DRUGS IN PREGNANCY- Treating The Mother-Protecting the Unborn by rt3463df

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									     DRUGS IN
   PREGNANCY-
Treating The Mother-
Protecting the Unborn
          Gideon Koren MD
         Motherisk Program
and Ivey Chair in Molecular Toxicology
Drugs in Pregnancy-The issues
 Only half of all pregnancies are planned
 Many women need medications for
  pregnancy induced conditions (e.g.
  Morning Sickness), chronic conditions
  (e.g. Epilepsy), intercurrent conditions
  (Allergies)
 Women work with chemicals, exposed to
  radiation and use illicit drugs
 During embryogenesis-drugs &chemicals
  may adversely affect development
        Situational Analysis
 A) Anxiety of birth defects:
 Leads women not to take medications
  during pregnancy& lactation.
 Leads pharmaceutical companies not to
  develop drugs for pregnant &lactating
  women.
 B) Women are not treated appropriately
  even after first trimester, or for life
  threatening conditions
 Perception of Teratogenic Risk(1)
 Even when exposed to non
 teratogenic drugs-women assign
 25% teratogenic risk (Am J Obstet
 Gynecol 1989)

 Evidence-based counseling can
 prevent unnecessary pregnancy
 terminations (Teratology 1990)
 Perception of Teratogenic Risk(2)
 Following the Chernobyl disaster-half
 of all pregnancies in Athens were
 terminated (Trichopolous, BMJ,
 1985)

 Women   exposed to diagnostic
 radiation assign major teratogenic
 risk (Bentur, Teratology, 1991)
      Misperception and Pregnancy
             Terminations
   Loebstein et al(Antimicrob Agent Chemother
    1998):
    9/200 women on quinolones terminated
    pregnancy vs.2/200 controls[RR 4.5(95%CI .98-
    20.6)]

 Bar Oz et al(In Press):
First trimester MMR vaccine
 7/94 vs 0/95 terminations(p=.007)

Cohen Kerem et al(2004): 7/198 diagnostic
  radiation terminated vs. 0/198 controls (p<.04)
Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy
            (NVP)
* NVP affects 80% of pregnant women
*Bendectin (doxylamine-pyridoxine) was
  used by 40% pregnant American women
  in 1978
*Due to litigations-drug removed in 1983
  despite scientific/FDA support
*2-3 fold increase in hospitalization rates for
  NVP in USA
In Canada: Diclectin use is increasing-
  Temporal decrease in hospitalizations
U.S.A. Temporal Trends for
Limb Reduction Deformities, Bendectin Sales,
and Hospitalizations for NVP
Rate of Hospitalization in Canada
       Depression in Pregnancy
 *Affects up to 20% of pregnant women
* SSRI appear safe(both dyspmorphology
  &neurobehavior)
 (Nulman et al 1996, 2002)

•   Neonatal Discontinuation Syndrome

•   Women commonly D/C therapy; high morbidity
    (Einarson et al 2001)

* Those treated-very low average doses (Nulman
  2003)
 Late Pregnancy; Pharmacokinetic
            Changes
 Dempsy & Benowitz(2002):Increased
  nicotine clearence rate
 Heikkinen(2003): Increased fluoxetine
  apparent clearance rate
 Increased clearance rate of digoxin,
  lithium
 Increased hepatic blood flow, GFR, lower
  protein binding, lower compliance rate
 NEED FOR HIGHER DOSES
                    Glyburide
   Fear:oral hypoglycemics cross placenta-neonatal
    hypoglycemia

   Elliott (Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994):Glyburide
    does not cross the placenta in perfusion studies.

 Langer et al (NEJM 2001):
Glyburide as effective and safe as insulin
Undetectable umbilical cord levels with therapeutic
  maternal levels(50-150ng/ml)

   Mechanisms: high protein binding(99.8%),
    short T1/2(2-6 hr), ABC transporter substrate.
Fetal Safety of Oral Hypoglycemics
 Motherisk  Meta analysis (Can J Clin
  Pharmacol 2003;10:179-83)
 10 studies

 471 exposed;1,344 controls

 Major malformations: OR 1.05 (.65-
  1.7)
 Neonatal death: OR1.16(.67-2)
      Fetal Safety of Glyburide

 Meta analysis( Motherisk 2006)-glyburide
  vs insulin
 Macrosomia- OR1.04(.74-1.45)

 Birth weight: WMD 17g(-44-80)

 Gestational age: WMD 0(-.28-.27)

 Neonatal hypoglycemia OR 1.33(.99-1.79)

 In Langer’s study:18/201 vs. 12/203

 (OR 1.57(.73-3.34)
    Fetal Safety of Metformin
 Motherisk  meta analysis
 1% malformation rate in metformin

 7% among disease matched controls

(p<0.01)
Potential protective effect
Possibly because of improvement in
  insulin resistance and in androgen
  status
       Major Medicinal Teratogens
                   (1)
   Antiepileptics
   Carbamazepine-NTD(1%)
   Valproate-NTD(2%);other malformations (Holmes
    2003)
   Phenytoin: Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome(10-15%?)

   ACE inhibitors: renal insuffuciency, hypocalvaria

   Lithium-Ebstein’s anomaly(1/5000)

   Coumadin-Fetal Warfarin Sundrome
    Major Human Teratogens
 Isotretinoin; 50% malformation rate
 SMART program to prevent fetal
  exposure-fetuses still exposed
 Leflunamide-Human levels teratogenic in
  animals; prospective study (n=40) still
  negative
 Thalidomide-for leprosy, HIV, Drug vs
  Host
 Misoprostol- Moebius sequence; high
  attributable risk, very low overall risk.
            Labeling(1)
 Prozac product
 monograph(2004): “Safe use in
 pregnancy has not been established.
 Therefore, it should not be
 administered to women od
 childbearing age unless, in the
 opinion of the treating physician, the
 expected benefits to the patient
 markedly outweight the possible
 hazards to the child or fetus”.
               Labeling(2)
Scientific reality:
Till Dec. 2003:

   6 dysmorphology studies

   3 neurodevelopmental studies

   One meta analysis

   All showing apparent safety
             Conclusions
 Pregnant  and lactating women are
  commonly orphaned from the
  benefits of drug therapy, even when
  solid data on safety/effectiveness
  exist.
 Change labeling system
 Allow evidence-based counseling
 Always consider the risk of untreated
  maternal condition

								
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