       62.3 67.2        0.0   0.0
    Solomon Islands                      64.4 86.1         22.7  6.6           3.9         1.9      0.0  0.0        0.0  0.0         0.0  0.1        8.0  5.3        0.9   0.0
    Timor-Leste                            … 100.0           …   0.0            …          0.0       …   0.0         …   0.0          …   0.0         …   0.0         …    0.0
    Tuvalu                                0.0 16.5         82.1 73.1           0.0         0.0      0.0  0.0        0.0  0.0         0.0  1.6       16.7  8.2        1.3   0.5
    Vanuatu                              22.8 80.4         58.1 12.1           4.0         1.2      0.2  0.5        0.0  0.6         0.2  0.9       14.2  3.9        0.4   0.4

Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
   a Countries are classified following the country's trade groupings. Data under the heading 'Middle East' refer to those of 'Middle and Near East' countries.
   b Based on reporting partner-country data. For Marshall Islands, data for 2004 refer to 2003.
   c Data for 1990 refer to 1992.
   d Data for 1990 refer to 1993; and for 2004, data refer to 2003.
   e Data for 1990 refer to 1991; and for 2004, data refer to 2002.

Sources:
   IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics CD-ROM , June 2005.
   For South Pacific Commission, Pacific Regional Information System Website.




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Table 31: Direction of Imports, 1990 and 2004
      (percent of total imports)
                                                                         North and Central                         South                                  Rest of the
                                                                                                Middle East
                                   From      Asia          Europe            America                             America        Africa      Oceania        World
                        To                1990 2004      1990 2004         1990     2004        1990 2004       1990 2004     1990 2004    1990 2004     1990 2004
   Maldives                               85.2 69.8       13.3   13.7           0.6      2.4      0.5    7.5      0.0   0.1    0.0   2.9    0.3    3.2      0.1    0.4
   Kiribati                               14.7 17.2        6.0    8.6          48.7      2.6      0.0    0.0      0.0   0.3    0.0   0.0   30.4   69.5      0.1    1.7
   Samoa                                  34.7 26.2       10.6    3.0           9.9      5.5      0.0    0.2      0.2   1.7    0.0   0.7   44.2   52.2      0.3   10.6
   Solomon Islands                        41.4 51.4        6.5    5.7           6.4      2.8      0.0    0.0      0.0   0.0    0.1   0.6   45.3   39.2      0.3    0.3
   Timor-Leste                              … 100.0         …     0.0            …       0.0       …     0.0       …    0.0     …    0.0     …     0.0       …     0.0
   Tuvalu                                 31.9 24.5       33.2   13.6           0.0      1.6      0.0    0.0      0.5   2.7    0.0   0.0   34.7   57.6      0.0    0.0
   Vanuatu                                62.7 24.8       21.9    3.5           2.3      4.0      0.0    0.0      0.3   0.0    0.0   0.2   12.4   31.4      0.4   36.0

Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
   a Countries are classified following the country's trade groupings. Data under the heading 'Middle East' refer to
      those of 'Middle and Near East' countries.
   b Based on reporting partner-country data. For Marshall Islands, data for 2004 refer to 2003.
   c Data for 1990 refer to 1992.
   d Data for 1990 refer to 1993; and for 2004, data refer to 2003.
   e Data for 1990 refer to 1991; and for 2004, data refer to 2002.
Sources:
   IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics CD-ROM , June 2005.
   South Pacific Commission, Pacific Regional Information System Website.




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Table 32: Trade Balances, 1990, 2003 and 2004
          (percent of GDP)
                                        Total Trade                     Trade Balance         Current Account Balance
   Selected Countries            1990        2003       2004     1990         2003      2004    1990        2003      2004
   Maldives                        …          84.5      85.6         …        -51.8        …        …        -4.6     -12.0
   Kiribati                     104.7         90.4        …        -1.0        -1.1        …    -40.5       -26.4        …
   Samoa                         79.8         47.7      48.1     -64.0        -38.4     -41.8      7.7        6.0       2.9
   Solomon Islands               77.7           …         …      -10.1           …         …    -13.3          …         …
   Timor-Leste                     …       106.9 *     76.8 *        …      -23.2 *   -12.3 *       …      12.6 *    12.2 *
   Tuvalu                          …            …         …          …           …         …     21.9          …         …
   Vanuatu                       76.1         47.2        …      -51.1        -27.9        …      -4.1      -10.2        …
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
Sources: Country sources.




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10       Annex VI:

Table 33: Environmental Statistics
                                 Proportion of Land           Average Annual Rate          National                   GDP per Unit            Carbon Dioxide
                                                                                  a
                                   Area Covered                of Deforestation       Protected Areas                of Energy Use               Emissions
                                                                                                                 b
                                    by Forest (%)                     (%)             (as % of land area) (PPP                             (per capita metric tons)
                                                                                                                     $ per kg oil equivalent)
                                                                                              c
        Selected Countries           1990        2000             1990-2000            1990           2004       1990              2002         1990        2002
     Maldives                          3.3          3.3            0.0                     …            …             ...             ...         0.7         3.4
     Kiribati                         38.4       38.4              0.0                   80.7      154.1              ...             ...         0.3         0.3
                                                          d
     Marshall Islands                   ...         6.0              ...                  -        386.7              ...             ...          ...         ...
     Samoa                            45.9       37.2              2.1                    4.3          8.4            ...             ...         0.8         0.8
     Solomon Islands                  90.3       88.8              0.2                    0.7          1.5            ...             ...         0.5         0.4
     Timor-Leste                      36.6       34.3              0.6                     …            …             ...             ...          ...         ...
     Tuvalu                             …        43.0               …                      …       126.9              ...             ...          ...         ...
     Vanuatu                          36.2       36.7              -0.1                   1.3          1.6            ...             ...         0.5         0.4
Asian Development Bank (ADB) - Key Indicators 2005 (www.adb.org/statistics)
a Positive figures indicate deforestation rates while negative figures indicate reforestation rates.
b Refers to constant 2000 PPP $.
c Data refers to 1994
d Refers to 1999.
e Refers to "nature protected areas" as percent of national territory for 2003 as qouted in the country source.
f   Refers to 1993.
g Refers to 1992.
Sources:
    UN, Millennium Indicators Database for percent of forest cover, nationally protected areas, and carbon dioxide emissions.
    FAO, State of the World's Forests 2005 for deforestation rate.
    WB, World Development Indicators Online for data on GDP per unit of energy use.
    SPC, The Pacific Islands Regional MDG Report 2004 for percent of forest cover for Tuvalu.
    Directorate-General Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of China 2004 for Taipei,China.




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11   Abbreviations

             ADB      Asian Development Bank

             FAO      Food and Agricultural Organisation

             FFA      Forum Fisheries Agency

             GDP      Gross Domestic Product

             HDI      Human Development Index

           HIV/AIDS   Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune
                      Deficiency Syndrome

              ICT     Information Communications and Technology

             LDCs     Least Developed Countries

             MDG      Millennium Development Goals

             OECD     Organisation    for   Economic    Cooperation      and
                      Development

             ODA      Official Development Assistance

            PACER     Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations

            PICTA     Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement

             RETA     Regional Environmental Technical Assistance

            SOPAC     South Pacific Geo-Science Commission

            SPREP     South Pacific Regional Environment Programme

              TB      Tuberculosis

             USP      University of the South Pacific

            VAGST     Value Added Goods and Services Tax

             WTO      World Trade Organisation




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12     References
12.1   Websites:

       Asian Development Bank Database
       Statistics for Kiribati, Maldives, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and
       Vanuatu;

       Kiribati
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_resultsd.asp?crID=296&fID=r15&action=print
       Maldives
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_resultsd.asp?crID=462&fID=r15&action=print
       Samoa
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_resultsd.asp?crID=882&fID=r15&action=print
       Solomon Islands
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_resultsd.asp?crID=90&fID=r15&action=print
       Timor-Leste
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_resultsd.asp?crID=626&fID=r15&action=print
       Tuvalu
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_resultsd.asp?crID=798&fID=r15&action=print
       Vanuatu
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_resultsd.asp?crID=548&fID=r15&action=print

       Maldives: Ministry of Planning and Natural Development (http://www.planning.gov.mv)

       Millennium Development Goals
       United   Nations   Statistics  Division, Millennium    Development          Indicators,
       (www.millenniumindicators.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_goals.asp)

       OECD List of Eligible Countries to Official Development Assistance
       www.oecd.org/dac/stats/daclist

       Official Development Assistance Statistics
       www.oecd.org/dac/stats/dac/dcrannex

       Population Statistics
       http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_country_prof_results.asp?crID=548&cpID=12

       Secretariat of the Pacific Community Pacific Regional Information System Management
       www.spc.int/prism/country


12.2   Reports:

       Asian Development Bank, Country Strategy and Programme Update (2005-2006) Samoa,
       August 2004;

       Asian Development Bank, Country Strategy and Programme Update (2005-2006) Kiribati,
       September 2004;




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Asian Development Bank, Country Strategy and Programme Update (2004-2006) Vanuatu,
October 2003;

Asian Development Bank, Country Strategy and Programme Update (2005-2006) Maldives,
August 2004;

Asian Development Bank, Country Strategy and Programme Update (2006-2008) Maldives,
August 2005;

Asian Development Bank, Country Strategy and Programme Update (2005-2006) Timor-
Leste, September 2005;

Asian Development Bank, Pacific Regional Aid Strategies, 2004 – 2009;

Asian Development Bank, Regional Cooperation Strategy and Programme, 2004 – 2006,
The Pacific, July 2003;

Asian Development Bank, Responding to the Priorities of the Poor: A Pacific Strategy for
the Asian Development Bank 2005 – 2009, October 2004;

Asian Development Bank, Governance in the Pacific – Focus for Action 2005 – 2009,
October 2004;

Asian Development Bank (ADB), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and
Economic and Social Commission for Asian and the Pacific (ESCAP), A Future in Reach,
Reshaping Institutions in a region of disparities to meet the MDGs in Asia and the Pacific,
2005;

Economic and Social Commission for Asian and the Pacific, A Future Within Reach,
September 2005;

Government of Kiribati, Country Review Report on the Brussels Programme of Action for
LDCs; January 2006;

Government of Maldives, Country Review Report on the Brussels Programme of Action for
LDCs; January 2006;

Government of Samoa, Country Review Report on the Brussels Programme of Action for
LDCs; January 2006;

Government of Samoa, Strategy for the Development of Samoa, 2005 – 2007;

Government of Tuvalu, Country Review Report on the Brussels Programme of Action for
LDCs; January 2006;

Government of Timor-Leste, Country Review Report on the Brussels Programme of Action
for LDCs; January 2006;




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                                                                               Draft Report
                                                                               March 2006

Kiribati, Republic of, National Development Strategies, 2004 – 2007;

Kiribati: First Draft Mid Term Review / Progress on Implementation of the Brussels POA
of LDCs (2001 – 2010) – Expert Group meeting, 14 – 16 February 2006, Phnom Penh;

Maldives: Country Review Report on the Implementation of the Brussels Programme of
Action for LDCs, Ministry of Planning and National Development, January 2006;

OECD, Incentives for Harmonisation in Aid Agencies, 2004;

OECD, Implementing the 2001 DAC Recommendation on Untying ODA to the Least
Developed Countries – 2005 Progress Report;

Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, Pacific Plan for Strengthening Regional Cooperation and
Integration, September 2005;

Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations, August
2001;

Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement, August 2001;

Republica Democratica De Timor – Leste – Implementation of the Brussels Programme of
Action National Mid Term Review, 2005;

Samoa: Report on the Implementation of the Brussels Programme of Action for LDCs

Tuvalu: Mid Term Review of the Brussels Programme of Action

United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, 2005;

United Nations, Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries, 8 June 2001;

United Nations, The Least Developed Countries 2000 Report, 2000;

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, A Future Within
Reach, 2005;

World Bank, Adapting to Natural Hazards in the Pacific Islands Region, 2005;

World Bank, Regional Engagement Framework FY 2006-2009 for Pacific Islands, May 2005;




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